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Full text of "Farm, stock and home"

THE UNIVERSITY 



OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 

FRSH 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/farmstockliome3419unse 




pa r m , 5 f 0 c K f) ome 

The Northwest's Foremost Farm Paper 



4 13-41-1.-4-16 SIXTH STREET SO. 



ISSUED 
SEMI-MONTHLV 

PER YEAR. 



HARRY N.OWEN, Publisher 
MARY L BIGELOW,AssociATE Editor 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

F W PECK 

FARM MANAGEMENT 

J. L. MOWRY 

FARM POWER 

James A. King 

FARM POWER 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

Aug. 11, I9iy 



W. F. Schilling 



DAIRY 



w H. Peters 

LIVE STOCK 

N. E. Chapman 

POULTRY 

Mrs. Mary L. Bigelow 
home council 



C. C. LiPP 



veterinary 



Albert W. Rankin 

APIARY 

S. R. Child 

LEGALS 

STAFF WRITERS 

Joseph M. Carroll 
W. A. Freehof 
W B. Perrin 
W. E. Frudden 
E. B. Marsh 



J. B. Houcnens, 

University of Illinois Library, 
Urbanu, 111, ' v \ 

Dear Sir: 

Complying v/ith the request in your 
letter of August 1st, v/e have sent you 
oack copies of Farm, iatock Sc Home from 
Octooer 1st, l^lfa through December 1st. 
'kVe have no more December Ibth copies. 

Very truly yours, 

a p. 

Circulation Manager. 

// ' . 



1. 



cy 



npbell 
imons 
Isbach 
Brate 

Ayers 
Kohler 
urston 
Tisch 
iftalin 
{ughes 



igham 

ded 
incoln 




Member Audit Bureau of Circulation.^ 



I< 



Burnett 



A 




The Northwest^s Foremost Farm Paper 



Established 1884. 
L XXXIV. No. i. 



NOTICE TO READERS. 
Whpn yon finish reading thh mmg^ 
ulne pl«ee a one-eent Btnmp on this 
Botie«T hand same to any postal em* 
ploje, and it nill b« plnrrtl in th« 
handi of onr Mtldi^rs and sailors at 
tfa« front, a\'o wrapping — no address 
A.S.BCRLE80N, Postmnsier General 



Minneapolis, Minnesota 



January /, 1918 



The Farmer's Part in 
Winning the World for Democracy 

In This Issue 



A Message to the Northwest 



— Cyrus Northrop 



"No Let Down — Greater Efforts" 



Save, Conserve, Improve! 



-David E. Houston 



—R. W. Thatcher 



Organization the Farmers' Supreme Need 

— Thomas Cooper 

The Necessity for a Living Profit 

— afford Pinchot 



How to Make Our "Bit" Our Best 



The School and Farm Must Unite 



What the Land Banks Are Doing 
The Vital Necessity of Good Seed 



— D. C. Burch 



— C. G. Schulz 



-E. G. Ouamme 



\ A. Burnham 



The World's Need of J" -lore Meat 



Will It Pay to Raise Drafters 



-J. Ogden Armour 



-DeWitt C. Wing 



How to Improve Live Stock Marketing 

— William Magivny 

The Draft Horse Outlook 

— Wayne Dinsmore 

The Silo Filling Equipment Outlook 

— John J. Woods 



The Cement Situation As It Is 



-H. Colin Campbell 



Dairy Equipment vs. The Extra Hired Man 

—E. W. Simons 

The "Why" of Early Ordering 

— H. M. Railshach 
The Gas Engine as an Aid to Production 



Fencing and Larger Net Incomes 
The Harness and Leather Outlook 
Electricity in the Farm Home 
The Future of the Motor Car 
Why Wool and Woolens Are High 
How to Meet the Car Shortage 



H. R. Brate 
—B. B. Ayers 
—W. F. Kohler 
—E. W. Thurston 
■ — A. L. Tisch 
H. R. Naftalin 



-Hugh J. Hughes 



The Milking Machine an Aid to Efficiency 

— E. B. Ringham 

Better Equipment and Larger Production Needed 

— Isaac Lincoln 

Hides and Leather During the War 

— William J. Burnett 



EFFICIENCY WEEK NUMBER 

4 



2 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 




[""'"(iWIk/C// Cross Section of 

Avery Kerosene Gasifier 

pXy'*''''' ' / ''A— Fuel mixture coming from carbu- 
I'^'^rV-lhi I entering gasiiier. 

J B— Fuel mixture thoriiughly gasified 
ilm \ ¥/ \l and entering cyJindor. 

» I ♦ 0-Exhaust exit. 
E-Fuel heater. 



A Wonderful Inventian 

Avery Gasifier-Turns Kerosene Into Gas 

WE have discovered the v^ay to burn kerosene more successfully than 
it has ever been done before in a tractor. Avery Tractors burn aJ/ 
of the kerosene instead of wasting part of it on account of it not being 
fully vaporized. Avery Tractors burn kerosene so successfully that we are able to use 
the h;briro«-ir,- jj^j over again instead of using it only once and then wasting it. 

run on kerosene — they burn a// of the kerosene. 



ine Reason Avery Tractors Burn All the Kerosene 

Avery Tractors are equipped with double carburetors. 
The motor is started on gasoline and when it warms up 
you pull the lever and instantaneously switch over to 
kerosene without having to make a single adjustment of 
any kind. 

But while a carburetor will mix gasoline with air and form 
a gas which burns readily in the cylinder, no carburetor 
has as yet been designed which will successfully handle 
kerosene. We accordingly place on each cylinder head 
of an Avery Tractor our Duplex Gasifier, wliich takes the 
mixture of kerosene and air as it comes from the carbu- 
retor and so reduces the particles of kerosene and mixes 
them with the air as to form a gas that burns more suc- 
cessfully than kerosene has ever been burned before. 

Avery Tractors are the only make of tractors with a 
double carburetor and duplex gasifier fuel system which 
burns all the kerosene. 



The 1917 National Tractor Demonstration Proved 
Avery Tractors to be Real Kerosene Burners 

The rules of the demonstration were that a tractor which 
burned kerosene was allowed only 5% as much gasoline 
as kerosene for starting. All tanks were drained, filled and 
sealed under the supei-vision of a fuel inspector. Av2ry 
Tractors not only met every condition of this rule but 
did much more. 

— They burned kerosene without calling for any more 
gasoline for starting during the entire week than the 5% 
allowed for the first day's filling of kerosene. 
— They burned kerosene without a lot of black smoke com- 
ing out ot the exhaust— showing that they burned all of it. 
— They burned kerosene without part of it passing the 
pistons and cutting the lubrication— the oil in the crank- 
case did not have to be changed. 

—And to show that Avery Tractors would do even mot& 
than burn kerosene, a couple of sizes burned distillate. 



Get all the Facts about the Avery Motor Farming Line 

There is a size Avery Kerosene Tractor to fit every size farm — there are six sizes of Avery Tractors, from 
a small 5-10 to a large 40-80 H. P. There is also a size Avery Tractor Plow and a size Avery Thresher 
to fit every size tractor. With an Avery Two-Row Motor Cultivator you can also plant and cultivate 
corn, cotton and other row crops with motor power and double the number of acres you can handle. 
The new 1918 Avery Catalog is a most interesting 80-page book, telling all about Avery Motor Farming 
Machines and showing them in natural colors. Write for a free copy and get all the facts. Address 

AVERY COMPANY, 7203 IOWA STREET, PEORIA, ILLINOIS 



"Branch Houses and OMrlbutora Covsring fVerjr Siato In the Union" 



These are the official, 
cards showing the 
fuel used by Avery 
Tractors at the 




iiibtii»«»«»im^«imwnniwpib^iig' 




Vol. XXXIV. No. 1. 



MINNEAPOLIS. MINNESOTA. JANUARY 1, 1918. 



TERMS] It Sr^l, 



a Year, 
erg . 



Prepared ExDressly for Farm. Stock and Home. 

Chopped Feed — Mess 740. 

— Plan for the new silo in 1918. 
— The well-oiled harness saves leather, hides, spon- 
dulix. 

— The shell is sometimes more valuable than the 
oyster. 

— Cold and discontent never hang around a blazing 
fireplace. 

— Better breei better breeds, and thus eliminate 
the scrub. 

— "Brag is a good dog, but Holdfast is a better." — 
B. Franklin. 

— The man who never made any mistakes never 
made anything else. 

— Growing cockle is easy, but there are other lines 
of farming that pay better. 

— A comfortably warmed workshop is an essential 
part of a well-managed farm, 

-Once again the greetings of the Old Year and the 
New to the members of the F., S. & H. family. 

— The trouble with experience is that it educates us 
at a price that leaves most of us broke for the rest of 
our natural lives. 

— The only freedom worth having is a freedom 
worth fighting for. Any other kind is the liberty of 
accepted bondage. 

— The milking machine is a hired man that doesn't 
quit on the evening of the day before the one and 
only vacation of the year. 

— F., S. & H. wants to hear from farmers who would 
like to see federal farm loan associations started in 
neighborhoods this winter. 

— Warmth as a partial substitute for feed is desir- 
able, but overdoing it brings on ills that middle-of-the 
road common sense avoids. 

— The bolsheviki is not unknown in the barnyard — 
good fornothing at the pail or on the block; eflBcient 
only as a food-consuming machine. 

— Grain grading that leaves the farmer in doubt as 
to what quality of wheat he is growing may be scien- 
tifically correct— and plumb rotten ! 

— The man who knows what it cost him to produce 
is not going to continue in business at losing prices — 
nor is he going to refuse reasonable profits. 

— AVhat's the reader's answer to the question: How 
would you start a boy so as to get him interested in 
farming — and at what age would you begin? 

— If man used one-half the care in planning his 
days that God shows in making a snowfiake this 
world would be a lot better and worthier world. 

— The Feed Chopper often wonders not only why 
.Johnny's lamb becomes fathers' sheep, but why fath- 
er's sheep so often becomes the consumer's lamb. 

—My fpet move blindly down the ways 
My broth>-r boldly Irod, 
To Htid, perchance, beyond the baze 
One goal-post and one God. 

— A line shaft multiplies the usefulness of the sta- 
tionary engine, adds to it feet, and subtracts from the 
bill levied on the farmer by the blacksmith and feed- 
man. 

— It is not at all strange, and it is a fact, that prices 
for farm products go up consistently as the farmer 
orgauizoa for larger production, better quality, better 
marketing. 

— F., 8. & H. would like to get its readers' experi- 
ence's with raising two litters of pigs a year. Is the 
plan feasible in our climate, and if so, under just 
what conditionh? 

—Every 1918 subBcriber to F., S. & H. is a member 
of the family, entitled to all the family privileges of 
asking any imaKinable sort of question and of making 

f^^y posaiblo sort of kick. 

—When the supply of gas runs short there is still 



that unfailing sort furnished by the pacifist pro- 
kaiserites. Trouble is that while both inflammable 
and explosive it furnishes no power. 

— That Canadian Liberal who, accused of being a 
turncoat, replied that he had taken ofi" his political 
coat for the period of the war, had the right idea 
about the place of politics in the face of a world 
struggle between autocracy and democracy. Messrs 
LaFollette, Lundeen, Gronna, et. al., should follow 
the Canadian's example. 



Looking Forward — 1918. 



Wartime Motoring In Europe — ^Those of us who feel 
that we have been hit by war prices may take cour- 
age; nothing has touched us yet, when comparison is 
made with what has happened to the other fellow. 
Suppose it is a question of automobile tires. Here a 
few bushels of wheat buys a full set, but on the east 
shore of the Atlantic it's difi"erent. In Sweden, if you 
have a permit, you may get not four, but one tire if 
your banker says your check for $550 is good. You 

A Message to the Northwest I 

BY CYRUS NORTHROP # 

THE most vital problem before the s 

farmer is how to raise the largest ^ 

crops on the land cultivated, and ^ 

to cultivate as much land as possible. Up- a 

on the farmer of the Northwest rests the ^ 

responsibilily for feeding, not only a large M 

part of our own people, but also our allies ^ 

m Europe, to say nothing of the hungry ^ 

people in other countries. The task of « 

the farmer is rendered increasingly diffi- % 

cult by the withdrawal of a million or more ^ 

men from productive labor and the inevit- 5 

able increase of difficulty in procuring suf- ^ 

ficient help for the farm work. But the ^ 
absolute necessity of raising immense crops 
to meet the world demand should make 
every farmer zealous to do all he can. The 
failure of the food supply might cause the 
war to go against us. Patriotism, if not 
self-interest, should inspire every farmer to 

2 raise as large crops as possible. The fu- # 

* lure of the world in large measure depends «• 

S today on the united, loyal and enthusias- % 

^ tic farm work that shall produce as much ^ 

^ food for the world as the world needs. ^ 

are $90 per tire better off if you happen to be a Nor- 
wegian, as there it costs but $460 to replace the rub- 
ber in your off front wheel. Danish garage men soak 
you for $320; in Holland they take $350; in Russia 
and Italy the bill per tire is $100; in France and Eng- 
land §90 sets you ready to crank up again, and Spain 
makes the bill !?125. 

Bad enough. But more follows! Germany and 
Austria (there are no figures for German tires) want 
$6.00 for every gallon of gasoline. The Roumanian 
oil fields do not seem to have helped the Teutons 
hold down the hit;h cost of motoring. Prices in other 
countries follow in their order of seeming unreason- 
ableness: Sweden, $1.75; Greece, $1.60; Holland, $1.50; 
Denmark, $1.35; France, $1.25; Spain, $1.10; Italy, 
$1.00; Great I>ritain, 95 cents. 

Compared to these prices, merely a sample of the 
many along other lines that might bo quoted, noth- 
ing has happened to us — nor is likely to happen. 



TOURING 1917 America settled one important point 
— that it is every patriot's job to help sweep 
autocracy out of the road of the on-marching democ- 
racies of the world. We have set about that business 
in a way that means sacrifice, suffering, and in the 
end a world free from the particular danger that now 
faces it. 

Clearly there are some things that must be done. 
The world must be fed. Famine is even more menac- 
ing than Teuton guns. The world must be clothed. 
Chill and disease are walking abroad, waiting to de- 
stroy the civilization that shelters us. Finally, the 
world must be set free — made safe for democracy— 
and by a democracy that has been made safe for the 
world. 

Just what does this, our new job, mean ? It means 
more food produced by fewer hands, for some of us 
must join the legions in France while the rest of us 
march in the armies of hunger-conquest at home. It 
means more livestock and the speeding up of in every 
possible way of the farm's productive powers. 

The farmer is not asking: "Will it pay big profits?" 
all he wants is a fair return for his capital and labor. 
He knows that law, morality and honor— all that 
makes life worth while — are in the balance to be lost 
or won on the farms of America. He knows what the 
job is — and lie proposes to see it thru ! 

But what of the details? How about fuel, supplies, 
machinery, feeds, marketing, transportation, clothing 
— all the many things essential to his highest pro- 
ductive effort? What can he depend on ? 

F., S. & H. has gathered, in this issue, a marching 
army of facts about all the main lines of business 
touching the farm, either by way of supply or distri- 
bution. Given the business outlook for machinery, 
for example, the man needing machinery is fore- 
armed against shortage, waste, the inefficiency he is 
trying to avoid. 

The present issue is only a foretaste of what F., S. 
& H. has coming thruout 1918. It intends to handle 
without gloves every restraint placed upon the farmer 
in the performance of his duty. It proposes to point 
out how to stop the privateering and profiteering thcat 
cloak themselves in the name of patriotism. It be- 
lieves in conscription as the only democratic way to 
raise armies, and it proposes universal service of 
money and men striking with all America's power 
for America's ideals. 

This course will gain F., S. & H. powerful enemies 
among those who hold that the farmer is to be seen 
and not heard — should toil and not speak. Such ene- 
mies it has met of old and can meet again. Such 
enemies are welcomed. They belong to the old order 
of things — to that business autocracy which is as im- 
possible for the future as is the Potsdam clique itself. 

Let us go forward, then, to the big job of 1918— the 
feeding, clothing, freeing of the world— making our- 
selves strong, not for selfish ends, but that we may 
do, in full measure, the task God has assigned us. 



— Here is a F., S. & H. forecast that the next big 
development in transportation will be along the lino 
of the use of the motor truck to take the place of the 
railroad car for short hauls, and as a substitute for 
the grain tank and lumber wagon in handling heavy 
farm produce. Whether it will, like the automobile, 
be individually owned by the farmer, or whether there 
will be a general farmward extension of the dray ser- 
vice of the cities, might make an interesting question 
for discussion at tho next farmers' meeting. 

—With Europe 33,000,0t)0 hogs short, 1918 looks like 
a good-price year for Mr. Porker. 



4 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1/1918. 




Farm, Stock andHome. 

FouMletl ii; SYDjtET a. and flOIUTKI «. OWH. 



ISSUED THE .si AND ISth OF EACH IWIITH. 



r*KN. STOCK <a HOME PUBUSHINC CO. 

—Publishers,— 
4I3-414-<H6 Sixth Street Sairth. 
nimteapoiis. ... Minnesota 



(BKT£R£D AT Tnt POSTOPTTCE AT MiN-KSAPOUS 

AS SEOOJTD-CLAaS MATTER.) 



Harry N. Owex, 

Huf^H J. HrGBES. 

Mart L. Bigjelow, 



Publisher 
Editor 
ASSOCIATE Editor 



SUBSCRimON RATES: 
Cnited P(af<»« «ad Fossessions, 75 cMkta • 

year in advance. 

SlinneaiM.li*, Canada ana Forelm. $1.00 

per year in advance. 



^iscoDtlnGinK or Chaneiiigr AdTcrtisements. 

i— Owing to the fact that forms begin going to 
press on the 18th for Issues of the first of tba 
month, and the 3rd for issues of the 15th. we 
shall not be responsible for failure to omit, 
olscontlnue or change an advertisement on- 
lesa ordered to do so twelve (12) daya In ad- 
vance of date of paper. 

NEW YORK OFFICE; 1 Madison Ave- 
nue, A. H. Biiiingsiea tn charge. 

CHICAGO OFFICE: 1119 Advertising 
Building, J. C. BiMlngslea In charge. 

ST. LOUIS OFFICE: Third National 
Bank BIdg., A. D. McKlnney In charge. 



Minneapolis, Minn., January i. 



COXTENTS OF THIS ISSUE. 
Editorial. 

The DifTerence In Farm Papers 6 

Were They Hearing Debates? 6 

How to Meet Car Shortagre 6 

The Seed Com Situation 6 

Bigr Principle in a Local Fight 6 

Thrift Stamps 6 

Why War With Austria 6 

H. W. Lundeckcr 6 

Farm Power. 

Kerosene 6 

Leaky Tank 5 

Garage Heater 5 

Tractor Schools 5 

Silo Filling Equipment 8 

The Cement Situation 8 

Labor Problem on the Dairy Farm. . . .8- 9 

Implements Should Be Ordered Early... 9 

The I^eather Market 9- 11 

Mechaniral Help on the Farm 11 

Electrical Devices for the Farm 11 

The Future of the Motor Car. 11 

Fenced Fields 11 

The MUking Machine 26- 27 

Protect Machinery 81 

Correspoadence. 

How Success Came to Mc 10 

Live and Let Live 17 

Confident That .Justice Will Be Done... 18 

Profits Xot Dazzling 18 

Wants Wheat Grades Changed 18 

Producer Asks Only Justice 18- 19 

No Kick on Increased Booze Prices 19 

Minneapolis City Council Courts Lime 

Light 23 

LIve«terk. 

" rthwest and World Needs 8 

aft Horse Sllualinn 8- 12 

'1 Marketing Conditions 13 

|r,rs< Prospects 13- 14 

International 14-15- 21 

._ >i,..ta at the International 27 

Hheep Prospects Good 31 

Good Prices for Pure Bred Sires 30 

Nation Needs 5.000,000 More Hogs 28 

Dairy Deparlmmt. 

Ten-Cent Milk for the Farmer 10- 16 

Calves on a R<>duced Grain Ration... 16- 17 

A Si-w Worl'l's Champion Butter (?ow.. 17 

It Pays to Sell to Farmers' Creameries. . 28 
Poaltry I>p|Mrt»i«nt. 

A Few Moi^ Hens on t^acji Farm 19 

To Oct Winter Ecgs 19 

Keep Chlekena <'omfortabl«. 19 

Double Yolk'd Eggs Ill 

Our Ho*nw ^Cotmrtl. 

Future Farmers and HomMnakerk SO 

He Kind to the Olil 2"t 

The Woolen RItuatlon for Ml* 21 

Tralninic Little flill'lren 21 

(UtorX r'retonne < loiiet 21- 22 

Our Qursllon Box 22 

XiiltlInK Muff 22 

How I'. M:ik<- a Poultloc 22 

V.' I olve Conservation Cake*.. 22 

22 

' Irishes 2) 

( ' r 11 . i I • elpMi . . 2J 

VumUUiU Letter and Pntiems 24 

l.rrnl I>4>iiartHient. 

f ' ' ' n 29 

20 

J - 29 

'J I • ii'Mji . I u < i.ii.i . imatlon 20 

, VHcrllMMT. 

TV,II» H 

w 29 

I 29 

i MrtattMd AftnrMrtH 29 

1 t i.eath 29 

Club Ordrra fr>r ff**d Oom.... tl 

Why Urad" I'olaKrtis 29 

Haans 1* l>anr*r 19 

>lliiwi twM. 

<-h- f 

Ml" at S 

I' I 

7 

< 7 

7 

1 ,.7 

T 

7 

rta" 7 

7- th 

M< h...,| . , . )7 

.11- l<l 

in 

)«,27- I* 

1^ . IS 

Thftt r"l(iil<itiMti lii'lwrnn lh«> 



farm'T nn^l Iho 
Tnnnt'*<1 nnA fh« 
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Efikiency Week and llus Issue. 

THE cuirient issue of F., S. & H. is called "Efficiency Week Number," for 
the reason tliat during tiie second week in January, all over the state 
of Minnesota special meetings will be held by farmers' clubs. Equity lo- 
cals, Grange locals, live stock shipping associations, co-operative elevator com- 
panies, women's clubs, commercial clubs, etc., with the one purpose in mind 
of studying out how best to make their own line of work and the business 
and life of their community most efficient for the year 1918. 

The call for these meetings comes from the State Food Productioa and 
Conservation Committee, with the endorsement of the Governor of the state 
and of the Public Safety Commission. But, after all, the matter" is a local one. 
We are in a great war. We are to be tested to the uttermost. We are just 
waking up to the fact that we must work as one man in order to get results. 
Our national efficiency depends on our local ability to provide for ourselves and 
have a surplus left ever out of which is built up the great surplus that con- 
stitutes the striking power of the nation. 

In this issue, anticipating the needs of these local featherings, and the 
desire for information they would bring forth, the many questions that would 
be asked and must be answered, F., S. & H. has grouped together the opinions 
of the leaders in many lines of business. The position of many of these men 
is well known to the reader, but for his convenience in pointing out his au- 
thority and just what position is held by the one he is quoting F., S. & H., 
makes mention of the fact that this issue contains messages to the North- 
west from Cyrus Northrop, President Emeritus of ''he University of Minne- 
sota; David E. Houston, Secretary of Agriculture; Dean Thatcher of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota; Thos. Cooper of North Dakota, recently elected to the 
Directorship of the Kentucky Station; Gifford Pinch ot, reformer, millionaire, 
and fighter for the conservation of America's water powers; D. C. Burch, 
speaking for Mr. Hoover of the Federal Food Administration; C. G. Schulz, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for .Alinnesota; E. G. Quamme, President 
of the Federal Land Bank of St. Paul, and C. A. Burnham, sales manager of 
Northrup-King Seed Company. 

Dealing with the live stock" situation, J. Ogden Armonr, heatl of Ai'mour 
& Co., tells of the need of more meat foods; De Witt C. Wing, associate editor 
of the "Breeders' Gazette," outlines the horse situation; William Magivny, 
Secretary of the South St. Paul Stock Yards, points out how better profits 
may be obtained thru necessary "changes in shipping methods, and Wayne 
Dlnsmore, Secretary of the Percheron Society of America, outlines the draft 
horse outlook for the future. 

The men talking about equipment and machinery are men high up in the 
manufacturing world — John J. Woods, Sales Manager of the Appleton Manu- 
facturing Company; H. CyliiL Campbell of the Portland Cement Company; E. 
W. Simons of James Manufacturing Company; H. M. Railsbach of Deere & 
Company. Each speaks from a standpoint of knowledge possessed only by 
men who are engaged in a manufacture that has raw material requirements 
and an outlet as wide as the continent. 

H. A. Brate, Secretary of the National Gns Engine Association; B. B. 
Ayers of the American Steel & Wire Company; W. F. Kohler, President of 
the Minnesota Harness Factory; William J. Burnett of the Northwestern Hide 
& Fur Company, know intimately the 'fundamental situation with regard to 
.such materials as engines, fencing, harness and the general leather trade. 
A. L. Tisch of the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company; E. B. Ringham, Secre- 
tary of the Perfection Milking Machine Company; E. W. Thurston of the 
Western Electric Company; H. R. Naftalin, President of the Minneapolis 
Woolen Mills Company, and Isaac Lincoln, one of South Dakota's leading 
farmers, bankers and business men, each brin.gs a message full of confidence, 
suggestion, value that is n.ot readily measured. Save this issue and have it 
ready to carry with you to tho Efficiency Week meetings as a reference and 
authority. 

Notice of Receivership. 

SUBSCRIBERS to P., S. & H. have thoir attention called to the fact that 
the Farmers' Creamery and Produce Company, located at 915 Washington 
Are. South, Mlnn«apoIi8, is in the bands of V. J. McGulre, of that address, 
as receiver. It Is staled to F., S. & H. that internal disagrcenienta led to 
the appolntmf!n(!-of this rcftftlverBhIp and that thore are in Iho bank awaiting 
diHtributlon HiifHrient funds to cover the outstaiidlng obljgations of the com- 
pany. All who have claims aftalnnt this compr.ny should Inimcdlntoly flio such 
clfllmfl with tho receiver, F. J. McGuiro, *)15 Washington Ave. South, Miune- 
apoi.s. 

The Fight for Fair Grain Grade*. 

MENTION \% made on tho editorial page of the grain hearing at Fargo 
find Minneapolin. The text of tho farmfips' nnswers to the questlonH 
iiKked by tlio Frdornl (Jovftruniont was crowded out of this Issue but 
will he glvuD In full In tho Ihhuo of January JTilh. 

The esBontlal pari of the story Is that thi< farmer lins n flKht on his hands 
lo gf.t propifp rfroKnllloii nml fair I n-iil iih-iU from Iho l'"cilcnil AdralnlHlrntlon, 
and tho only way to get Buch rocoKnllion 1h tn innHti all hU power nt one point 
niid nifike a dcclHlve light for tiio ropoul or tho radical revUlon of the Fodontl 
Oraln UrndeR. 

Hero l« a ronpoti that will \nr\([ your votf» and voice Hqimre In tho middle 
of lh« nrKiitiU'iil— rUrhi wIkti' II will nrcotniilltOi ih« most (jnod. SUiN IT 
'lOOAY AND MAIL JT AT ONCK! Quick Bcllon in vlliil to hucr*H8. 



H. N. t^wpn, Chiilrman, 
4Il!-1l«l Hlxth HI. Ho.. 

•I , . M.i.li. 



T I. 



spoil. 



U'uwiiui und mat kuttutf. 



HlitiiPd 



I lima paiui«d liy tb* fii rTn«Ta In tntntt>rmfkfn ul Mlnnr- 

I .. . Il . r. ■ In lllf |ll . ■ ' f I , I - . , I,-. , I M I I . 

M In IIk 

IM nil in 
I o iH> < I I cll iiH r \ ' 



Tiiwii 



Hlal» 




Diamond No, 24 Corn 
and Cob Grinder 

is our new all purpose mill thai 
with from 6 to 1 0 horse pow er gives 
an output of from 10 to 30 bushel 
per hour. Grinds and crushes corn 
and cob andsmall grain of all kinds. 
Blade after 30 years of experience 
in building Feed Grinders and fully 
guaranteed. Let us send j-ou de- 
scriptive circular telling about new 
features on this grinder, also foldet 
"A*; Which describes the famous 

Diamond Sa-vv Frames 

With one of onr Diamond Line o( Saw 
Frames you can makefrom$10.80toT15^ 
per day, this winter eawine ^oed for yoor* 
self and othera. Printed matter SUtiM 
free, so \mte today. 

NEW WINONA MFG. CO. 
SIS W. Fifth St., Winona, Nfinn. 



tMention tbis paper.] 



AreYburHofisPayin? 
dk a Proflt ? - 




Do they grow big and healfiiy? 
Get the sunlight worklngforyou 
on the inside ol your nog 
houses, let the direct Bun. 

i Usut Into every nooi aaS cor. 

uer of the hog house— keep it warm, dry, sanl-. 
tsry and free from disease germa-by ingtaiiin g 

OK SUN-LITE WINDOWS 

Galvanized Iron frame and four-Inol» flAnhin g 
on all sides, — absolutely wator-tiabt, 8re, mst 
and rot-prool. Glaaa held flnnly and covered 
by heavy wire screen. No rattling or "vibra- 
tion. No putty needed. Leeta I'Jutlaae. B». 
Quire no paint or repairs. Oiaaa can be 
removed easily. 



0-K Sun-Lile Window No. 2 J^ftg««iSSI2 

and ventilators. Ventilation can be resulated . 
The only patented bog house eunligtit window 
opened or closed from insltle the boUdlns. 

FDPP — Complete plans and erieoiacatlona 
' ot modem ho5 liousea, alsooMalog. 

Write for them today. 

We also make a complete llsg of Boc 
feeders, guaranteed non-treezable 
stock waterers. cupolas, chlokea 
waterera. etc. If your dealar 
does not handle tbem. write i 



Bernard Co^ 

2814 IFIoyd Ave, 
Iowa. 



[Mention this paiwrl 





Unadilla Silos 
Towers of Strength 

Built to endure, they are alr-tig^ii, tnist 



ri'Ml.sllng and .<Jtorm d. rrl 
top anchors of 810(1 . 
erect, steady and s 
lion. Iloop.s are iltfi: 
tho Unadilla l:ii!.h ; 
ready. Diior (ran c . 
iii:il(e alr tliiht i- m 
That's why Uiiatllll.' - 
liist forkful — from t. 
center to tmtor clr.-i 
you buy, K'-i a tTuudiii. 
Ki-ee. Afnta Wanttd. 

UNADILLA 

SILO CO. 



1\a-^ ni'.d 



I > . i.lttsMdto 
■ ii!> di>ora. 
' i/>the 
I roiu 
J I'ifortj 
cuc^Uuifa*— It'« 




n. It 



BOWSMER 



FEED MILLS 

OIVE BEST RESULTS 

ll.iii.lv t nl... Il^ll(m I lunntnu. 

Ccu*k <>>r . Ill (Willi «r wlllii'ill 
Di.ii. k«) aii.lariiidaitWMsafainBll 

"'lo'ilim ]|t«4B^P, 
oUmts. Ib' 

Writf for Catalog 

that HII* ■>»<•• U>»ni. wit^ 

n!--'^!-j;"'!-*iT""-- 

•mM mum*. Ml*. 19 




January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



6 



THE CAR WITH THE # 
HALF-MILLION DOLLAR MOTOR 



Farm Power 



BV J. L. iiOWHT. 



Kerosene. 



A. B., Hector, Minn.; 

••(1) I wish to asic you if you think 
coal oil is safe to use in an autombile 
radiator. I have a Ford and it seems 
to heat the water to the boiling point. 
If coal oU is safe, 1 should Uke to use 
it. I have boiled it on the stove, and 
t does not explode. <2) Will it pay to 
attempt to burn coal oil in a regular 
furnace, or hot water plant for heating 
a house? If the cost is not too much, 
it wotUd be a convenient way to dodge 
carrying out so many ashes." 

Ans. — (1) The use of coal oil or 
kerosene in an automobile radiator is 
altogether practical. Kerosene boils 
at about 350° F. Water boils at 212° 
F. Alcohol and •water mixture suf- 
ficient to prevent freezing •will boil at 
from 160° to 180° F. The two objec- 
tions to coal oil are: first, It will de- 
stroy the hose connections to the ra- 
diator and pump which, must be re- 
placed next spring; second it is a 
little slower to heat up than a water 
solution. You may experience a little 
difficulty In making tight gaskets 
where the manifolds are bolted on. 
The use of a very dense paper gasket 
or a copper asbestos gasket, using 
litharge and glycerine to coat the gas- 
ket on both sides will remedy the 
difficulty. (2) Assuming that a heat- 
ing plant will consume IVi tons of 
hard coal per month, which will cost 
$14 in some sections of the northwest, 
the heating cost will about 58 cents 
per day. A good heating plant, well 
cared for, will operate at about GO per 
cent efficiency. To supply the same 
amount of heat to the house with kero- 
sene will consume about 8% gallons. 
This will cost about 87 cents at the 
price paid for kerosene in the larger 
cities. The cost, then, will be very 
close to 50 per cent more, using kero- 
sene than using hard coal. This is ou 
the basis of $14 for coal, which is 
high, and 10% cents for kerosene, 
which is a low price. The regular 
house heating plants are not built to 
consume a liquid fuel. They are built 
for solid fuels and most of them for 
hard coal. It is therefore unreason- 
able to believe that they may be 
changed over to the liquid fuel plants 
hy the simple installation of an oil 
burner. 

Leaky Tank. 

G. H., Cannon Falls, Minn.: 

"Would you kindly tell me ho-.v to 
repair a leaky cement tank, holding 
4,000 gallons? The leak is on the bot- 
tom of the tank, and probably origi- 
nates from poorly mixed concrete. On 
account of cold temperatures we ex- 
perience much trouble, and would high- 
ly appreciate your advice." 

Ans. — This is a difficult repair to 
make. It is practically impossible, at 
this time of the year. The procedure 
will be as follows: chip out the con- 
crete along the crack, making an angle 
of about 60°. Chip it from hoth sides 
and let the 60° groove run clear thru 
the wall. Thoroly wash all lose frag- 
ments from the two surfaces. Give 
the two faces a coat of paint made of 
pure cement and water and imme- 
diately follow with a strong concrete 
mixture. Do not make the mixture 
too strong as compared with the old 
mix, as there will be a tendency to 
shrink if It is made too rich. If this 
repair Is made carefully, and the 
weather conditions are right, it should 
be satisfactory. 

Garage Heater. 

G. L., Murdock, Minn 

"I wish to heat my farm garage dur- 
ing cold weather. Can you tell me how 
it can be done safely?" 

Ans. — The ideal garage heating sys- 
tem is secured where steam or hot 
water radiators may be installed. If 
the garage is near a house, which has 
a heating plant, it is most easily cared 
for. Most insurance policies, as writ- 
ten for automobiles, are nullified as 
to the fire damage clause if they are 
housed in a garage which is heated 
by direct radiation from a stove. There 
are offered now for sale, a few small 
hot watcrr heating plants which are 
very tightly closed and which are ar- 
ranged with an automatic control. The 
rnatic control, of course, does not 
fuel when necessary, and a hot 

■"'•r heating plant Itecomes a luxury 
if Inc. fire is allowed to go-out and tlie 
f^y.^f<■;m to freeze. If no insurance is 
':iirried, and your garage i« sufficiently 
^''iTKft to allow the placement of a small 
barfi coal stove, yonr task is not a dif- 
'i"^ if one. It Is advi.sable, of course, 
to \>\a(-ji the fltove some distance from 
the automobile in order that It may be 



Unmatched Values In This 
Year 'Round Car Triumph 

Amazing utility has been built into this roomy, sturdy new 
Briscoe Coachaire. 

Here is the medium priced car, built entirely in the ten Briscoe 
factories at Jackson, Mich., to serve the man who farms. The new 
. year, of all years, demands most from the farmer. He can count on 
this new Briscoe-built wonder to help in all weather. 

Note these Briscoe Extras 

In the new Briscoe Coachaire you will find values unmatched 
by any car anywhere near the Briscoe price. The famous half- 
milHon-dollar motor gives 25 to 30 miles to the gallon. Sp('cial 
Briscoe upholstery, foreign type radiator, 2-unit starting and light- 
ing system, full elliptic springs, easy clutch and gear levers — and 
all kinds of endurance qualities. 

Your nearest Briscoe dealer will demonstrate the new Briscoe 
Coachaire. Look him up. 

BRISCOE MOTOR CORPORATION 



Dept. 141, Jackson, Michigan. 




as safe as possible, and that it may 
not damage the finish, due to exces- 
sive heat. 

Tractor Schools. 
A. H., Cannon Falls, Minn. 

"How would you advise a j'oung man 
to become expert in the operation of 
gasoline motors and tractors? I have 
experience but want to learn the fine 
points of magnetos, timing, fitting, 
crank shaft bearings, etc. Are these 
automobile and tractor schools practi- 
cal? Does the Dunwoody Institute of 
Minneapolis offer a course of this kind, 
and does the University of Minnesota?" 

Ans. — There are a number of places 
where a young man can get gasoline 
motor and automobile instruction. The 
number of places where tractor in- 
i^truction and practice may be gotten 
are very few. A number of the trac- 
tor companies have been maintaining 
short winter courses for their sales- 
men and tractor owners, and include 
prospective tractor owners This win- 
ter there will probably be not as many 
of these as usual, since the companies 
are all extremely busy with additional 
contracts, so busy that room for a 
school would be at a premium. The 
Dunwoody Institute has a very com- 
plete and thorough course in automo- 
bile work. Thi.s, of course. Includes 
ignition. The Northwest Automobile 
School In St. Paul covers the same 
field. The Common Sense Gas Trac- 
tor Co., Ninth street Southeast, Min- 
neapolis, conducts a tr;)ctor school 
during the winter which will start 
very soon now. The University of 



Minnesota offers the most complete 
and the only exclusive tractor school 
that is given in the Northwest, which 
is offered at a time when tractors may 
be operated out of doors. The uni- 
versity's tractor school is intended to 
make tractor operators, to make them 
sufficiently resourceful that they may 
make most ordinary repairs, and there- 
by keep their tractor operating until 
permanent repairs may be made. The 
cost of these schools varies from $15 
to $50 for a term. The terms run 
from* one to two months. 



— If a water-cooled engine is not 
carefully guarded in cold weather and 
the water is allowed to freeze, pipes 
or radiators will break or a water 
jacket will crack. To prevent such 
damage, the safest plan is to drain the 
water from all parts of the system 
when the car is left for the night or 
for a long time during the day. The 
engine may then be allowed to run 
a few minutes to make sure that all 
the water has been removed. If the 
car is used a great deal in cold 
weather, it may be advisable to use 
a nonfreezing solution. A mixture 
containing 20 per cent of denatured 
alcohol will freeze at 10 degrees above 
zero; a 30 per cent solution will freeze 
at 5 below zero; 40 per cent at 20 
below, and 50 per cent at .15 below. 



Quaneriv Nu: lee. 

Deposits and withdrawals 
may be made by 



If 



the 



thej- accompany 
bank pass book. 
Deposits made on or before 
January lOih. will draw 
interest trom Jan. 1st. 
Interest 4<i compounded qnarterly. 
Number of depositors. 78,000 
Assets. S-22.000.000.00 

FARMERS & MECHANICS 
SAVINGS BANK 



lis S. 4th Street, 



Minneapolis. Mxnn. 



LEARN STEAM AND GAS 

ENGINEERING 

A great demand. $7 to ?1I per day. This is 
the largest and be^t eqnipt Steam red Gas 
School in America. Also AUTO Mectanics 
courses. Write for big new catalog. 

ENGINEERING COLLEGE 
Dept. S, G. Austin. Minnesota 



— Sell serviceable equipment no 
longer needed in order that it may be 
made available to others. 



Secure a Home in VppBr 

@ WISCONSIN 

Best Dairy and General Crop state in titf- rnion 
Settlers wanted Lands {cr sale at low • - 
easy t«rms. Ask for Booklet 36 on ' 
Central l^nd Gram. Siat« acrfs wart 
tereste<l in Fmit Lands, ask for Bookk 
t>rch»nls in Wisconsin Address 
S OO LINE. 1202 Soo Bldg . MINNEAPOL 

Havr yon anrthinir to sell? I .s ; 
Classified columas of F.. S. A H. 




The Difference in Farm Papers. 

A FARM paper's usefulness to its subscribers is 
measured by the manner in which it treats 
questions of dollars and cents interest to those 
subscribers. With this fact in mind, F., S. & H. 
wants to contrast what it has done on the Fedei-al 
Grain Grade situation with the actions of other 
publications. In its October 1st issue it showed 
how unfair these grades were to wheat growers. 
October 15th it showed that certain relief promised 
by the government was altogether too late to be of 
any service to a great majority of the wheat rais- 
ers. November 15th it showed that certain figures 
put out by the government in support of these 
grades were juggled and imfair. 

Then on December 1st it was the only farm paper 
that let its readers know there were to be hearings 
in Minneapolis and Fargo and that the farmers 
would have a chance to present their case. Further- 
more, it arranged for preliminary meetings at both 
Minneapolis and Fargo, at which a large number 
of farmers got together and lined up their case. 
If F., S. & H had not announced the dates of these 
meetings and arranged for preliminary meetings, 
the evening before the hearings, the farmers would 
not have been represented at either of them! 

The only other Minnesota farm paper that has 
paid any attention to this wheat grading question 
is a weekly publication that printed, without com- 
rient, an article defending the grades furnished by 
the Minnesota representative of the Government 
Grain Corporation. It was in this article that the 
figure juggling took place referred to by F., S. & H. 
November 15Lh. 

In December 1st issue, F., S. & H. showed by 
actual facts just what this grain grading was doing 
to the farmer. F., S. & H. is going to continue its 
fight until the Federal Grain Grade Law is repealed. 
❖ *> ❖ 

Did you notice any other Minnesota farm paper 
saying a word for the producer in the bitter fight 
that has been waged against the Twin City Milk 
rroducers' Association to keep them from getting 
a living price for their milk? You have not. Tem- 
porarily the producers are in possession of a ?3.08 
price but the consumers do not intend to rest, and 
have announced they will strive to get the whole 
matter reopened. If they do, the evidence gathered 
by F., S & H. that helped win the fight, and that 
gathered since, will be at the service of the farmer. 
Some of this evidence appeared December 15th. 

It is the things outlined in the foregoing that 
makes F., S. & H.'s motto the "Farm Paper of 
Service" mean something. 

The other Minnesota farm papers by overlooking 
these two live questions place themselves in an 
awkward dilemma. They were either ignorant or 
indifferent! 

Neither horn of this dilemma offers a very good 
hook to hang a claim for patronage on. The editor 
who allowed a defense of the grades to slip by is 
worse off than the one who was simply asleep. 

Were They Hearings or Debates? 

THE grain grade hearings developed a phase 
that was somewhat surprising to the farmers 
present. The expectation was that Mr. Brand 
was out to hear what the various interests involved 
had to say about the Federal Grain Grades and to 
take back to Washington the evidence collected. 
Instead, Mr. Brand and Doctor Duval seemed to 
think it their duty to defend the grades and the 
hearings very frequently assumed the aspect of a 
debate. Whenever specific cases of injustice, and 
a large number were cited, appeared, Mr. Brand 
declined to discuss them but had one unvarying 
form of reply. "I do not know how this could have 
occurred but will have it looked up." 

A very evident attempt was made at Minneapolis 
and Fargo to sidetrack the well prepared and 
thought out farmers' side of the matter, but it was 
of no avail, the evidence went in. Just why the 
Department of Agriculture should take the attitude 
it does toward the grain grades is hard to explain. 
The function of grain grading is to bo fair to both 
buyer and seller. If actual experience proves any 
adopted system is not, why should it be forced on 
the farmer because a bunch of scientists insist that 
the system should work because they have decided 
after long investigation and study that it v/ill? 

The Federal grain grades are not going to be 
repealed unless the wheat growers make them- 
selves heard at Washington thru their Senators and 
Representatives. If It had not been for F., S. & H. 
the farmers would not have been heard either at 
Minneapolis or Fargo. It was the only paper that 
announced the dates of these hearings. F., S. & H. 
will do all It can thru its columns to help along the 




^FOUNDED BY .SYDNEY M . and HORATIO R.OWEN. ]6a4^ 



repeal of these grades. It wants to hear from farm- 
ers who have lost money because of these grades. 
The more of these cases it gets the stronger case it 
can make before Congress. 

The thing to do is to get a bill introduced repeal- 
ing the law. That done, farmer delegates should 
be sent to Washington to present their case to 
Congress. This will take money. The cheapest 
one can live in Washington at this time is about 
seven and a half dollars a day. No one man should 
be asked to stand this expense, but members of 
farmers' elevator companies or farmers' clubs 
should raise the money to send someone to look 
after their interests. F., S. & H. has started the 
fight but it is distinctly up to the wheat growers to 
keep it up. 

Don't forget to sign the grain grades coupon in 
this issue's Signboard. 

How To Meet Car Shorteige. 

THE serious car shortage existing thruout the 
nation calls for the most complete understand- 
ing and co-operation on the part of all who 
make use of cars for shipment. 

Waiving all question of who is primarily to blame 
for the existing shortage, the facts are that the 
total volume of freight business has increased some 
70 per cent since the beginning of the European 
war, while the rolling stock has Increased only 
about 2 per cent. This places a burden on the roads 
that has had the effect of causing the system to 
break down, especially at the terminals. The ur- 
gent demands for freight service in the East have 
had the cumulative effect of drawing to and holding 
cars on eastern lines until nearly all western lines 
are seriously short of cars for ordinary freight ser- 
vice. 

Refrigerator cars are now doing duty in the move- 
ment of the western fruit crop to the East. This 
accounts for refrigerator car shortages reported 
thruout the Northwest. Under the stress of such 
conditions certain old-time practices must be thrown 
overboard. Shipper, railroad and consignee are all 
mutually responsible for the efficiency of our trans- 
portation service. A car that consumes five days 
in making a trip loses 20 per cent of its freight ef- 
ficiency if but one day of the five is wasted in either 
the loading movement or unloading. Cars ordered 
should be loaded as soon as possible after they are 
spotted and should be unloaded quickly at the other 
end, then whatever responsibility for slowness in 
movement remains is squarely up to the railroads. 

The practice of loa'ding cars at leisure does not 
put anything over on the railroads; it merely takes 
away from some other shipper opportunity to load 
his freight. We must abandon the minimum weight 
car. Many lines of business have already done this. 
With some other man waiting for the car that has 
been consigned to one, it is a matter of neighborly 
courtesy as well as a patriotic duty for him to load 
his car to the limit, and unload it without delay. 
This is a simple efficiency rule for speeding up the 
freight shipments of the Northwest. 

The Seed Com Situation. 

LET us get in our minds the seriousness of the 
seed corn situation. Neither in Minnesota, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin 
nor Michigan is there enough seed corn in sight for 
next year's planting. 

The most careful investigation reveals the fact 
that the only large area within all this territory 
having sufficient supplies for its own needs and 
something left over, is a small group of counties in 
Minnesota bordering the Minnesota river and ex- 
tending across the state south of the Twin Cities. 
The normal acreage of corn cannot be planted next 
year unless immediate steps are taken to insure a 
sufficient supply of seed locally grown. 

As a rule what are commonly looked upon as the 
best ears are not good. The season has been so 
unfavorable that the corn did not properly dry out 
and corn containing a high percentage of moisture 
is almost uniformly dead. The corn showing the 
highest percentage of germination is corn having 
a small woody cob, rather flinty in type, with wide 
spaces between the rows. Close set, deep kerneled 
corn has largely moulded, and the germination 
averages very low. 

The seed companies cannot supply the lack, and 
trusting to the neighbors is going to prove a broken 
reed. There is just one answer to the situation. 
Join with your neighbors in a search for good seed 
— and start the hunt right at home. Go out into 
the corn bin and ear-test corn that looks as tho it 
would germinate. If it shows CO per cent germina- 
tion or better, put it at once where it will be safe, 
dry, and protected against rats and mice. Hang it 
up. Do not put it in piles. Keep it olf the floor. 



Treat it as tho it were your long lost ticket to sal- 
vation. The full story will be told in the January 
15th issue. 

Big Principle in a Local Fight. 

IT may seem strange to some P., S. & H. readers 
who are too far away from the Twin Cities to be 
directly affected, that so much space has been 
given the matter of fair prices to the milk pro- 
ducers supplying the cities. It may seem to them 
as it did to a Minnesota farm paper, that the con- 
troversy between the Twin City Milk Producers' 
Association and the Public Safety Commission was 
a local matter and as such was merely interesting 
as a contest between two opposing forces. 

But the principle involved is of vital interest to 
every farmer in the Northwest. Are we going to 
get prices for what we have to sell that will give us 
a fair profit, or must we forever be at the mercy 
and whim of the buyer? That is the question that 
was up for discussion and action in the Twin City 
fight. And that question is going to keep coming 
up more frequently and in widely scattered com- 
munities until It is settled in favor of the farmer. 
Furthermore, F., S. & H. is going to see that this 
problem is kept alive and to the front. It is going 
to be a long hard fight. F., S. & H. will need the 
solid, united backing of its subscribers if the fight 
for fair prices is to be successful. 

The farmer is entitled to fair profits if he is to 
be expected to continue production beyond his own 
immediate needs. That is the F., S. & H. platform. 
Does it look good to you? 

Thrift Stamps 

THE Thrift Stamp campaign now launched, thru 
which the government intends to sell two bil- 
lion dollars of war securities, is a measure of 
the highest importance in the complete unification 
of the people for victory. These stamps make it 
possible for every man and woman, every boy and 
girl in the land, to become a stockholder in a gov- 
ernment dedicated to democracy. What such part- 
nership will mean when peace returns it is easy 
to guess. It will do for us what a similar partner- 
ship has already done for the French people — 
make us, old and young, rich and poor, feel our- 
selves jointly and profoundly interested, from a 
personal standpoint, in the well-being and right 
government of the nation. It will make us visualize 
the fact that this is every loyal man's country, re- 
gardless of whether he is poor or rich, young or 
old— regardful only of the fact that he has a living 
nation to shelter him, and for him to defend. 

Why War With Austria? 

BECAUSE Austria stands for all that Germany 
stands for — the oppression and essential slav- 
ery of weaker peoples, upon which foundation 
is built, logically, all the personal infamies and 
horrors that have shocked the decencies of the 
world these past three years. We war with Aus- 
tria because she has made secret war upon us, be- 
cause not to do so would be striking autocracy at 
Berlin and stroking it at Vienna. Nor are we un- 
mindful of the needs of our ally, Italy. Her courage 
must be buoyed up by our supplies and our men. 
She must not falter, and she will not if America 
does her part. 

H. W. Leindecker. 

FS. & H. pauses one moment to pay tribute to a 
citizen of Minnesota who recently died in the 
• service of his country. H. W. Leindecker 
gave himself freely to the work of the Farmers' 
Club and the Equity. When war came, and he was 
called by the Public Safety Commission to help 
organize the Marketing Committee work thruout 
the state, he left his grain unshocked in the field 
and came to offer himself for whatever service he 
could render. This work done, and especially well 
done, he was again called, but a short time ago, to 
help widen out the county agent work in the state. 
He died while on this mission, even as he had 
lived, a. soldier for democracy. He leaves a family 
that may well be proud of his memory. He has 
bequeathed to them something far richer than his 
Renville county farm — a staunch ideal Americanism 
worthy of the best traditions of the race from which 
he sprung and the land he loved and served to the 
uttermost. May his family be comforted in their 
sorrow. May his name live as an inspiration to 
other men and women, that they too may find, in 
the day's work, the glowing path of Service. 



— Congress must either do less talking or else 
arrange to pay the war tax Imposed upon gas 
works. 



World Democracy In 1918 



How the farmer may help to make this a reality. His 
problems and opportunities. A page of signed editorials. 



A living Profit a Necessity. 

By Giffokd Pincuot 

TIE most vital near-at-hand problem before the 
farmers of the Northwest (and before the farm- 
ers of the whole country as well) is to grow a 
crop next year lai-ge enough to meet the demands 
not only of our own people but of our Allies, their 
armies and their civil populations as well. We 
know there is a long, hard fight ahead of us. Noth- 
ing that will help to win that fight is unimportant, 
or can safelv be left undone. But the first consid- 
eration of all is food— food not only to keep the 
armies fighting, but to keep the civil population be- 
hind them strong, efficient, and able to give the sup- 
port without which the modern fighting man is 
helpless. 

This is not the farmer's problem alone. The ^a- 
Uon must make it possible for the farmer to grow 
food without such losses as will put him out of 
business. The farmer, like any other producer, 
must get cost of production and a living profit, or 
stop producing. The economic condition of the 
farmer is just now the critical point in America's 
contribution to the War. 

Organize and — Organize! 

By Thomas Cooper 
Pirector Kentticky Experiment Station 

THE question of the most vital problem before 
our farmers is not an easy one to determine. 
From a national standpoint I would say that 
the big vital thing at the present time for all of us, 
is to win our present war as promptly as possible. 
Considering the war as the most important single 
thing that we have to deal with it appears to me 
that we have two great groups of problems that 
most nearly affect every individual farm in the 

The first may be considered as the development 
of co-operative enterprises in Agriculture. Too 
much stress cannot be placed upon the rapid but 
sane development of co-operative business enter- 
prises in Agriculture in such manner as will bring 
about economic advantage to the farmers and be- 
come an asset to the agriculture of the state, rather 
than a liability. 

The second' important problem is the individual 
one of the farm organization for greater profits. 
Successful farmers know that farm profits are im- 
possible without proper business organization of 
the farm property and an adjustment of farm prac- 
tice, which involves among others rotation of crops, 
tillage methods and livestock production. With 
changing economic relations among our industries 
this becomes of great importance. 

I am confident that in the succeeding years the 
development of the two problems will proceed 
rapidly and that they will bring about great change 
in our agriculture. 

Make Our "Bit" Our *-Best." 

By D. C. Buech 
S'eder il Food Administration 

UNITED STATES won its first great victory of 
the war when in 1917 American farmers broke 
all previous records for total yields of corn 
and potatoes, and at the same time produced more 
than avera.^e crops of ten other important staples. 
This achievement was possible only thru con- 
certed action and an overwhelming desire to dem- 
onstrate the tremendous power of food as a weapon 
of war. 

Our 1917 crops have already put cheer in the 
hearts of our Allies, and will help to nourish them 
until next harvest, which — under a kind Providence 
— will be another crushing food victory. 

Imperative needs for 1918 are more wheat, meat, 
fats and sugar. These are concentrated foods 
which stand shipping well and of which our Allies 
are in desperate need. Substitutes for these foods 
produced in abundance will also be valuable, since 
our own people must use them in order to release 
the others for Europe. Fifty per cent more poultry 
raised and eaten in America will, for instance, re- 
lease large quantities of pork, beef and mutton for 
the Allies, and our own army overseas. Corn used 
at home will relea..e wheat; syrup and honey used 
in more American homes will make possible greater 
export of sugar. 

In addition to increasing total yields of food, farm- 
ers of tho United States can render service in re- 
lieving railroad congestion by ordering fertilizers, 
machinery, hWoh, and essential supplies now. Com- 
bining orders with neighbors, wherever possible, 
will economize in car space and in the number of 
freight cars needed. 

Skill in handling America's wonderful array of 



farm machinery will this year demonstrate its la- 
bor-saving value in the highest degree. Machinery 
must largely compensate for workers who have 
gone from farms into other lines of industry and 
into war service. Keeping implements, horses, 
mules and tractors fit for service will, therefore, be 
the means of strengthening the power of the na- 
tion's defense. These are some ways in which 
farmers can best serve at home. 

Finally, a frugality and wi-e management, ex- 
ceeding even past accomplishment, must prevail 
tliruout America in 1918 to crush the greatest 
military menace the world has ever seen. Let us 
therefore not be content with doing only our "bit" 
but strive to do a bit more than our best in the 
past. 

Unite the School and Farm. 

By C. G. Schui,z 
Supt. of Education of Minnesola 

GREAT privileges, gi-eat problems and great 
duties confront our state at this, the beginning 
of a new year. Every person is enlisted for 
some kind of national war work. The farmer is in 
the service of his country as a producer of food 
supplies for the nation, for our export trade, and 
our army and navy, and for our Allies and the un- 
fortunate victims of war across the sea. All the 
victories to be won by the allied armies depend upon 
how we are able to maintain our position as food 
producer and distributor for the world. 

To make our farms produce the maximum yield 
of food with the unusual shortage in the labor mar- 
ket and under present economic conditions is the 
farmer's problem. 

Along with the material needs of our country, 
comes the insistent call of the youth of our state 
for training and guidance. The boys and girls must 
help in food production. The school and the farm 
must work together as never before. Study and 
work must be combined in a partnership that will 
meet the needs of the children and of the Nation. 

Knowing the people of Minnesota as I do, I am 
convinced not only that the standards already set 
will be fully maintained, but that the close of this 
year will find the rural school more than ever a 
real community center. I am very certain that the 
farmers of the state are awake to the needs of 
the present situation and that they will fully im- 
prove the wonderful opportunity for world serv- 
ice. 

Good Seed a Vital Necessity. 

By C. A. BUENRAM 
3ates Manager Northrup, King & Co. 

THE gravity of the seed situation on this conti- 
nent as It applies both to garden seeds and 
corn is not fully appreciated by a yery large 
percentage of seed users. We have enjoyed such 
bountiful supplies of seeds in the past and they 
have been so comparatively easy to secure that it 
is hard for many, even those who are accustomed 
to handling large quantities, to bring themselves to 
believe that seeds are scarce. 

The facts, however, will surprise and disappoint 
many. This country has depended in a large meas- 
ure on European garden seed growers for supplies 
of many varieties. In addition to the fact that the 
crops in Europe were very short and in many 
cases entire failures, is the lack of transportation 
facilities and the great scarcity of labor. The grow- 
ing of seeds requires not only a scientific knowledge 
and long experience, but much painstaking efl:ort. 

This country grows some kinds of seed in large 
quantities but the crops here are also very disap- 
pointing this year and added to the usual home 
consumption there is a heavy export demand which 
must be met in some measure. 

The United States Government, recognizing the 
importance of conserving and equitably distributing 
available supplies, has taken a census of all stocks 
and will see to it, thru the co-operation of seeds- 
men, that these seeds are placed to the best possible 
advantage. 

Seeds are a product of nature and in the event of 
a short crop cannot be supplied by other means. 
Tho problem this year can be greatly simplified if 
seed buyers will purchase their requirements early. 
Many who would otherwise be disappointed may 
get some seed. Prices necessarily are very much 
higher than under normal conditions, but it is not 
so much a question of price this season as it is of 
suitable and satisfactory stock. It is not what the 
seed costs, but what it will produce that counts 
most. 

In the case of corn the situation is most serious. 
The only safe plan is to begin testing one's seed 
at once, find out the worst, and secure, as soon as 
possible, if one's seed is not good, other seed, of a 
variety adapted to the locality. Too much hinges 



upon our action to permit us to delay. The gardens 
and fields of America must feed the world. 

Save, Conserve, Improve. 

By R. W. Thatciikr 

Dean of Agrupjtttwe, University of Minnesota 




iHREB important tasks seem to me to be pre- 
sented to our farmers by the economic 
situation growing out of the war. 



First — Difficulties of transportation and expensive 
handling by "middlemen" demand that as wide a 
diversity of products as possible be grown at home. 
The distance and expense between producer and 
consumer must be reduced as low as possible. 

Second — The world demands a larger part of our 
cereal grains for use as human food than ever be- 
fore, but meat is a necessary part of diet for peoi)!e 
of a high state of civilization; hence we must learn 
how to produce meat from other foods than the 
grains which human beings can eat. 

Third — Vast areas of poorly drained land or of 
out-of-the-way tracts which are now producing 
weeds or wild hay of inferior feeding value must be 
reclaimed and made to yield annual or perennial 
forage crops of high feeding quality. The attempts 
to produce tender grain or vegetable crops in re- 
gions where the season between killing frosts is 
short should be abandoned, and hardy grasses or 
annual forage crops planted instead. 

"No Let Down — Greater Efforts." 

15y David E. Houston 
Secretary of Agricultui-e 

I HAVE yours of December 3rd, requesting a" state- 
ment for your January issue. I cannot do better 
than to quote from my annual report made to 
Congress, as follows: 

Imbued with patriotic motives, influenced by fa- 
vorable market prices, and falling in with the sug- 
gestions of the Department of Agriculture and of 
state agricultural agencies, the farmers of the na- 
tion manifested much interest in the campaign for 
increased production and displayed efficient activity 
in reference both to plant and animal foodstuffs 
and feedstuffs. The weather conditions during the 
spring were generally favorable, and according to 
the unrevised estimates, the nation will have, as the 
result of the work of the farmers and of all the 
agricultural agencies, approximately 3,191,000,000 
bushels of corn, 659,797,000 of wheat, 1,-580,000,000 
of oats, 201,659,000 of barley, 56,000,000 of rye, 16,- 
813,000 of buckwheat, 33,256,000 of rice, 73,380,000 
■of kafir, 439,686,000 of Irish potatoes, 84,727,000 of 
sweet potatoes, 15,957,000 of commercial beans, 42,- 
606,000 of peaches, 11,419,000 of pears, 177,733,000 
of apples, and 7,621,000 tons of sugar beets. These 
figures represent increases of cereals in the aggre- 
gate over 1916 of 1,006,000,000 bushels, and over the 
average for 1910-1914 of approximately 1,000,000,000 
bushels, but a decrease of production in comparison 
with 1915 of about 199,000,000 bushels. 

That the farmers of the nation hr,ve generously 
responded to the appeals for increased production, 
and that much has already been done to insure a 
large supply of foods and feedstuffs, justifies no let 
down in their activities or in those of all agricul- 
tural agencies. On the contrary, even greater ef- 
forts must be put forth in the coming months if t/e 
are to meet satisfactorily the domestic demands and 
the needs of the nation with which we are associat- 
ed in this struggle. There must be no breakdown 
on the farm, no failure of foods, feedstuffs, or cloth- 
ing. I can not emphasize too strongly the urgent 
necessity of doing everything possible to bring 
about a still further increase in the production of 
all essential commodities, particularly in the staple 
crops and livestock. 

"Land Banks Safe and Sound." 

By E. G. Quammb 
President Federal State Bank of St. Paul 

WE have made satisfactory progress. We 
opened the bank for business on May 1 and 
sent the papers out into the country for the 
purpose of organizing f;rm loan associations. Now, 
as you know, it takes som.e time to explain such mat- 
ters to the farmers so that they will understand a 
system that is entirely new in every way, yet we 
found that the farmers were oi-icic to appreciate 
and understand this service. As a matter of record 
over 250 associations have been chartered and rec- 
ommended for charter in our district up to Decem- 
ber 1. On that date there were 158 more associa- 
tions organizing and preparing for charter. The 
loans in these associations totaled over $25,000,000. 
Up to December 1 we had paid out over $4,500,000 
to the farmers; $16,000,000 in loans had been ap- 
[ConUmicd on puac 2.'>] 




7 



8 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



1 

January 1, 1918. 



The 1918 Live Stock Outlook 

By J. Ogden Armour, DeWitt C. Wing, Wit- 
Ham Magivney, Wayne Dinsmore, and others. 



ABROAD outlook on the livestock 
situation, its promise and its op- 
portunity, is essential at this 
time. In order to present this matter 
to its readers, F., S. & H. has asked 
men of world-wide connections with 
the livestock industry to give its read- 
ers their point of view. In the same 
spirit in which the request was made 
— a desire to serve to the fullest extent 
the welfare of America — these men 
have responded in the unusual and sug- 
gestive letters found in this article. — 
The Editor. 



THE NORTHWEST AND WORLD NEEDS. 

BY J. OGDEN AltMOtlR. 

"Food will win the war" is a slogan 
that is pretty close to truth. Without 
adequate supplies of food, the armies 
which we are preparing for service 
in Europe and the armies that are al- 
ready there, would fail to make the 
world safe for democracy. Food is 
just as necessary to success as is 
ammunition — and meat is the big fac- 
tor in the food supply. 

While the war is on and for many 
years afterwards, there is going to be 
a demand for meat that will be diffi- 
cult to fill: it will be a decade or more 
before Europeans will cease to draw 
on the meat supplies of this country. 

It is up to the American meat pro- 
ducers to utilize every facility they 
have for raising more meat animals — ■ 
more cattle, more hogs and more 
sheep. The great Northwest, once the 
summer pasturage of countless thou- 
sands of buffaloes, presents a wonder- 
ful opportunity for enlargement of the 
American meat animal herd. And 
meat animals, in turn, will prove a 
God-send to the Northwest. 

It is no secret that the wheat yield 
of the Northwest is falling off. Fertile 
lands which once produced twenty-five 
to thirty-five bushels to the acre are 
now producing eight, ten, fifteen or 
thereabouts. The bread basket of the 
world is being emptied. 



It is no fault of the land. The soil 
is as good as man could want, but the 
agricultural plan is at fault. Without 
diversification or the use of great 
quantities of commercial fertilizer, no 
soil can continue to produce a maxi- 
mum yield of the same crop year in 
and year out. 

Diversification is the need of the 
Northwest — diversification thru the 
raising of more livestock. When ex- 
hausted wheat fields are given over 
to corn and forage crops and pasture 
for cattle, sheep and hogs, the North- 
west will come into its own and the 
nation will profit by reason of the in- 
creased meat supply. 

One of the biggest deferents to the 
more general production of livestock 
in the Northwest has been hesitancy 
in trying to raise corn. Fear that corn 
would prove a failure has caused many 
a northwestern farmer to turn to 
wheat year after year. 

Silos will solve the farmers' corn 
problem. Silos can make suitable ani- 
mal feed out of corn even when it 
fails to mature properly. When weath- 
er conditions cause soft corn as was 
the case during the past season, the 
farmer with one or more silos is able 
to utilize his crop to advantage by 
turning it into ensilage and feeding 
it to cattle. Ensilage, together with 
a small portion of protein concentrate 
such as cotton seed or peanut meal, 
is an ideal food for cattle. 

Silos are an excellent investment 
on any farm and will soon become 
recognized as a necessity on the farms 
of the great Northwest, because they 
will enable the farmers to get away 
from the one crop plan and turn to 
diversified and livestock farming. 

Diversified farming means more live- 
stock and more livestock means soil 
fertility. And the two together, mean 
prosperity for the farmer and a big- 
ger supply of the meat for which the 
whole world is clamoring. The in- 
terests of the northwestern farmer 
are identical with the interests of the 
civilized world. 



Therefore he should grow more 
meat animals — better meat animals — 
and serve himself and the nation as 
well. 



THE DRAFT HORSE SITUATION. 

BY DE WITT O. WING. 

Hundreds of thousands of Ameri- 
can horses and mules have been ex- 
ported to Europe since the outbreak 
of the war. The gathering of both 
classes of animals for military pur- 
poses, and their shipment overseas, 
still are under way. Our own Gov- 
ernment is buying horses and mules 
for the army. The war demand has 
taken a prodigious number of light 
horses; it will take many more. Most 
of the horses selected for military uses 
represent a highly desirable riddance; 
our horse industry as a whole has 
been greatly improved by their loss. 

A large surplus of horses practically 
useless llor agricultural labor cum- 
bered American farms, and constitut- 
ed an obstacle to the breeding of big- 
ger and better horses, before the war 
demand absorbed them. We had too 
many light, mongrel, unclassifiable 
horses; autos were driving them off 
the roads, wealthy fanciers were tiring 
of the obsolete luxury of racing them, 
and critical farmers were beginning to 
despair of doing first-class field work 
with them. Horses of this descrip- 
tion still are to be found in large num- 
bers in parts of America. Most of 
them are unsuitable for war or agri- 
culture. They are liabilities instead 
of assets where feed is scarce, and 
where better farming requires heavier 
types. Montana is cursed with lots of 
them. If the war continues another 
year we shall slaughter thousands of 
them for human food. 

Naturalized Americans from conti- 
nental European countries in which 
horse flesh has been used as human 
food for a century are eating horse 
meat. They will continue to use it, 
if available, in preference to other 



meats retailing at higher prices. I 
should like to see a thoro cleaning 
out of all the nondescript, feather- 
weight, useless horses In America. If 
we can convert them into human food 
for the large unsentimental, unrefined 
and low-standard element in our popu- 
lation, let's do it at once. Hundreds 
of our foreigners have eaten worse 
things than American plug or eco- 
nomically inutile horses. The Ger- 
mans in Germany ate thousands of 
dogs and cats before they began the 
war; they may have since added rats 
and worse to their diet. Whether one 
likes food from such sources depends 
upon one's social heredity, culture and 
personal tastes. I would not con- 
sciously eat the flesh of a horse, mule, 
cat or dog, but I have eaten roast 
'possum; and, frankly, anybody who 
eats chicken cannot logically refuse 
any other fowl or animal. What is 
one man's meat is, or may be, anoth- 
er's horse! And there you are. The 
acute and increasing world-shortage 
of beef, pork and mutton may compel 
many of us to change our dietary 
dogmas. 

Several slaughtering plants for 
horses otherwise unmarketable have 
been built, and others will be. Horse 
meat is a commercial fact in the Unit- 
ed States today. The average man 
who owns a lot of horses unsuitable, 
because of their age, smallness or de- 
fects, to practical productive uses in 
war, commerce or agriculture, is not 
likely to care what becomes of them, 
if he can get them off his hands be- 
fore, as boarders, they bankrupt him. 
He may not eat them, but he doesn't 
care who does. It is time that Ameri- 
cans as a whole, in agriculture and in- 
dustry, should employ the cold rea- 
son, which necessity breeds, in all 
those private and public realms where, 
in the old, easy, wasteful days, senti- 
mental customs, luxurious habits and 
enslaving prejudices held sway. 

A new world is born. It is a bigger, 
better and harder world than mankind 
[Continued on page 18. J 



Farm Equipment Outlook 

By John J. Woods, H. Colin Campbell, E. W, Simons, H. M, Railsbach, 
H. R. Br ate, B. B, Ayers, W. F. Kohler, E. W. Thurston, A. L. Fisch 



THE readers of F., S. & H. would 
like to know the inside facts 
about the equipment situation; 
what message have you for them?" 
was the question that brought together 
the letters here grouped for the bene- 
fit of the man who is planning to 
make 1918 a winning year, both for 
himself and for America. — The Editor. 



SILO FILLING EQUIPMENT. 

BY JOHN .T. WOODS. 

With the increased demand for all 
kinds of farm implements, coupled 
with the scarcity of raw materials and 
labor to turn these raw materials into 
the finished product, it would seem 
that the coming Winter and early 
Spring is the logical time to purchase 
Bilo filling machinery. 

Statistics prove that there were be- 
tween thirty and thirty-five thousand 
Gilos built in 1917. Our prediction is, 
judging by the activity of the silo 
manufacturers, that there will be more 
silos built in 1918 than there were in 
1917, providing same can be purchased 
and erected before filling time. 

There is no reason for deferring the 
purchase of a silo filler where a ma- 
chine of this character is needed. On 
the other hand, there are several rea- 
sons why the matter should be at- 
tended to early. Unless the manu- 
facturer has assurance of a greatly 
Increased volume, he Is unlikely to 
fjtock up to the same proportion at the 
high prices of materials, that he would 
imder normal conditions. 

Raw materials, already two-and ono- 
) ;>lf times hl.i-ilier than heretofore, may 



be still higher than at the present and 
more difficult to obtain, regardless as 
to the price. 

Embargoes placed by railroad com- 
panies upon manufacturers affect this 
commodity materially. Shipments that 
are not delivered in three or four 
days, later may take weeks to reach 
destination. The ever present pos- 
sibility of a machine being broken in 
transit will be more noticeable this 
Fall than heretofore. 

A machine may be received appar- 
ently in first-class condition, but when 
erected some part will be found short 
or else has been broken in transit, the 
breakage being imnoticed until the 
machine is almost ready to be used. 
The purchaser of a silo filler under 
these conditions probably will suffer 
a big loss in dollars and cents, where- 
as this loss could have been eliminat- 
ed, had the machine been shipped 
early in the season and tried out, when 
the breakage would have been appar- 
ent. There would have been ample 
time to obtain the repairs from the 
manufacturer or distributer. 

There really is nothing to be lost 
by getting silo filling equipment early. 
Delay in purchasing may prove costly. 



THK CEMENT SITUATION, 

BY 11. COI.IN CAMPUELL. 

A sufllolent reason for the farmer's 
interest in cement is that its intelli- 
gent use spells conservation all along 
the line. Concrete structures arc fire- 
proof. Concreto structures are sani- 
tary. Goncroto striicturns arc rat- 
proof, rustproof, wind proof, proof 
against all of those agencies which are 



more or less destructive to buildings 
or improvements of other materials. 
In these times no better selling argu- 
ment for any product could be ad- 
vanced than conservation — elimination 
of waste. With concrete improvements 
everywhere about the farm, a farmer 
saves time that might be devoted to 
repair and maintenance of imperman- 
ent structures to concentrate on great- 
er production. 

Most of the materials necessary to 
concrete construction and the labor 
required to perform it are on the farm 
or nearby. Cement represents a rela- 
tively small part of the total volume 
of concrete. It is of course the most 
vital ingredient but the ability of ex- 
isting mills and plants to manufac- 
ture is over and above any demand 
that has ever been made upon them. 
From that standpoint there is there- 
fore no question as to the adequacy 
of supply. The only doubtful element 
that I can see is the transportation 
situation, but there is every reason 
to believe that this will have been con- 
siderably relieved by next spring, 
which will be the most natural time 
for the farmer to think of or begin 
needed improvements. 

In line with all other materials or 
products, cement has advanced in 
price during the past two years, but 
the students of trade, who have an- 
alyzed commodity advances, are unani- 
mous in the statement that cement 
and all other building materials have 
not advanced in anywhere near (ho 
same ratio as have other products, the 
market price of which has increased 
from 100 to 300 per cent or more, thus 
giving the buyer's currency a higher 
exchange value than ever before 



known and literally making the cost 
of building less now than ever. 



LABOR PROBLEM ON THE DAIRY FARM. 

BY B. W. SIMONS. 

This World War makes two great 
demands which are keenly felt by the 
dairy farmer — the war's demand for 
men, and for food. 

With the gigantic war straining the 
resources of the world — with all the 
biggest nations of Europe on ration 
cards — with wheatless and meatless 
days already operating here in the 
United States to conserve the Nation- 
al food supply — there is a hungering 
world market that ought to take every 
ounce of dairy products at prices that 
will leave the dairy farmer reasonable 
profits. 

This great demand for dairy prod- 
ucts, together with high feed cost and 
high labor cost, makes vitally neces- 
sary more careful study and the most 
painstaking efforts to get from each 
cow every pound of milk she can pro- 
duce. Careful study of better feeding 
methods will pay; cow testing asso- 
ciations will be more profitable than 
ever before; and investment in those 
things that will provide better com- 
fort for the cow such as modern dairy 
barn equipment, will bring back in 
greater milk production many dollars 
more than their cost. 

All feeds are now high in price. But 
to produce milk, the cow needs )nire 
air and pure water as well, not once 
or twice a day, but whenever she 
[Continued on patre 9. ) 



PABM, STOCK AND HOME. 



9 



FARM EQUIPMENT OUTLOOK. 

[CotUituied fium page 8.] 

waats it every hour during the day 
and uight. 

And fresh air and water — as import- 
ant as feed — cost nothing, excepting 
the initial expense of providing the 
mechanical means of getting them to 
the cow. In these days of high feed 
cost, probably nothing will produce 
so great an increase in milk yield, for 
the money expended, as a ventilation 
system and drinking cups. 

Two million men are already under 
arms, fighting or getting ready to 
fight for Uncle Sam. It is said that 
for each soldier, there must be at 
least five men back of the lines pro- 
ducing those things which the soldiers 
need — food, clothing, ammunition, 
arms, transportation, aeroplanes, 
ships, etc. 

That means ten million men in the 
United States, taken from their ordi- 
nary pursuits, and directing their en- 
tire time and thot to war purposes. 

In spite of all that may be done to 
provide labor for the farmer, help on 
the farm is going to be exceedingly 
difficult to get. Therefore, if never 
before in all his life, the farmer must 
substitute machinery in doing his 
work, in place of human muscle. 

On the dairy farms, manure car- 
riers, feed trucks, milk can carriers, 
milking machines, drinking cups, mod- 
ern stalls and pens — all these things 
whic!: cut down the time required in 
taking care of a herd of cows will 
prove exceedingly profitable, and aid 
enormously in making it possible for 
dairy farms to be operated in spite 
of the labor shortage. 

The government has divided all 
business into three classes. A, B and 
C. 

Class A includes all those industries 
engaged in the manufacture of goods 
for the government required in the 
prosecution of the war. 

CliiKS B includes all those industries, 
ranging next in importance, which 
have to do with production of goods 
essential to the welfare of the na- 
tion. 

And Class C includes all luxuries 
and non-essentials. 

Class A is given first call on the 
supply of steel, coal, etc. Class B 
comes next, and Class G last. 

Farm machinery, barn equipment, 
etc., takes class B as to priority. 

If the needs of class A are the 
greater, msnu^'-^^'urers of farm ma- 
chinery must wait. 

What conditions may be six months 
hence no one can say. He is a wise 




When Coffee 
Disagrees 

quick results for 
the better follow 
a change to 

Instant 
Postum 

A delicious, drug- 
free drink, tasting 
much like high- 
grade coffee, com- 
forting and satisfy- 
ing to the former 
coflFee user. 

Ideal for children, 

"There's a Reason" 
for POSTUM 

Sold by Grocers. 



■IBIHB3ia i^ llBlli«IOiBiilliil«IBiaHIIHH 



farmer who makes his purchases of 
farm machinery early. Only in that 
way can he have absolute assurance 
of getting the farm machinery he 
needs for the operation of his plant. 



IMPLEMENTS SHOULD BE ORDERED EARLY 

aYH. M. UAILSBACK. 

It is important that the farmer de- 
cide now what implements he will 
need for the coming year. 

The government in one of its recent 
bulletins says: 

'Orders for repair parts and new ma- 
chines should be placed as soon as pos- 
sible. This will acquaint manufactur- 
ers and their agents with the demand 
in different sections and enable them 
to make the best possible distribution. 
At the same time it will eliminate ex- 
|)ensive delays in transportation at the 
busy season." 

And there is a still more serious 
need for making implement require- 
ments known as soon as possible. The 
steel situation is critical. In the face 
of a limited supply there is an enor- 
mous demand for steel to make muni- 
tions of war. The government must 
handle the steel supply with the great- 
est intelligence and care. 

The government wants to know, first 
of all, how much steel must be set 
apart for the making of implements. 
It considers the farmer's needs of 
greatest importance. It recognizes the 
fact that, in no small measure, the 
success or failure of this war rests 
with the farmers of this country. It 
recognizes the vital importance of 
implements in successfully coping 
with the present situation. It wants 
the farmer to have the most improved 
farm implements — all of them that he 
reasonably needs for the production 
of more food. But it can not afford to 
risk any haphazard method in decid- 
ing how much steel is needed for im- 
plements. Too small a portion of 
steel might be set apart in some cases, 
and too much in others. Either re- 
sult would be costly. 

The government wants to know as 
exactly as possible and as soon as 
possible what the needs of the farm- 
ers are insofar as implements are con- 
cerned. There is only one prompt, 
effective way to get this information 
to the government, and that is for the 
farmer to decide now what imple- 
ments he will need, see his dealer as 
soon as possible and place his order. 
The dealer will tell the implement 
manufacturers. And the implement 
manufacturers will place the needs of 
the farmers before the government. 

The farmer who gets busy today and 
orders his implements right away is 
performing a patriotic service. It is 
one of the most important things he 
can do to help himself and the govern- 
ment. 



THE LEATHER MARKET. 

BY W. F. KOHLER. 

During May and June, 1917, manu- 
facturers of shoes, harness and horse 
collars, in fact, manufacturers of all 
leather goods, had their representa- 
tives call on trade throughout the ter- 
ritories soliciting business for ship- 
ments to be made December and Jan- 
uary covering the wants of local deal- 
ers. The manufacturers of horse col- 
lars solicited business on a cost basis 
of leather of 38V^ cents per foot, so- 
liciting business for harness on the 
cost basis of 60 cents per pound. 

They found out that the dealers 
were not readily placing orders, owim; 
to the fact that the farmers were not 
buying freely for the past two or three 
years. Consequently, the local deal- 
ers had a small stock of merchandise 
on hand, since which time collar 
leather has advanced 3% cents per 
foot, which means that a dozen horse 
collars cutting 100 feet, which is the 
average hoft of a collar used by the 
farmers, will cost from five to six dol- 
lars more per dozen at this time. Har- 
ness leather has advanced in price 
to 70 cents per pound, which means 
an advance in price of 20 per cent. 
Linen thread which is used in stitch- 
ing harness and horse collars has ad- 
vanced 150 per cent. The hardware 
has advanced 33% per cent, hames 50 
per cent. 

Now this means nothing more than 
that the dealer will have to pay a 
much higher price as soon as his pres- 
ent stock is exhausted. 

Owing to the heavy demand coming 
from our Government for leather 
equipments such as harness and horse 
collars, it is going to take the entire 
output of all tanneries who are tan- 
ning a good leather to at leist Febru- 
ary 1st to 15th to complete the Gov- 
ernment orders. At the present time, 
the manufacturers of harness and 



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horse collars are making up for the 
Goverument, better than 250,000 sets 
of harness and about 300,000 horse 
collars. Other leather goods that the 
Goverumeiit has demanded, which has 
to be gotten out at the earliest pos- 
sible moment, takes as much leather 
as the harness and horse collars will 
take. This means that there will be 
no decline in prices for at least six 
to eight months to come, but every 
indication points to higher prices pre- 
vailing before March 1st, 1918. The 
manufacturers throughout the country 
are working on Government goods. 
They have no stock on hand for the 
regular trade. If there is going to 
be any demand for harness and horse 
collars through the summer, the de- 
mand cannot be supplied, as Govern- 
ment work comes first. Hence, it 
stands in hand for every farmer thru- 
out this country who is going to need 
harness, horse collars, or leather goods 
of any kind for his spring work, to 
make his purchases at once, as that 
is the only way that he can assure 
himself of having the goods when he 
needs them. 

The rawhide condition is getting 
more difficult in this country every 
month, owing to the fact that for the 
past three years the slaughter of cat- 
tle has been enormous and the supply 
is not up to the demand, which always 
means higher prices. 

For the past two years there has 
been considerable demand for a cheap- 
er collar than the all leather horse 
collar. The manufacturers have been 
putting out a collar with a cloth face, 
fContfntted on page 11. J 



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10 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1^ 1918. 



How Success Came to Me— I 

By Mary C. Harmon 



This story luhis First Prize in the F., S, £if M, "Pioneer Stories" con- 
test announced October 1. "I didn^t boost my job', I hated it," says Mrs. 
Harmon. How she came to change her point of view and how she won 
success is told here. Watch for the next story in this series. 



THIS letter of appreciation should 
have been written before, as my 
heart has always been full of 
gratitude for the good Farm, Stock & 
Home has done me, but the truth is 
I have been timid. It is not to win 
any prize that I enter. It's merely to 
tell you what you ought to know: 
How you have helped me forge ahead 
during the years I have regaled my 
mind and heart from the contents of 
your columns. 

As it takes all kinds of people to 
make a world, so it takes all kinds of 
experiences to make a life. And the 
variety and amount of experience adds 
value to life — gives it pep, so that it 
fails of being merely existence, which 
would indeed be failure. 

The Little Girl Who Hated the Farm. 

When first Farm, Stock & Home 
called on me I was a barefoot child 
herding cattle on the barren hillsides 
of my father's little farm. Like any 
other ambitious girl who is forced into 
uncongenial labor, I didn't boost my 
job. I hated it. The cattle were in 
too close proximity to the neighbors' 
cornfields, the grass on our side too 
scant to fill the cavernous stomachs 
of the rapacious beasts, hence they 
made numerous foraging trips to the 
corn with the result that I was pun- 
ished and consequently in ill humor 
most of the time. I was a dreamer — 
an air-castle builder of the purest type, 
and those cattle stepped ruthlessly on 
everything I held sacred and dear. My 
parents were not farmers in the true 
sense of the word, and did not realize 
any more than I did then the infinite 
possibilities of the soil, nor were they 
inspired with the thought that farm- 
ing is God's chosen occupation for 
man. We were not prosperous, nor 
were we happy and contented. I 
•planned daily to run away "some- 
nere." But my ideas of the world 
jyond the horizon were as hazy as 



my dislike for the farm was intense. 

Then one day — a drizzly day in late 
October — little Farm, Stock & Home 
came. With its coming, light dawned 
on the gloomy landscape of my life. 
I believe it was the only paper I read 
— the only one, with the exception of 
a religious journal, which entered our 
home. But it came to stay, and it ex- 
ercised an influence on my life which 
changed its course forever. 

I grew to love the country with all 
its endearing charms, and learnt to 
appreciate the worth and significance 
of the farmer's calling and the ever- 
widening possibilities of his lot. I be- 
came enthusiastic instead of despair- 
ing and life to me has ever since been 
"one great, sweet song." (That does 
not necessarily eliminate sorrow and 
trouble, for in every grand melody 
there must be minor chords.) 

The Farm's Best Product, the Boy 
and Girl. 

There always was a supply of good 
things in Farm, Stock & Home, even 
at that early stage, which tided me 
over the ruts until the arrival of the 
next copy. And what inspiration and 
good cheer it brought! Wisdom 
flowed from its editorial columns, 
while the Home Council chatted on 
matters ever nearest the heart of its 
members. I learned that they were 
real flesh and blood people — these 
men and women, boys and girls, that 
made up the Council, doing the same 
work that I did and meeting up with 
the same diflBculties. By reading their 
letters and articles I learned what 
every girl ought to know, from the 
taking care of herself when out in the 



wide, wide world away from home 
and friends, to the making of a tooth- 
some batch of candy. Farm, Stock & 
Home made it quite plain to me that 
the best thing — the most valuable as- 
set on the farm — was the boy and 
girl. 

They emphasized the idea that the 
home was the nucleus from which 
radiates the energies which make 
farming a success. (I have met only 
one man who said he "had no use 
for the Home Council," but the shame- 
faced look told plainer than words that 
he was lying. He reads it now — even 
the recipes.) I learned how to plant 
small fruit, to make and care for a 
garden, raise and cai*e for little 
chicks and pigs, preserve vegetables 
and fruits, make bread and cake, pies, 
pickles, beds, comforts, frocks, furni- 
ture, hats and caps and, I had nearly 
said, boots and shoes. Farm, Stock 
& Home was the forerunner of our 
splendid a,2:ricultural school, because 
it awakened in the hearts of its read- 
ers an eager desire for just such an 
institutioi^ It taught me that the 
trained hand and eye and heart and 
conscience was worth more than the 
intellectual embellishment, that unsel- 
fish effort for the good of others en- 
riched life more than the acquirement 
of material possessions, and that to 
have an all-over rich feeling one must 
give oneself with one's alms. I 
learned that the truest kind of patri- 
otism, the most genuine kind of Chris- 
tianity, consists in seeking the good of 
all, and that no ideal is worth cherish- 
ing that eliminates the doctrines em- 
bodied and set forth in the Sermon 
on the Mount, 



My Brain Child Welcorri^i. 

Farm, Stock & Home generously ac- 
cepted and printed my first contribu- 
tion to the press. Mosos, viewing the 
the splendors and riches of Caanan, 
could not have felt more elated than 
I at first sight of my thoughts in 
print. Had my little brain child been 
smothered in the editor's vv-ase-basket, 
the chances are I would have made 
no further literary effort. But it was 
printed and a clergyman from Minne- 
apolis passed favorable comment on it. 
What a boost this was to my literary 
ambition! It might have made me 
conceited but for the home influence 
which dampened my ardor, but a fire 
had been kindled which nothing could 
smother. 

Every Department Helpful. 

Farm, Stock & Home! The words 
name the long, long reel of a wonder- 
ful photoplay. I could sit before the 
screen watching the quickly-shifting 
scenes for an indefinite period of time, 
so dear they are to me. I read it 
herding the cattle and spent the long 
fall afternoons profitably because I 
had found a great, good friend. I 
searched its pages when the frosty 
panes shut out the brilliancy of noon 
in mid-winter when we were' snowed- 
in. I studied its advertisements, 
laughed at some of the bits found in 
the "Chopped Feed" mess, and won- 
dered, like we all do yet, how that 
"Chopped Feed Kid" ever managed to 
pack his brain so full of trite sayings. 
The Legal Department, the Guaran- 
teed Advertisements — everything 
helped me. It was and is the paper 
with a moral backbone of unbreakable 
strength — bold and bravo in its de- 
fense of the people's rights, always 
ringing true when vital issues are at 
stake, with ready sympathies and help- 
ful hand reaching out to every mem- 
ber of its army of subscribers. 



Ten Cent Milk for the Farmer ? 

By W. A, Freehoff. 



1AM one of those unpatriotic dairy- 
men who robs the babies and the 
widows and orphans of our teem- 
ing cities because 1 have the temerity 
to accept $3.22 per cwt. for my milk 
until Mister Hoover can find out what 
I should be allowed to charge. I am 
dairying in Waukesha county, Wis- 
consin, and shipping milk to Chicago. 

My guess is that the blatant, ig- 
norant, selfish interests of the city, 
led in their yowls by a news press 
too busy and too careless to find out 
the truth, will have an awful jolt 
coming to them when Uncle Sam gets 
ready to issue his report. 

My guess is that $3.22 per cwt. will 
have been found to be too low rather 
than an extortion, and that I will be 
able to accept more money for my 
milk without having the wolf pack de- 
fame my character as a patriotic citi- 
zen whose main desire in life is to 
make an honest and reasonable living, 
and do all in his power to help lick 
Kaiser Bill. 

Snap Shot Opin'ions. 

Honest, now, doesn't it seem funny, 
all this blather about a criminal com- 
bination on the part of the farmers 
to take advantage of the war situation 
and charge double for milk? The 
pity of it is that a few men high in 
office, either because they are too 
Ignorant to know better or too ambi- 
tious to bolster up a cooling consti- 
tuency in the city wards, have lent 
their influence to this persecution of 
the harried and distressed dairy 
farmers. If anybody should go to 
the grand Jury it Is those self-styled 
guardians of democracy who speak 
first and think afterwards, and who 
wouldn't know a fact If it knocked 'em 
down. 

Bdt the mere calling of names won't 



get me or the thousands of other dairy 
farmers anywhere, or anything but 
abuse returned with interest. Facts, 
cold, hard facts, presented in such a 
way thr.t everybody can see that the 
dairy farmer is not making a reason- 
able profit from his milk, and will not 
make a businesslike profit until $5.00 
per cwt., net, is received, are needed. 

Ten cents a quart looks like a good, 
big sum. Say, it wasn't only about a 
year ago that three cents a quart was 
considered pretty good pickings. But 
the times, thanks to Kaiser Bill and 
his policy of frightfulness, have 
changed, and the American farmer and 
dairyman is being called upon to bear 
a burden out of all proportion to that 
he carried before the war. 

All summer I got along without a 
hired man because I was too busy in 
the fields to take time off to lasso a 
man in the streets and bring him out 
to the farm. I am in great need of a 
man this very minute — but four miles 
from my farm a war industry factory 
is offering $3 per and up for five or 
six hundred extra men. 

yVould Make Money by Selling Hay 
and Feed. 

And do you know what feed costs 
me this very minute! If I put every 
speck of hay I had in the barn up at 
auction, I wouldn't have to do an- 
other stroke of work in connection 
with it but cart my money to town in 
a dray. With alfalfa at $34 per ton, 
and other hay from $2!) up, with skilled 
labor at $-10 up — mostly decidedly up 
— and with fresh milch cows from 
$150 to $225, it takes more than seven 
cents a quart to bring mo even the 
semblance of a profit. 

Were it not for the fact that I've 
got to have the cowa to keep up the 



fertility of my farm, would make at 
least 50% more direct cash by selling 
my hay and oats than by feeding them 
to dairy cows — and they are not culls 
either, but have been culled and weed- 
ed for five years. 

Let Us Do Some Figuring. 

On the average farm in my neigh- 
borhood, milk is the chief and often 
the sole source of income. The aver- 
age size of the farms is 80 acres, 
valued at $10,000. About $1,000 is in- 
vested in machinery, $800 in horses, 
and $3,000 in cows, or, in round num- 
bers, my neighbor does a business on 
$15,000 invested, which happens to be 
pretty close to what my investment is. 

On a farm of this average size about 
40 tons of hay, worth $1,000 (present 
market), 18 tons of grain worth $1,000, 
75 tons of silage worth $375 are fed. 
Pasture rental of $150 should also be 
charged against the herd. This, re- 
gardless of whether the feed was 
raised on the farm or purchased, a 
herd of about 20 milch cows will con- 
sume in the neighborhood of $2,500 
worth of feed. 

One hired man for the year, $480; 
interest, $750; horse labor, $300, and 
losses and depreciation, $200, puts an 
additional charge of $1,700, in round 
numbers, up against the dairyman, and 
makes his total expenses about $4,200. 
This, as you notice, makes no allow- 
ance for the 101 petty expenses on a 
farm which in the aggregate may 
amount to many hundred dollars. 

The herds in which the cows aver- 
age better than 5,500 pounds a year are 
few. Twenty cows at this average 
would mean 110,000 pounds of milk, 
which at $3.22 per cwt. is $3,512. The 
income from calves might amomit to 
another $200, or a total of $3,700 in- 
come for the farm. This, you will no- 



tice, is $500 less than his expenses 
would have been had he been forced 
to buy his feed. 

Any profit that he can make at all 
would be because he can raise his 
feed at a figure very much below the 
market price, but you can well see that 
this profit could not possibly be very 
great. 

Besides, it is neither fair nor good 
business. The dairy man is entitled 
to full market value for the feeds he 
raises, plus his labor, plus his in- 
terest, plus other expenses, plus ten 
per cent. Ten per cent is little enough 
to compensate for the risk, the worry, 
and the desperately hard work at 
times, that are his lot. A clerk in 
town can make $1,500 vv^ith less train- 
ing, mental and physical exertion, and 
responsibility. 

A Renter's Accounts Examined. 

To get away from the general, I 
am going to give you an extract from 
the books of Sam Williams, who lives 
on the hill about 200 yards from me, 
and who has as fine a herd of Hol- 
steins as any man could wish. Sam 
is a renter, running one of the most 
productive farms in the neighborhood 
on a share basis with the owner, Duke 
Burnell, and his situation is typical of 
that of hundreds of others shipping to 
the Milwaukee and Chicago markets 
from this county. 

The cows in the herd average about 
7,000 pounds milk per year, which is 
decidedly better than the average. The 
daily shipment of milk averages about 
72 gallons. Counting income from veal 
calves, the gross income of the farm 
is, in round numbers, $;>,000, with milk 
at the present price of $3.22 per cwt. 

I am not going to put down many 
of the petty items of expense in de- 
fail that Sam has to meet, hot will let 
[Cantimied on poft 1*. ] 



January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND KOME. 



11 



FARM EQUIPMENT OUTLOOK. 

[ContHtued from page 9.] 

cotton webbing used for the rim and 
split leather back and it has been sell- 
ing to the retail trade from $2.00 to 
$3.25. The facing used in this collar 
has advanced in the past two years 
from 9% cents per yard to 33V2 cents 
per yard. The rim webbing has ad- 
vanced from 2.5 cents per foot to "iVs 
cents per foot. Si)Iit leather has ad- 
vanced 200%. Because of the scarcity 
of grain leather, some of the foreign 
countries have been making use of the 
split leather for footwear. 

In summing up the actual condition, 
we can only say again, and urge the 
consumer who is going to need leath- 
er goods of any kind for his spring 
wants, to purchase at the earliest pos- 
sible moment. By so doing, he insures 
himself of a lower price and he will 
be sure and have the goods when he 
needs them. 



HEGHANIC&L HELP ON THE FARM. 

BT H, R. BRATE, 

Our farmers are going to be called 
upon to put forth a greater effort than 
ever before to supply food for our 
allies and ourselves, and while they 
responded splendidly this past year to 
the Government's call for a greater 
acreage and larger crops, a still 
larger production is the w-ord for 
1918. But the farmer has been, dur- 
ing the past year, and will be to a 
still greater extent during the coming 
year, handicapped by the lack of man- 
power. 

To overcome this he must look to 
mechanical help more than ever be- 
fore, and here is where the farm gas 
engine helps out. By using it to pump 
water, grind feed, fill silos, saw wood, 
run the cream separator, churn and 
washing machine, it will save at least 
the time of one man on the average 
farm, as well as help out the good 
wife. Moreover, it will enable him to 



"electricity on the farm" may pro- 
mote. 

Efficiency in farming is synonymous 
with electricity in farming and there 
are good reasons why every farmer 
should investigate the various electri- 
cally operated farming devices. We 
do not care to describe them or item- 
ize them as the various manufacturers 
have spent thousands of dollars in 
descriptive literature which is waiting 
to be sent out on request. Any plan, 
the adoption of which will lighten 
labor and increase profits, should be 
convincing, yet there seems to be a 
tendency to hesitate due to conditions. 

Conditions cry out, "improve your 
farm and attain the highest standard 
of efficiency possible." 

There are some manufacturers who 
do business on reasonable terms and 
who have a big business reputation. 
They have prepared, they can make 
deliveries for the coming year, they 
have spent their money in preparation 
for a demand which is bound to come 
because America is progressive and 
the American farmer is a long way 
from being the least progressive of 
its citizens. 



THE FUTURE OF THE MOTOR CAR. 

BY A I.. FISCH, 

After a most uneasy period, during 
which the Government at Washington 
finally made its' announcement of 
taxes on the automobile industry, and 
after a later period of even more in- 
tense anxiety regarding the possibility 
of securing sufficient materials for 
the automobile industry, we have 
gradually come out of the haze of un- 
certainty and hesitancy on to the solid 
ground of a reasonable assurance of a 
continuance of this industry to the 
great benefit of the nation, the auto- 
mobile industry and the automobile 
using public. 

The industry is absolutely safe for 
three prime reasons: 




Rnst destroys machinery faster than wear. Is the subscriber's equippment 
supply for 1918 safe? 



work longer hours as he can spend 
more hours in the field, the engine do- 
ing the work in the meantime. 

The engine manufacturers are plan- 
ning on building more engines than 
ever before, provided they can secure 
the materials. So far they have been 
able to secure a fair supply, but what 
the winter will bring forth we cannot 
at this time even guess. 

Another important matter is getting 
the engines into the hands of the 
users. Freight shipments are very 
slow and most uncertain. This condi- 
tion will undoubtedly not improve dur- 
ing the winter and orders should be 
placed just as soon as possible in or- 
der to insure having the engine when 
most needed 



ELECTRICAL DEVICES FOR THE FARM. 

BT B" W. THURSTON. 

Obviously the use of electrical de- 
vices necessitates some source of 
electricity, and we hope to show the 
importance (especially at this time) 
of electricity on the farm. There is 
no i)roduction of more vital importance 
today thai, farm produce, and any de- 
vice which will help increase such 
produce or even make it possible to 
obtain farm produce under better con- 
ditions should have the serious con- 
sideration of every farmer in this coun- 
try. It Is Quite easy to anticipate 
some difficulty in keeping farm help. 
Most farm employees Iioar the call of 
war and are just as anxious to re- 
spond as anyone else, and in order to 
encourage them to stay with a job 
(which as before stated is vitally im- 
portant to our success in war) every 
effort should bo made to make condi- 
tions on the farm as comfortable as 
possible. 

So much for any luxuries which 



1. The economic need of the 
motor car by the whole world, and es- 
pecially the farmer. 

2. The assurance of sufficient ma- 
terials to meet practically the entire 
demand for motor cars during the next 
year. 

3. The fact, now practically ac- 
knowledged by the Government, that 
they will never require the facilities 
the automobile industry can offer 
them in the production of war mate- 
rials. It has come to be known that 
40 per cent of the facilities controlled 
by the automobile industry would be 
sufficient to fill the orders for all 
classes of war materials needed by 
this Government in maintaining our 
war propaganda to its fullest limit. 
This leaves at the very worst 60 per 
cent of the industry's facilities at lib- 
erty to continue producing motor cars, 
but when you consider the tremen- 
dous facilities at hand in other 'fields, 
you will realize that a great deal more 
than 60 per cent will really be avail- 
able for motor car production, and 
this production will be necessary to 
meet the demand for cars in the com- 
ing year. 

You may know now that the Ford 
Motor Company has established a 
scliedule of production that will mean 
between 900,000 and 1,000,000 cars this 
year, and in no year of their past his- 
tory have they fallen down from their 
schedule, but rather exceeded it. 

The one black feature of the whole 
proposition will be the matter of trans- 
portation, but even there we have 
some hope of coming safely through 
by virtue of the active interest the 
Government seems to intend to take 
in the control and operation of our 
railroads. 

Not only to the 600,000 readers of 
Farm, Stock & Home, but to every 
farmer In this country — ^the big motor 




Somewhere in 



La5ring submarine cable, hun- 
dreds of miles of it, to scores of 
isolated lighthouses is one of the 
telephone tasks made necessary 
by the war. The Bell System has 
also built lines connecting some 
two hundred coast guard stations. 

It has built complete telephone 
systems for fifteen National Army 
cantonments and fifteen National 
Guard camps, each a city in size, 
and also at many naval, officer's 
reserve, mobilization and embar- 
kation camps and at army and navy 
stations. 

It has provided an enormous 
increase in long distance facilities 
throughout the country, that satis- 
factory service may be maintained 
between cantonments, training 
camps, guard outposts, military 
supply stations, war industries, the 
National Capital and other centers 
of Government activity. 

AMERICAN Telephone and Telegraph CompanV 

And Associated Companies 
One Policy One System Universal Service 



The Government facilities at the 
National Capital have already 
been increased three-fold and 
there heis been a tremendous in- 
crease in local and toll facilities. 

Fifteen thousand miles of tele- 
phone wire have been taken from 
other use for the exclusive service 
of the Government and some 
20,000 miles of telegraph facilities 
also provided. 

Meanwhile the Bell System has 
given generously of its man power, 
until over seven thousand men 
are in service or recruited for mili* 
tary duty. 

Members of the Bell System 
whether they have already gone 
to France or whether they have 
stayed at their posts to help mob- 
ilize the country for victory, are 
equally ia the service of the 
Nation. 





„ Concrete Hixet 

SHELDON Batch Mixer^ Price$nt°Vri 

Concrete saves lamber and Bteel for ships. A Sheldon Miier saves ^"■^ — B 



Concrete saves lumber and eteel for ships. A Sheldon Miier saves 
iabo- and gets the work done besides. Designed especially forthe i 
farmer. Highly praised by aaers. Farmers everywhere say it's S 
the ideal machine for them. Used now in every State and in a doz- 1 
en foreign countries. Small enough to move easily-big enough to 1 
keep SIX men busy. Lowest in price. Build yoorown feeding ^ 
floors, Bilos, tanks, troughs, foundations, cribs and buildings. 



Read What These 
Sheldon Owners Say 

I and m; hired man laid a feed- 
ins floor for my bogs, 24x24, in 
one day- also put floor tn my cow 
barn. My neighbor liked iteowelB 
1 am not able to keep it at bome>» 
Andrew Christeinskn, Hancock. 
Minn., lit. 1. 

We have ase^ the mSior darinir 

?a8t year for patting in cement 
Dundations for a complete Bet of 
farm builcJjnijrs.incladinfirailo.and 
like i t V cry m Mch —DamaWeigbt, 
Jamestown, N. D, 

Last year I boosrfit o cement 
mixer from you with vhlch 1 am 
well satiefiod. It drd not takolontr 
for it to pay for Ifaclf and I sorely 
can recommend it loan vono need- 
Jnsf a hf{f mixer at a email pricC" 
Wm. PAKKa, Martinson, 111. 

I am moro than buay with my 
Sheldon Cnncreta Dfli.-cer. Have 
more work than I can do. I (jet $10 
a day whcv. i ?yo*-fe Of C— JesSD Ii« 
WiTTEE, Wellavine, N. Y. 

The machine works fine. Have 
aVeady got the job of roixins con- 
crete for the bridsesiathis town* 

fhip'-JoHN Rosa, Spartaosborsa 
'eoDsylvania. 

Last eprfne we purchased of 
you a Bel of castlof^a to make a 
concreto mi xer.lt was construe ted 
per the plans furniahod and ft 
eurelif worked orcat'-\J, M. Bau- 
fiAKl^, b'C&GlfOVX, ill. 



) xnixer, 



Make your own concrete , 

Youcaa do it at a cost eo low you can not 
afford to mix concrete by the shovelmctbod. 
Along with our iron parts we eend Freo Plans and permit 
for making your own machine, A good way to get a practical 
mixer at a smoUexpense. Or, we vnU sell ~^ 
you tho complete machine, ready built. 

IX. you buy a £lieidou lilixerlor your own 
030, yea csa maico many times Its cost in a sca- 
Bon by rentiDS tt to your neighbors. Or, i Jyoa 
want to CO out wiJa tho mixer oa cor.tractg, 
you can easily earn S8 to $2D a day, t>ar cub- 
tomersaredoinir itri?bt now, Tho jo'oa ffo t» 
tho man with a Sheldon Mixer every time. 
Write For Our New FREE €at::los 
Shows OUT full line of mixera which aru soldHi- 
root to yon on Btronj? euaraotce. Jnirty days 
<nai privilece. No other like it. Patcnt-d. Two 
Btyles, band and power. Uiscs 2 1-2 cubic feet 
nmioute. One rmn can opera'.j it. but it will 
»ecp 2, 8, 4, 5 or ^ men boey. Continuous cbaia 
drivo. Tilbng-dump. Easily end quickly moved. 
All parta euaranteed. Does wort equal toS400 
mixers. Be eure to eettho catalog^. Write today. 



Iwanttotellyodaboatmyco-o-.er- i 
ativo plan by vbich yoa can j;et tny t 
time-tried, thoroaffhIyprovenShel- I 
don Batch CoDcrete Llixer at little : 
or no cost to you. I want ten men in 1 
every county to accept my Bpeciall 
co-operative oLer ritrht now. Aro I 
yon Eoinstobeoneof theten?Write 1 
aadeay: Send me epecial offer.'* i 



bachache out of concrete. Makes poss^- 
bletlioae many small improvements that 

„ — J. odd eo moch to the value of your land. 

SHELPOW MANUFACTUBIWG COMPANY, Box 714, Nehawlca, Neb. 



car argument is "practical efficiency." 
On that basis we sell approximately 
60 per cent of our production to the 
American farmers. 



Fenced Fields Increase Returns. — 

The farmers have the money and fenc- 
ing is a first necessity; for if the 
fields are properly fenced they yield 
better returns, particularly in view of 
the greater necessity for raising live- 
stock that now exists. — B. B. Ayers. 



— Provide proper protection against 
the weather for all farm implements. 

— Put in orders for new equipment 
ap'i repair parts as soon as p'^«8il)ie. 




Fence Book . Over 1 50 Sty les.l 43JPer Rod Up 
Gates-Steel Post,3-B;irb Wlrc. '''^ " ^ 



-. DIRECT FROM FAC~> ORV-FREIGHT PAID 

All heavfDOUHLE; GALVANIZED Wllll-.S. loO 
' per rod op. Get freo Koclc and Sample to teit* 
. THE BROWN FENCE & WIRE CO.. 
Dept. 19 - . CItveUnd, Oh(« 



"irs^Pounder Harrows First 

or you wri;e for r Hal,.,: a:.,l ,li» 
livery to yoti. G. 11. r<»unfl-r. 
Station 11 . Fort All n<;on. Wla. 

When wrltlngr to advertisers alw&ra 
mentuin Farm, Stock and Home. 




January 1, 1918. 



i y 
'i y 
iy 

1 fSjMMMlMMMSMtS^MMMMHIMjMMW^^ 



LIVE STOCK DEPARTMENT 

BY D. A. GAUMNITZ. 



THE 1918 LIVE STOCK OUTLOOK. 

[Continued fr >m, j>aoe 8.] 

ever before has known. We must get 
rid ot superfluities of all sorts. A 
horse that does not definitely and de- 
pendably flt into a productive use on 
the farm is as truly a luxury as a mil- 
lionairess poodle pup. We are under- 
going a kind of national and personal 
moult. Much of our property is as 
useless to us as old feathers are to a 
live Indian Game cockerel. The mis- 
fit horses which have long stood in 
the way of our developing a purely 
agricultural horse industry are an- 
cient, burdensome feathers In our ma- 
terial plumage. If we don't shed them, 
we shall be picked by the action of 
inexorable law, and enforced picking 
will hardly miss all the essential 
feathers that are rooted in blood and 
tissue. 

A widespread clearance, thru war 
and domestic slaughtering plants, of 
our economically unfit horses would 
increase and emphasize the necessity 
of breeding and taking good care of 
Tneavy horses in every agricultural re- 
gion. Our farmers have for years 
ov.'ned a surplus of horses, and yet 



than he can get out of five of the com- 
mon lightweights typical of the horse 
stock on most farms In this country. 
I have demonstrated this proposition 
to my own satisCac/ion and profit In 
southern Illinois, where, with some 
friends, I own 1,360 acres of agricul- 
tural land. 

Deeper plowing, and heavier but 
fewer loads are required of the horse- 
power on all well-managed farms. 
Agricultural implements and machines 
do their best work when powered by 
even-tempered, steady draft horses 
with weight and quality. We are sell- 
ing or practically giving away a dozen 
or more of the skinny, hell-raising 
little mares, and tricky, devilish, scrub 
geldings on our farm. We cannot af- 
ford to winter them for their poor 
and doubtful service in the fields next 
spring. The larger mares, averaging 
about 1,200 pounds, and the well- 
broken geldings, of the same weight, 
will be generously fed during the win- 
ter, and in the spring we shall breed 
the mares to a 2,000-pound pure-bred 
stallion of one of the draft breeds. If 
we had the capital to spare we should 
buy two teams of high-grade or pure- 
bred draft mares this winter or early 




Hay wortib 825 a ton ia sure worib protecting. 



they have been underhorsed. The 
small, high-strung horse for saddle or 
vehicle is an expensive luxury which 
no open-eyed farmer will or can afford 
to keep on a farm devoted to staple 
crop production. He can get more 
work, better work and more reliable 
work out of a team of real drafters 




ThcIMchHavor 

Gra^c=Nuts 

is due to the hknd" 
it^of malted barley 
wSh whole whcfii flotic 
Wheat alone does not 
possess this rich flavor 

The wonderfully casry 
digestion of Grc^eMuis 
is also partly due to 
the barley for the 
barley contains a 
(digestive which 

wheat lacks. 
"There's a ReasorT 



next spring, and so lay the foundation 
for a draft horse stud. Eventually we 
shall do so, anyway. We own a 10-20 
tractor, purchased at ?950 a year ago, 
and I have regretted a thousand times 
that we did not invest that money in 
draft mares or even in a span of big 
mules. The tractor has been unprofit- 
able, and a sore disappointment, due, 
in part, I cheerfully concede, to in- 
competent handling. We bought it 
not to displace but to supplement our 
horsepower. We wished to do deeper 
plowing, and more of it, and for this 
important work our light horses had 
been decidedly unsatisfactory. 

Any one of the draft breeds — Clydes- 
dale, Belgian, Shire, Percheron or Su£- 
£plk — is all right. The breed is not 
so important as the individual. As 
rapidly as possible we expect to get 
rid of small tiorsea on our farm, and 
to replace them with fewer but 
heavier animals, of draft breeding, 
•weighing 1,750 to 1,900 pounds. Draft 
mares will more than pay for them- 
selves with their first foals, and, be- 
sides, they will make reliable, efficient 
workers on the farm. There has never 
been a time so auspicious as the pres- 
ent in which to intensify, specialize 
and expand American draft horse 
breeding. Europe and other foreign 
countries will be in the market for 
American pure-bred draft stallions 
and mares after the war ends. More- 
over, at that time, and in the mean- 
time, our own farmers, having been 
forced to get rid of their surplus plugs 
and featherweights, and inspired by 
war prices for their crops and stock 
greatly to increase the production of 
both, will require to purchase thou- 
sands of heavy work horses. 

The man who grades up and adds 
bone-and-muRcle weight to his horse 
stock vvill inevitably share generously 
in the substantial rewards which pres- 
ent and future industrial and eco- 
nomic conditions and changes prac- 
tically guarantee to American breed- 
ers of draft horses in particular and 
all other clrisaeg of improved live 
stock In genoral. The community 
draft horse breeding plan is absolute- 
ly safe, sound and succeBsful. It 
works. A notable case in point ia the 
remarkable success achieved in a few 
years by farmers in TVJaware county, 
Ohio. There are doaens of similar 




Spreads wider than the wheels 
Drives through a six-ft. door 



THIS E-B Spreader lays a finely 
shredded blanket of fertilizer 
uniformly spreading outside 
the wheels. The E-B rear wheels 
run in track made by front wheels 
— easier on horses. AH wheels run 
on clean, unspread ground. Water 
tight bed holds liquid. Manure is 



6 



Tools of Prosperity 

m) riowfl 
(Kmcrson) Kogloe Plows 

icrsdn) llarroira 
Emerson) Danters 
E-U (EmcnoD) Grain Ddlll 
K-ll (Kmenian) taUI>*t«ca 
K-n (Rmrrsnn) Uflers 
K-H Potato Jlnchlnery - 
K-H (Standard) Uowers 
K-ll ll>j Toots 
E-K Haling Vnss 
E-U (Bmerson) Sprt^adsrs 
B-B (Rmerson) <lu KnglaM 
E-n (Newton) Wagons 
E-n (Emerson) Ba^slcs 
E-B (Emerton) Aoto Trallera 
E-B (llreTea) Thrtslicni 
E-R (Oelser and Peerloss) Threehfirn 
E-B (fielser) Saw mills 
E-B (BeeTPs usd Peerless) Stean 

Engines 
E-B 9-18 Kerosene Tractor 
E-B M-Sn Kerosene Tractor 
G-B (Rig Hoar) tO-ii Tractor 
E-B (ICeCTOs) 
Tractor 



beaten and shredded vvlth chisel 
pointed steel teeth and widespread* 
ing blades. 

Average heleht of box onl73 feet 5 Inches- 
easy to load. Welehs only 1800 pounds. 
Turns square corners— no whip to pole. 55 
to 70 bushels capacity. 

Whenever you need anvthins in farm ma- 
chinery, look for it under the E-B trade- 
mark. It shows the way to better, more 
profitable farming:. Ask your dealer for 
E-B Implement Company goods when you 
visit his store, or mention the machine la 
which you are interested and we will mail 
facts. Also field views and suggestions 
for use as prepared by the E-ii Agricul- 
tural Extension Department. 

Emerson-Brantingham 
Implement Co., Inc. 
Good Farm Macliinory Establishad 19SX 

Rockford, Illinois 





Your Problem —To Increase crops with decreased help. YourRemedy— E-BTractors andTractorlmpleiiienft 



Farmer's Favorite 




4 Inch 
Grain 
Drills 



This New Type 
Drill operates per- 
fectly under the most 
severe and exacting con- 
ditions to be found in any 
section of this country. Sows 
the grain in rows closer to- 
gether than has been custom- 
ary. The same amount of seed 
as sown with the wider spaced 
machine is distributed by this new 
type drill through more rows per acre, 
and thinner in the row, giving each seed 
more root room and a chance for a better stand. 

The discs are so closely spaced that a highly cultivattd seed bed is obtained with 
an almost total elimination of weeds. 

Double Run Force Grain Feed 

Positive force feed for both grain and fertiliza:. Very accurate; even distribufeion, 
no btmching. Has two seed channels or two feeds in one. Different sized seeds 
can be sown in wide range of quantities without injiory to the seed. The feed is 
one of the vital parts of a drill as on it depends the accurate sowing of the gnun. 

Large Stock of Machines and Repairs Carried at Minneapolis, Minm 
Ask your dealer for information on the special features combined in the new type 
Farmer's Favorite 4 inch Grain Drill or write va for descriptive pamphlet. 

The American Seeding- Machine Co., Inc. 

Springfield, Ohio 




T h is Mil I Lasts A Life^e 



Has no IniliTa or other parta to wear out. Ewrjrptrt atron^and ^U,™*Jl^^Kf 
capaelt;>— ceaultes amaO power. Data not beat the feed. Guaranteed to CM the 
wild oota. 

HOWELL J^o//e/' FPed Mills 

are the modem, sclent Iflc machines for RrlntllnR feed anfl ryo or p-.iliain Bour. 
Have corruaated Bteel rolls, same in u.'^etl lu tlio lurije flour ni lis. AOa to 
your pronta by crlndlng feed for your nelghbora. 12 itos — <xn\i eavocuu — 
a ii3B /or any mvine. 

FREE-^M"' romplnto luitnloit «nd Ih* Funoas Bollar Hill 
' I'uizlo. lA'nto for tliom tadaj. 

R.R.HOWELL & CO., 18 Malcolm Ave S.E.. Mlnneapolia. Minn. 



REPAIRS 



FOR ALL FUNRACES AND 

Send us Name and Number and wo will 
supply ilop.tira and Parts at small cost, 



STf^VES 



II 8, Third Street, U. S. STOVE REPAIR COMPANY, Nllnneapoiia, Minn. 



January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



13 



cases <rf constructive, deep-rooted 
progress in draft horse breeding in 
Amerira. Study them. Write to the 
McretarieB of the various diaft horse 
pedigree record associati<His. G«t the 
facts. 

The stallion enrollment organiza- 
tions, created by law, in a number of 
the leading horse-producing states, 
are doing invaluable work toward the 
elimination of scrub and unsound 
stallions doing public service. So, 
also, are the agricultural colleges, 
county agents, local associations and 
other modem instrumentalities of 
conservative, rational progress in ani- 
mal husbandry. Stockmen are getUag 
together. They must hang together 
or hang smgly. Community action, 
local or neighborhood co-operation, is 
the old-new idea for stockmen and 
farmers in America. Every factor in 
business, every sign in industry, every 
trade wind that blows at home and 
abroad in the new world born of the 
war, indicate, urge, demand, class co- 
operation and national co-ordination. 



FOR IMPROVED MARKETING GOSDITIOi33. 

BY Wal. MACGrVTTT, 

In a general way the territory sur- 
rounding the South St. Paul market is 
divided into two divisions. In one di- 
vision there is plenty of grass, but not 
much grain. In the other division di- 
versified farming is carried on, so that 
there is grass and grain. 

In the first division where there is 
a shortage of feed to finish livestock 
for slaughter, for lives lOck the farmer 
has principally daijy cows. In addi- 
tion to this it seems to me as tho 
he should carry some sows and ewes. 
He may not have feed enough to fin- 
ish hogs or to finish sheep for the 
market, but he will certainly be able 
to raise stock hogs and stock sheep, 
which should find a market in the sec- 
tions of the country where there is 
more feed. We have handled more 
stock hogs thru here in the last 
three weeks than I have ever seen 
since I have been in S. St. Paul. No 
doubt this is due to the shortage of 
feed in the districts where the hogs 
came from, and also to the fact that 
the pigs have brought an unusually 
high price this Fall. I see no reason, 
however, why the farmer in the north- 
ern part of the State who has not a 
corn crop to depend on every year, 
should not engage in producing stock 
pigs and stock sheep. 

For the farmers in the second divi- 
sion where there is corn and more 
grain, the matter of raising cattle, 
hogs and sheep, and finishing them. Is 
comparatively simple. So far as I 
am able to judge, livestock will bring 
a profitable return to the farmer for 
a good many years to come. I believe 
it will bring a more profitable return 
in 1918 than it has during the past 
year, because so many farmers in 
North Dakota and Montana have been 
obliged to market their cattle this 
year because of shortage of feed. Cer- 
tainly these men will want to re-stock 
their farms, and the farmer who has 
good breeding stock will find a ready 
outlet for his stock at a good price. 

The question of marketing livestock 
is one to which much attention should 
"be given. The Food Administration 
has started to install the zone system 
of marketing, and I understand has 
marie some progress in that direction 
at Chicago, Kansas City, and St. Jo- 
seph. It would undoubtedly benefit 
tbe producer very much if the stip- 
plleK could be distributed evenly over 
5 days in the week. That system 
would not only insure steadier mar- 
ket prices and less violent fluctuations, 
but would also enable the transporta- 
tion companies to give better service. 
I think any one who gives the matter 
serious consideration will agree with 
rae that it is unreasonable to expect 
a tranfiportatj'on company to maintain 
sufficient equipment to move vast 
quantities of livestock within the 
short space of eight or ten weeks in 
the Fall, when there is no use for 
that equipment during other months 
at the year. Stockyards facilities are 
severely over-taiEed by receipts on one 
day in the week, which are four times 
flie receipts on any other day in the 
week, and the service resulting by 
Kuch method.'! cannot be satisfactory to 
any one concerned in it. The matter 
dt arranging zones for shipments will 
undoubtedly be taken up with respect 
to the market at South St. Paul. I 
*" ' t the livestock shippers will 
' '• with the authorities to the 

hhij f/jji satisfaotwry results may be 
oUrtKfned thereby. 

This in an age of no-opcrative ship- 
fAoK. yatti wH a rly in the State of Min- 
WMota. "We find that tYn- rruithods 




/ 

CHAMPIOf I 




Heavy Stone few 
high powered cars 
$1.25 



IF YOU put your spark plugs 
in a vise and exerted all 
your strength to subject them 
to the greatest possible pressure 
you would expect the porcelain 
to crumble. 

Yet that's virtually what they 
must stand in your motor. 

As you get under way, the 
explosions in your cylinders be- 
come so rapid that the force 
they exert is practically con- 
tinuous. 

In Champion-Toledo Depend- 
able Spark Plugs the shoulders 
of the porcelain insulators are 
cushioned against this tremen- 
dous pressure. 



The two patented copper gas- 
kets that protect the porcelain 
where the pressure comes are 
lined with asbestos so that the 
metal cannot touch the porce- 
lain. 

That's one reason why Cham- 
pions are so much more durable 
and dependable than ordinary 
spark plugs. 

Get the Champion-Toledo 

Plug designed to serve your kind 
of motor (your dealer or garage 
man knows which one) and you 
have assured maximum efficiency 
and durability. 

Be sure that the name "Cham- 
pion" is on the porcelain — not 
merely on the box. 



Champion Spark Plug Company, Toledo, Ohio 



employed involve considerable waste 
of time and equipment at the market 
centers. Aside fi'om the hogs, each 
animal owned by a farmer in a co- 
operative shipment is weighed separ- 
ately at our scales. This is true, al- 
tho there may be two or three ani- 
mals in one shipment that are sold to 
the same buyer at the same price, and 
might be weighed in one draft were it 
not for the fact that one farmer will 
fill his animals just before shipping, 
and another one does not, so that the 
shrink of each man's animals is dif- 
ferent. 

The simplest way to remedy this 
would be for the Shipping Associa- 
tions to establish a rule with re- 
spect to the filling of animals in the 
country, and either have every one 
fill his cattle or not feed any of them 
at all before shipping. In that man- 
ner the shrink could be proportioned 
among the iifferent animals in the 
shipment, and much time and confu- 
sion saved at the market centers. 
Everybody at the market is interested 
in seeing the producer realize all pos- 
sible for his product. The producer 
should be interested in seeing that his 
product is marketed in the most eco- 
nomical way possible. This means 
that those at the market and those 
who are producing and marketing live- 
stock must work together. All the 
way along the line from the producer 
to the packing house our interests are 
mutual. We must understand each 
other and understand each other's 
problems, and we must try to help 
each other to obtain the best results. 
The production and marketing of live- 
stock is of particular importance at 
this point In the history of this coun- 



try. It is a vital question today more 
than ever. The problems that it pre- 
sents cannot be solved by independent 
action, and they cannot be solved by 
one party without regard to the inter- 
ests of the other party. Everybody 
who takes part in the producing or 
marketing of livestock should work 
together to the end that the greatest 
economy can be effected and the prof- 
its to the producer thereby increased. 



DRAFT HORSE PROSPECTS. 

BT WATNK DINSMORK. , 

Prospects for the draft horse future 
are very favorable. There has been a 
marked decrease in the number of 
mares bred in 1916 and 1917. The 
number of stallions in service has also 
decreased materially. Men have held 
on to old stallions and have delayed 
purchasing new ones, with the net re- 
sult that the number of pure-bred stal- 
lions available for service is now low- 
er proportionately than it has been 
for many years. 

The demand for horses for war pur- 
poses has been very great, and will 
continue as long as the war lasts. 
Furthermore, foreign nations have 
been practically stripped of available 
horses, and breeding has been cut 
down to a minimum, ^'his will mean 
that they will necessarily have to come 
to the United States to purchase work 
horses at the close of the war, and I 
anticipate that there will be a very 
heavy shipment of draft horses to Eu- 
ropean nations for the first three or 
four years after the war cFoses. Draft 
geldings are now selling in both Brit- 
ain and France for double the prices 




Get My Price 
FIRST 



>ECAUSE o£ the 
k hisrh prices gener- 
ally prevailingryou 
ouerht to get »iy price. 
You can buy direct from our 
factory at thelowest cost. But 
that isn't all. The Monmouth 
Disc is easier on your horses. 
Makes a better seedbed tor larger 
crops, turna aroond as easy as a plow, cuts 
sods and clods and tuma trash under. 

MonmouthTongueless 

Guaranteed for Five Yeart 

Blades are made of high carbon steel. Ad- 
justable scrapers, hard maple bearings, hard 
oilers and transport trucks if you want 
them. We also make complete line of Trac- 
tor Discs. Free trial for 30 days. Retam it at onr 
expsnse if not satisfied and we will pay freight botli 
ways. Send a postal card for full details on faxm 
tools and Bopplies. Get my 
big Free Book and low 
money-saving prices now. 
Ask the Flow Man with 

Monmouth Plow 
Factory 
230 S. Main Street 
Moomoutfa, lU. 



Complete 




Qaick 
Shipments 
from Monmouth, 
KansuCitjr.Omaha.FirfO 



CreaLin CreeLin CreaLin 

Your cans and dicck returned at onoe. 
Write lor qiio'iitions and tmrs. 
MINNESOTA MILK * BUTTER COMPANV, 
293e Nlcollot Avenuo, MInncalpoU, Minn 



14 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



realized for them hero. If cargo space 
were available, exports of these horses 
would be progressing at a very rapid 
rate now, but this is impossible under 
existing shipping conditions. 

Experience has shown conclusively 
that tractors and trucks supplement 
but do not materially displace horses 
in either city or farm work. Breeders 
of pure-bred horses generally realize 
that the future must be favorable, and 
are holding on to their good horses, 
but men who are not well informed 
and who do not look far into the fu- 
ture are very often found to be ex- 
tremely pessimistic in regard to the 
outlook. There is no justification for 
such an attitude. All mares that are 
Gound and of good conformation, 
weighing over 1,300 pounds, should be 
bred to the best available heavy draft 
stallions. Special care should be ex- 



ably a question that a large number of 
livestock feeders are wondering. They 
may have finished several hundred or 
perhaps thousands of cattle for the 
market during their career, but as a 
matter of curiosity wonder how they 
are made to land the highest award at 
the big show so that some day they 
may try for the stellar honors. 

Merry Monarch, a pure bred Short- 
horn steer, was the winner oP this 
prize at the recent International. It 
was bred and fed and exhibited by the 
Purdue University at Lafayette, Ind. 
Practically two years covered the 
feeding period of this steer. 

It was dropped in pasture in June, 
1915, and allowed to run with its dam 
until snow came. At no time did It 
have a nurse cow to help it or receive 
other feed outside of that furnished 




fCushman 
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for U.Si Government 

Bought by the War Depart- 
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caused thousands of American farmers 
tochoose Cushman Engines for their own work. 



CUSHMAN 'ifrpu^lt' EN&INES 



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4 H. P. weighs only 130 pounds. Bcsidesdo 
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Cushman Holors ere eqvifppod with Throttle 
Governor, Sclieblcr Carbi-rctor and Friction 
Clutch I'ulley. Sizea np to 20U. P. 
Before you buy any engine, ank how much it 
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11 ■ ■ IB IB IT'm ■ ■ ff 



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or 

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m pick up on 8 H P. 
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Standard Lad 4tti, winner ot five prizes, 

ercised to avoid breeding them to 
stallions that are in any particular 
unsound, for unsound horses have sold 
at a discount of at least 25 to 40 per 
cent during the last three years. 

The men who hold fast to their 
good horses and keep on breeding 
good mares will reap a rich harvest 
four or five years from now, while the 
men who discontinue breeding now 
will pay dearly for the work animals 
which they must have in due time. 



AT THE INTERNATIONAL. 

BY JOSEPH M. CABBOIjI.- 

Percheron Breeders Hooverlze. 

The first annual dinner of the Perch- 
eron horse breeders was held in Chi- 
cago during the week of the Interna- 
tional Live Stock exposition. It was 
given more as a get-together meeting 
to allow members to get acquainted 
with men in the same business from 
other parts of the country. They had 
a large crowd at the dinner and the 
object of the meeting was well met. 

Besides the "Hooverized" dinner 
that was served the guests were enter- 
tained by speakers of prominence in 
livestock and general farming affairs. 
It was a truly horse breeders' meet- 
ing. The good features of the modern 
draft horse for farm work were point- 
ed out, while the movies, showing the 
breed, give a good idea of the hard 
work expected of the horses in the 
warfare of the present day. 

A very interesting talk was deliv- 
ered by Duncan Marshall, minister of 
agriculture. Province of Alberta, Can- 
ada. He spoke on livestock conditions 
in general and mixed patriotism with 
his appeal for more livestock and 
grains in his country and in the Unit- 
ed States. 

Eugene Davenport, dean of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture at the University 
of Illinois, spoke on the food situa- 
tion, he being a member of the food 
odministration of tl^e state. His idea 
was to grow more grain for human 
consumption and less for animals. He 
urged shipping cattle in a thinner state 
to conserve gain that could be used 
to feed the soldiers and civilians. lie 
pointed out that only one-tenth of the 
cultivated area in Illinois is devoted to 
growing food for humans and a slight 
change would relieve the situation 
greatly. He is to make an appeal to 
the farmers of the state next spring 
asking each to put in a little wheat 
where they never tried it before. Ho 
Bald if this was practiced on a gen- 
eral seal© the wheat situation would 
soon be relieved and this country and 
the allies would be able to secure all 
the breadstuffs they need during the 
time of the war. 

Feeding a Champion Steer. 

How was the grand champion ste<^r 
of th6 International fed? This Is prob- 



by the mother. The first winter saw 
him in a box stall eating corn silage 
and clover hay and receiving a ration 
of cracked corn, ground oats and a lit- 
tle cooked rye. The following summer 
he was run on a blue grass pasture 
and received the same ration. A little 
oil meal was added at this time. This 
ration was continued until about six 
weeks before the close of the feeding 
period. 

About January 1, 1917, the grain ra- 
tion was gradually increased. He was 



Easu foMave From Job to JoI» 

- ^ 



pounds per month during the last six 
months of feeding. Once on feed he 
was never off. 

Carlot Cattle. 
The grand championship in the car- 
load cattle class at the International 
Live Stock exposition was again won 
by E. P. Hall, of Mechanicsburg, 111., 
being his fourth time at winning the 
highest honor to be bestowed upon 
beefmakers in this country. This 
number of winnings has earned for 
him the title of master feeder. A 




Lucy, grade Shorthorn, brst prize junior yearling, grade or cross bred. 



fed twice daily until June 1 and from 
that time on received three feeds 
daily consisting of cracked corn, 
ground oats and a little cooked barley. 
About September 1 cooked rye was 
fed in the evening and the amount of 
corn was gradually decreased. During 
the last six weeks of the feeding term 
his ration was six to eight pounds of 
cracked corn, three to five pounds of 
ground oats, a little cooked rye and 
about ten pounds of good corn silage 
in two feeds and a little clover hay 
once a day. The gains on this steer 
were gradual, ranging from 40 to 60 



great many feeders probably wonder 
how he does it. When at the Inter- 
national with his cattle at the recent 
show, he talked shop for a while with 
the writer and told of his workings in 
preparing the champions for the show 
ring. 

Each year he visits the leading An- 
gus breeders of the country and picks 
out the finest calves he is able to 
obtain. As soon as they are weened, 
they are sent to his farm and as soon 
as possible are started on food. He 
owes much of his success as a prize 
winning feeder to the co-operation of 



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January 1, mS. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



16 



the Angus niMi who let him have some 
of their best animals each year to 
make ap bis ^bibition lot. 

Calves From the Com Belt. 

The calves shown at the 1917 exhi- 
bition were secured in Oefcober, 1916, 
from breeders in Illinois, Iowa and 
Missouri. They were started on a 
small feed of corn, oats and clover 
hay. gradually working them on to full 
feed of €orn and oats, the latter grain 
forming about one-third of the ration. 
This feed lasted over the winter. In 
April, when the giass was ready, the 
oats were discontinued and they were 
fed com on grass with cottonseed 
meal, gradually increasing the latter 
until the calves were getting about 
two pounds lier day. On July first he 
started giving molasses feed and kept 
increasing until they were getting two 
feeds of this feed per day. This ra- 
tion was continued until the end of 
the feeding period. 

He had a patch of sorghum, and as 
soon as it was ready for feeding it 
was given to the cslves. After frost 
came they were given all the clover 
hay they would eat. On September 
1 he supplemented the com, cotton- 
seed meal and molasses meal with 
ground barley, it making up about one- 
fourth of the ration. The calves were 
given all the commercial feed they 
would eat, all the corn they cared for 
at all times. 

Iowa Baby Beef Cluh. 

One of the outstanding features at 
the International Live Stock exposi- 
tion was the cattle fed and exhibited 
by the Iowa Baby Beef club members. 
There were twenty-one cattle in the 
exhibition and each was handled by a 
boy or girl belonging to the club. This 
was the second year of the boys' and 
girls' feeding feature at the shov.' and 
the number shown at the latest exhi- 
bition was more than twice as large as 
the previous year. This work is in 
charge of Prof. E. C. Bishop, state club 
leader^ and the exhibition at Chicago 
was in charge of R. W. Berry, an as- 
sistant in the agricultural extension 
department at Ames. 

The twenty-one steers were judged 
on the opening day of the show and 
final results were based upon the 
amount of gain, economy of gain and 
records and reports on the feeding. 
Thirty-three prizes were offered at 
Chicago, totaling $1,230. 

First prize was carried off by Clif- 
ford Tague. of Kirkland, Iowa, with 
his jtmior yearling, a grade shorthorn 
steer. This young cattle' fe€?der won 
first prize in the boys' special judging 
contest held at the recent Iowa state 
fair. The steer was on feed 338 days, 
the final weight being 1,1.50 pounds, 
showing a tain of 620 for the period, 
or an averase of 1.83 per day. The 
steer was fed molasses meal, ground 
corn, ground oats, bran, oil meal and 
alfalfa. 

Boy feeders carried off the eight 
high pJaces while ninth position was 
landed by Jenny Turner, with a pure 
bred Angus steer. There were not 
many- girls in the contest, but they 
made relativa good showings in their 
work. 

One hundred and twenty-five mem- 
bers of the club, including ten girls, 
made the trip to Chicago, part of 
them as guests of the management as 
a reward for winning county cham- 
pionships, while others were sent as 
guests of Chicago livestock institu- 
tions, the Iowa Beef Producers' asso- 
ciation and other organizations in the 
state. While at the show the young 
people v/ere kept busy at all times. 
When not looking around at the many 
exhibits, they were taking part in spe- 
cial livestock judging contests man- 
aged by Wr. Berry. The latter man, 
in charge of the young people, was 
very enthu iastic about them. He 
said they w >rc very much interested 
in live*tock work and says that around 
500 cattle are now being fed for next 
year's show. During the year, ex- 
hibits .were made at the Iowa state 
fair and the Sioux City show. Part of 
the cattle were sold for slaughter at 
the latter showings, while some were 
carried: along and awarded prizes kt 
Chicago, 

The showing of livestock by the boys 
and plrlB brouc;ht out points on the 
pood work that is being done along 
these lines by the men in charge of 
the work in Iowa. During the year 
ten state-wide projects were carried 
out by the agricultural department 
thru cJnb work. The Iowa Beef Pro- 
dncerw* association co-operated in the 
promotJoi oS' this work. During this 
period, 2^>7 calves were fed by 247 
Diemberr;. Tnoy were fed an average 
of 294 iL-yK. They started with a to- 
tal intti ;1 wf;i9:ht of 106,9RS pounds 
and fini v/ith a total final weight 
of 2.18,2/,r>, a total gain of 131,301 



pounds. The average initial weight 
was 401 pounds and the average final 
weight was 892 pounds, making an 
average gain of 491 pounds. The av- 
erage daily gain per calf was 1.67 
pounds per head. Placing the initial 
cost at $8 per hundred pounds and the 
final value at $13 per hundred, the 267 
calves had an initial value of $8,559.04 
and a final value of $33,360.46, or an 
average value of $32.08 and $124.96, 
respectively. The total cost of feed- 
ing was $15,292,228, or an average of 
$57.27. The total net profit was 
$9,509.14, or $35.72 per head. 

Of the 267 calves entered there 
were 29 bure breds, 169 grades and 69 
cross bred. One hundred and ninety- 
eight were steers and 69 heifers. 
There were 16 pure bred and 90 grade 
Shorthorn calves, 7 pure bred and 29 
grade Angus, 6 pure bred and 39 grade 
Herefords, 5 grade Polled Durhams, 3 
grade Red Polled and 1 grade Guern- 
sey. Of the mixed breeds there were 
42 Shorthorn-Herefords, 19 Shorthorn 
Angus, 1 Shorthorn-Galloway, and 7 
Hereford-Polled Durhams. 

Including the prizes won at the Iowa 
shows along with the winnings at the 
International and the value of the 
trips, the members won a total of 
about $3,500 in prizes. The awards 
have made the work attractive for the 
boys and girls, and during their period 
they have learned a vast store of 
knowledge about livestock feeding- 
This is demonstrated that a larger 
number than ever before is being fed 
now. Taking everything into consid- 
eration, the boys and girls have made 
rather good profits on each steer or 
heifer fed, when the average of the 
entire body is figured. 

Members of this club handle corn, 
cattle and pigs but at the International 
considerable time was spent in looking 
over and judging sheep, and there is a 
strong possibility of adding the fleeced 
specie to the work of the club to make 
it complete. The International Live 
Stock exposition was called the "Na- 
tion's food training camp," because of 
the great training for livestock feeders 
and breeders, and this being the case 
the boys and girls at the show well 
deserve the name of the reserves that 
are carried by every well regulated 
army. They are the future livestock 
feeders of this country, and all the 
knowledge gained now goes to make 
them better adapted for the work they 
undoubtedly will follow. 

[Vnntinued on page 27] 



OPPO RTU N ITY^ FOR^SALE 

The Bast Located and Equipped Dairy Farm and Plant In the State of Iowa j 

On account of the enormous increase in t!.j Canadian bueiness of The William 
Galloway Company, -which from now on will require more or lesa of William Galioway'a 

SerBonul time at Winnipeg, we will offer at private Bale our 210 acre dairy farm located 
etween Waterloo and Cedar Falls. Farm is equipped down to the very last detail with 
very best dairy and pure bred stock broedint? equipment includins; fire-proof tile and 
cement bam, creamery, and two 200- ton silos filled with silage, manure pit, litter carriers, 
and everything necessary to produce certified miUc New modern horse bam ami two 
line modem farm dwellings. Bams and houses equipped with every city convenience, 
including electricity, running water, sewage, etc. Many out buildinfra, including modem 
granary, hog, chicken, tool and implement houses. Farm fenced hog tipht except 
eixty acres. Total impi-ovcments new and cost over $'!0,COO five years arro, which would 
cost 30 to 50% more now. Every foot of the farm tiled and in high state of cultivation 
and fertility. Positive money-maker for right man. An opportunity for the city maa 
who wants one of the best dairy f r.rma in Iowa, or for business farmer with large family. 
Milk route brings in gross cash revenue of $10,000 to$12,CnO a year, and cannot supply tha 
demand at 1-5 cents a quart, which business ^^oea to the farm buyer uninterrupted, 
including good v;ill. 

Farm located only % of a mile from pavement of city of Waterloo.'population 36,000, 
one of Iowa's best and most progressive industrial cities, and only three miles from city 
limits of Cedar Falls, a town of 8,CG0 people, with rare college advantages, on main road 
between these two towns, which location guarantees a constant increase and investment 
value. Not a cheap farm but worth every dollar and more than we aslc V/ill bear tha 
very closest investigation as an investment and money-makin.'? dairy proposition, Fana 
famous for the many blue and purple ribbons won by its Holstein and Ayrshire herds. 

Will make good terms ta risht party, but do not answer this ad unless you mean 
business and have money enough to swing a deal of this kind. 

Very picturesque and beautiful location ; fine oak trees, and beautiful shaded back« 
eround, ideally landscaped. Also good orchc^rd. 

A nationally advertised breeding business and dairy farm like this is a rare oppor* 
tunity for tho right man, SO don' t delay answering this ad if you are in the market for a 
proposition of this kind. 

0alloway-Messer Farms, Box ess. WaterioOy Iowa 



«<-^^^OU'LL get more and better^ 



relieve S'^res. Made of 
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Collar and Harness Booklet, 
also Tool Booklet. Address ' 

Kelley-How» 
Thomson Co. 
Duluth, Minnesota 



work out of your horses if 
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Collars.They fit right. 
thuseliminatingusU' 
al shoulder troub- 
les, and actually 



PerfecJ 



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When writing to advertisers do not forget to mention Farm, 
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14m 



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There are fourteen H-L-F Silos in use at 
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16 



PAPvM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



TEN CENT MILK FOR THE FARMER? 

{Continued from page 10.1 
$500 cover that, altho I am sure the 
ligure is too small. Herewith are the 
larger figures: 

Interest on investment of land 

and cattle $1,500 

Interest and depreciation on ma- 
chinery 500 

Cost of horse labor 500 

50 tons of hay 1,000 

80 tons of wet malt 800 

ICO tons of silage 1,280 

4 tons concentrates 224 

20 tons of oats 800 

Labor 700 

Lossi's thru disease and accident 500 

Taxes 200 

Miscellaneous 500 



$8,504 

You who are doing farming of any 
kind know to what extent the farmer 
is dependent upon weather and cli- 
mate, and upon the element of luck 
generally, by factors of all kinds be- 
yond his control. You know that the 
farmer who figures his operations upon 
a close margin like six or seven per 
cent would, in nine cases out of 
ten, fail to make even two or three 
per cent. Farming requires a gener- 
ous sinking margin. 

A careful study of Sam Williams' 
figures will convince you that they are 
understated and conservative. Actu- 
ally, his expenses are perhaps $500 
higher than shown in the table, but 
assuming that his gross expenses are 
$8,500, he has an income of about 
513%. After he has divided with his 
landlord, there is very little left with 
which to meet personal expenses. 

In order to insure both Mr. Wil- 
liams and Burnell a profit of 10% on 
the investment of the farm, the price 
of milk would have to be between 9 
and 10 cents a quart. As this is a 
farm where the management is ex- 
ceptionally good, where plenty of capi- 
tal is available to farm most economi- 
cally, and where a high grade herd is 
maintained, it is obvious that there are 
many dairymen who could not produce 
milk nearly so cheaply. 

Expensive Equipment Demanded by 
Consumers. 

The figures I have been quoting 
apply to Waukesha county, Wiscon- 
sin, and I believe Waukesha county 
is typical of the great market milk 
production centers. Being right at the 
door of the Milwaukee and Chicago 
markets, the dairy farmers have found 
it to their advantage to specialize in 
wholesale milk. Inspectors from the 
big cities come constantly to the farm, 
and these inspectors require a rigid ad- 
herence to sanitary rules. They re- 
quire the cementing of barns, the con- 
struction of dairy houses, the prompt 
disposal of manure, and a dozen other 
things that are expensive in money 
and labor. 

Farms Heavily Stocked with Cows. 

I am willing to grant that in such a 
congested dairy district as this, that 
the cost of production is higher than 
the ordinary farmer should think nec- 
essary, but such is the case. Because 
of the great demand for milk, most of 
the dairy farmers have stocked up 
heavily with cows, buying annually 
huge quantities of feed. If the price 
of milk is too low, these farmers will 
be forced to reduce their operations, 
cut down the amount of their order, 
and cause the milk distributors to look 
elsewhere for milk. As soon as milk is 
shipped from more outlying districts, 
the cheese factories and creameries 
suffer, at once increasing the price of 
cheese and butter. All phases of the 
dairy Industry are so interlocked that 
If one suffers all will respond in sym- 
pathy. 

Therefore the demand of the milk 
Bhippers that the price of milk be put 
high enough to enable the dairyman 
to buy his feed on the open market is 
Just. 

Cost of Production Under Less 
Expense. 

Tn Rock county, Wisconsin, the dairy 
Industry has not been placed on such 
a highly specialized footing as in 
WaukeHha. There is every reason 
why milk could bo produced a frac- 
tion more cheaply. Htill, the spokes- 
man of the Rock county dairymen at 
the government milk price inquiry, de- 
clared under oath that It cost them 
fli.otit $3.60 per cwt. to produce milk. 
' is obvious that It these dairymen 



do not get more than the present 
$3.22 per cwt. for the rest of the win- 
ter, that they will reduce milk pro- 
duction to the lowest possible point. 

As long as the dairymen demand ten 
cents or less per quart, the consuming 
public and those who have in charge 
the fixing of milk prices must not ac- 
cuse them of being unpatriotic extor- 
tionists. That the price will be fixed 
at ten cents for the Chicago market 
is very improbable, for the commis- 
sioners will hardly have the courage to 
do this at one step. If a price of 
$4.00 per cwt. is fixed (eight cents) 
the dairymen will receive enough so 
that Tie can hold on for the time be- 
ing, but it goes without saying that 
unless the price of feed can be in some 
way reduced, and the government can 
in some way insure a more liberal 
supply of efficient labor, that milk will 
pass the ten cent mark before the 
close of the war. 



CALVES ON A REDUCED GRAIN RATION. 

BT PAVTL H. EATON. 

The necessity for including high- 
priced grain in the winter ration of 
dairy calves will, no doubt, be ques- 
tioned by many feeders this winter. 
Some will reach the hasty conclusion 
that grain is entirely too costly to feed 
to growing calves, and will endeavor 
to winter them thru on roughage alone. 
Others, who are acrustomcd to feeding 
an abundance of grain will go ahead 
with a full ration, or possibly one in 
which the grain content is entirely 
too heavy for the individual calf's ac- 
tual needs. In neither case is the so- 
lution satisfactory nor economical. 

To Feed or Not to Feed? 

In the past we have found that by 
weaning time the ordinary calf ration 
should include from two to three 
pounds of grain per day. Many feed- 
ers, no doubt, allow approximately this 
amount of grain without consideration 
for the requirements of the individual 
calf so long as it eats the grain up 
clean at each feeding. Now, this win- 
ter with the high cost of all kinds of 
grain to be taken into consideration, 
we are suddenly confronted with the 
question of whether we can decrease 
the daily allowance of grain, If not 
leave it out entirely, without material- 
ly injuring the future development of 
the dairy calves. 

There are a number of things that 
must be taken into consideration when 
answering this question. For the most 
part it is going to be largely a problem 
for the individual dairyman to solve 
according to his best judgment. How- 
ever, there are some suggestions that 
may prove helpful in determining the 
grain ration. 

The Calf Is Mother to the Cow. 

In the first place, to develop a heifer 
calf into a first-class dairy cow, she 
must be kept in a thrifty, healthy, 
growing condition. Stunt a heifer in 
her early period of development and 
she will. In most cases, carry the ef- 
fect of it thru the rest of her life, so 
that it will be reflected in her milk 
yield. It is essential then that her 
daily ration supply the required nutri- 
tive elements, largely protein in na- 
ture, to keep her constantly in a stage 
of advancement and growth. Some 
calves will maintain a thrifty growing 
condition on a ration that would prove 
insufficient for others. Just how much 
the grain ration may be decreased 
without injuring the individual calf, 
then, must be determined by the feed- 
er only by study of the individual ani- 
mal. Where three pounds or more of 
grain per day has been given, it would 
be unwise, indeed, to suddenly de- 
crease the quantity by any consider- 
able amount, but the decrease should 
be attempted gradually until it has 
been reduced the desired amount, say 
half. For best results probably the 
grain allowance should not be less 
than one and a half pounds per day, 
tho in some instances it might be 
found that one pound of grain is suf- 
ficient if accompanied by plenty of 
good roughage. 

When undertaking a decrease in the 
grain ration, not only tho general ap- 
pearance of the calf should be taken 
into consideration but the stock scales 
should be consulted every few days 
to enable tho feeder to notice any fall- 
ing off in weight. An accurate record 
of the weights of each individual calf 



One Man Alone Pulls 
Big Stumps 




With the M ighty 

ONE-MAN Stump Puller 

Here's the Puller that you and thousands of others have long been waiting for. Ten 
thousand now in use. Letters from everywhere tell of sensational results. Pronounced a big 
success by Government Officials. University Experts and Land Clearing Contractors. Pulls 
ordinary run of stumps or trees out of the soil so easy— it's almost play. 

One man can clear an acre a day— costs about 4c a stump. Think of clearing land so 
cheaply. Think of pulling all your stumps by hand— rand alone — no horses or extra help re- 
quired—a stump every 3 or 4 minutes. It's true, every word of it. 

The Kirstin Is 



The Quick^ Cheapy Easy 
to Ciear^ Your Land 



No other stomp poller la so economical to bay or bo 
easy to operate. Just a few pounds pull on the han- 
dle means tons on tho Btump. When Ftump starts, 
throw machineinto higrh speed and out comes the big- 
geat Btump, roots and all. 

The Kirstin Pullers are remarkably easy to get into 
the field and easy to handle among tho stumps, too. 
They do the work— whcro hoi-scs can't go. They do 
it cheap and stand op under bard usaeo, under all 
condKlona. 

Get all the FACTS, team about our Liberal Olfer 
—our Actual 30 Days' Fres Trial— 3 Years' Guar* 
antee, etc. 

30 Days' Free Trial 

We call this an Actual 30 Days' Free Trial, beeaoae 
no matter when you order or when your Puller arrives, 
yoa can actually uso it for 30 dsys before yoo de- 
cide to keep it. 

If the Puller doesn't please yoa in every way— if it 
doesn't do the work satisfactorily and economically — 
it can be returned at our expense and every cent of 
your money will be refunded. In additioa to tbis 
wonderful free trial offer me give yoo 

4 Easy Ways to Pay 

If you like yoa can order on a flo-Money-ln-Ad* 
vance Plan— Pay Cash and get discount— S10.00 
Deposit Plan — or on Che Installment Plan, which 
gives yen 6 months TO PAY. No other offers so 
Sberal. 

Now send for Free Book and read about tho won- 
derfol EIBSTIN Poller with the Single, Double, 



Tripio Power Faaturac. Any man vroold rather have 
a KIRSTIN with its money-savini? and time-saving 
Boperiorities, than an ordinary puller. Get our Spe- 
cial Low Prices, Terms, etc., without delay. 

3 Years' Guarantee 
Flaw or No Flaw 

We guarantee perfect catisfaction ormone; will be 
refunded, according to our 80 Day Free Trial Offer. 
We further guarantee to replace f roo of charge any 
casting that may break— flaw or no flaw)— within 8 
years. The big, strong Kirstin organization is be- 
hind the guarantee. Send for copy. 

Get This Book FREE 

Read how farmers make {240.00 
net profits on one acre, the first 
year. How others make $300 to 
$500 from a few acres of newly 
cleared land. Increases of 50 to 
100 per cent land valuation 
are not unusual. The book is 
filled with letters telling eU 
about it. 

Book also gives full par- 
ticulars of Kirstin Pres. 
Land Clearing Service — i 

worth many dollars to any f 
farmer. Contains pictiu-es 
and describes all sizes end 
types of Kirstin E^llers — One- 
Man and Horse-Power Pullers— from 
$50.00 and up. Get it NOW. Send letter or postal. 




A. J. KIRSTIN COMPANY, 505 Ludington Street, Escanaba, Mich. 



Model "A" 
8-16 S^S 



Model "B" 
12-24 $975 



TURNS IN ITS TRACKS. 

Hither drive wheel pivots. 
Self-guiding in the furrow 



GET ALL THE POWER 
. FROM KEROSENE 

The La Crosse Happy Farmer Tractor bnros kero- 
sene without waste. Patented short intake with 
exhaust passing thru it, perfectly vaporizes the fuel 
charge. Beenlt — full power — no carbon deposit. Uses 
lubricating oil three times. 

SIMPLE DESION— 88^ ol wvlflhl on 2 drive wheals. Here's ' 

extreme light weight with big power and hi^h quality 
construction, the kind you want for all 'round farm work. 
Write for full description, Dept. 22. 

LA CROSSE TRACTOR CO., LA CROSSE, WIS. 

We bave a distributor near you for prompt service. 



The Perfect Kerosene Burner 



When writing to advertisers do not forget to mention Farm, 
Stock and Home. It will do you and the advertiser good. 



FREE INSURANCE 

Against Cyclones^ 



You pay notliinf? extra for 
^ tho cyclone-proof guaranty 
that goes with every 

KaymonD 

—a licuaranty that binds us to replace, free of 
charge, any parts broken in any windatorm. 
The automatio wind control feature of tho 
Uayniond enables us to make that guaranty. 
LantH twico as long us steel inill.s. 

Write for useful windmill book FREE. 

LINDSAY BROS., Dept. a, Minneapolis, Minn. 

H. W. Dldtlbulore loi AllhoiiN-Whulct Co., Mlii. 




GRADE YOUR CORN 



Improve Quality and Increase 
Yield 25 to 60 Percent. 

Hero 

Corn Grader 

Writo at on CO for Free 
Trial Offer and Caialug. 

TWIN CITY 
.SEPAKATOH CO., 

2«01 Colfax Ave. S. 
AIlnuoapollB, Minn. 




January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



17 



should be kept if such has not already 
been the practice. 

It will undoubtedly prove less expen- 
sive to continue the feeding of skim 
milk over a longer period than is 
visually practiced. In place of wean- 
ing at the age of two to three months, 
the milk ration may be continued to 
from four to six months. The calf will 
thrive better on the milk end will be 
in better condition to carry thru the 
■winter. Wlien the milk is discon- 
tinued, some grain must be substituted 
to take its place. 

Gains Should Be Steady. 

The normal effect of feeding too 
heavy a ration of grain is to produce 
an over-abundance of fat at a loss. 
Calves wintered thru with abnormally 
heavy gains will make lighter gains 
when turned upon green grass in the 
spring. Where the gain is constant 
but normal, the calf is in perfect con- 
dition to make steady, rapid gains 
•when turned upon the green grass 
pasture in the spring. Eating plenty 
of good roughage tends to develop the 
digestive capacity of the calf. This 
should be encouraged by feeding good 
bright hay. Clover or mixed hay and 
alfalfa are best. Corn ensilage is ex- 
cellent. 

Whatever decrease may be made in 
the grain ration should be undertaken 
with great care so that the individual 
calf may continue in a vigorous grow- 
ing condition. When spring grass 
comes, its development and increase 
in weight will be rapid. If it has 
been stunted during the winter, it will 
respond more slowly. The exercise of 
good judgment and a careful study of 
each individual calf will undoubtedly 
result in a noticeable reduction in the 
feed bill this winter, while final re- 
sults in producing first-class dairy 
stock will remain unchanged. 



ONEYEAR'^^ 

TO PAY 



^ ^^^^ Buys the New Butterfly £ 
^■V^B Junior No. 2. Light ran- 

■B ^F^fl nine:, easy cleaning, close 
~ Bkimminer, dorable. Cuaran- 

* teed a lifetime against de- 

fects in material and workmanship. 
Hade also in five larger sizes op to No. 8 ' 

, M DAYS HIEE THlAL more by nhat It saves 
In cream. Poatalbrin»9Fr6ecatalo8r-foIder»nd*'dIrect-froiE- 
factory" offer. Buy from the manaf acturer and aavc money. 

»LB>IICH-tKtTCH CO., 2120 Mafshall Blvd.. CHIC*GO 




,9S 

Upward 



Jhne^ica/rt. 

CREAM 

SEPARATOR 



On TriaL Easy running, eaeily 
cleaned. Skims warm or cold 
milk. Whether dairy is large or 
small, get handsome catalogs 
and easy monthly payment offer. Address 
AMEIUCAN SEPARATOR CO., Box 5071, Baiobridge, N.T. 



KITSELMAN FENCED 



HORSE-HICH, eULL. 

STRONG, PIC-TICHT. 

Made ot Open Hearth wire 
heavily galvanized— aetrons 
durable, long:-la.stlng, ni^t-re- 
j slstlngfence.Bolddlrecttothe 
' FariEcr at wire mill prices. 
Here'Bafow oto-jr big values 
B-lneh Hoc Fcne« - 21 ^<o a rod 
47-lneh Farm Fonca- 3114^0 a red 
4S-inch Poultry Fence -34}<e a red 
• ^ ... „8peclal Prices on Calv. Barbed Wire 
■Unr bl!? Catalog of fence values shows lOO styles 
■and bel.Thts of Farm, Ponltry a-d Larm Fence at 
■redacedmoneyHSavlDg prices. It s Creo. Write today. 
■KITSELMAN BROS. Box 243 Muncie, Ind, 





I If yon win write ine at ones, I will erDlaln how. 
[with Uttle work this winter, you can secure a I 
I brand new Ford car without a cent of expenBc. 
I Just one grown man 1 n each town— no boys. Not i 
(rs lottery; gaaranteed by million dollar capital.. 
/the silo king. Box 627, Sumner, Wash.' 



9 CORDS IN 10 HOURS 




n Om HAS. it'* rnco OV the woods. Savei money nt 
tukache. Bead ior rKKB r.italoz No. BI9 Showing low prica 
and laVjt improvements. Fir-.t OT-l'jr C'-tfj aircii':/. 

Sawing MacliiM Co., 161 Wnt Kanlsoo SL. Ciilcaso,OL 



LEARN 



TO BE AN 
AUTO EXPERT 

t. Equip yourftelf now for a good posl- 

B tlon next Sprlni? an auto mechanic 

h OT chanflenr. We will teach you the 

» bnslnwsa In a few weeks. Catalog free. 

lorfhwesfern Automobile Training School Co., 
345 No. Exchange St., St. Paul, Minn. 



HoTV ahoiit lli(* old hallY Had him 
abont nn Ions iim ynn rnn hmc bimf 
Well, fhere'n nnoflipr fellow In the 
nautf At. FIimI out who nn<l Tvhere he 
In by nHlne the F., ft, & U. CloMlilpd 



A NEW WORLD'S CHAMPION BUTTER COW 

The world's record for batter pro- 
duction has again been broken by a 
purebred Holstein cow. Aaggie Acme 
of Riverside 2d, by producing 1331.71 
pounds of butter in 365 days on strict- 
ly official test, takes the championship 
of the Pacific Coast. 

Aaggie Acme was not content to 
merely break a record — she smashed 
three world's records — two of them 
strictly official, the other was semi- 
official one-half the time and strictly 
official the other half. Her .test was 
completed November 10th. The new 
records are: 

305 days— 22092.8 pounds of milk and 
1167.96 pounds of butter; 

365 days— 24690 pounds of milk and 
1331.77 pounds of butter. 




Both strictly official records. Her 
semi-official butter record for two 
years is 2426.51 pounds of butter. 

All three records were formerly 
held by the purebred Holstein cow. 
Keystone Beauty Plum Johanna, whose 
figures as a senior four-year-old were 
1294.71 pounds of butter in a year; 
1121.38 pounds in 305 days; 2403.6 
pounds in two years. She is still 
world's champion for her age, both of 
her year's records being made at less 
than full age. 

The present world's champion, Aag- 
gie Acme of Riverside 2d, is owned 
by A. W. Morris & Sons, Woodland, 
California. She is daughter of King 
Mead of Riverside, sire of seven 
daughters with yearly records. Her 
dam Is Aaggie Acme of Riverside, 
which is also the dam of the record 
cow's sire, so that Aaggie 2d is a sis- 
ter to her own father. 



WINTER TERM OF AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL 

The winter term of the School of 
Agriculture at the University Farm, 
St. Paul, opens for a three months' 
session, January 7th. New students 
may enter at that time and take what 
is practically a short course in agri- 
culture. At the same time all of the 
subjects completed will count in cred- 
its toward the completion of the regu- 
lar three-year course. At this time 
the school is offering special advan- 
tages to young men from the farms, 
seventeen years of age and over, to 
take courses preparing students for 
more effective work on the farm, at 
the same time giving military drill to 
such as desire it, so that in the event 
of enlistment or army service, stu- 
dents would have an advantage in the 
training given. 

The course is very inexpensive: 
Total fees for three months, including 
gymnasium and book rental, $9; board 
and laundry for three months, $32; 
room in dormitory, $12; total, $53. 

Seventy-five dollars would provide 
easily for all expenses for the term. 
Students entering for the first time 
may take Arithmetic, Business Eng- 
lish, Types and Breeds of Animals, 
Cereal Crops, Elacksmithing, Carpen- 
try, Farm Motors (Gas Engines), 
Poultry, Spelling and Penmanship. 

Those having had a high school 
course may make selection from a 
large number of electives, covering 
nearly all departments of agriculture. 
Girls will also be admitted at this 
time and may take foods and cookery 
and garment-making. Besides a num- 
ber of other subjects adapted to girls. 

Write to the principal, D. D. Mayne, 
for bulletin containing full informa- 
tion. 



LIVE AND LET LIVE. 

Hans Anton, Pennington county, 
Minn., writes: 
To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I am not a member of the Twin City 
Milk Producers' Association, but I am 
a member of the Red River Valley 
Dairymen's Association; also am vice 
president of the Thief River Falls Co- 
operative Creamery. Now, in regard 
to this matter of cost of milk: Pro- 
duction cost has been on the mind of 



An Important Message 
To Every Cow Owner 

There was never a time in the history of the world when 
the saving of every ounce of butter-fat and every particle 
of effort and time was so important as now. 

There was never a time when the use of a late improved 
De Laval Cream Separator meant so much to every cow 
owner. 

This is true whether you are using no separator, some 
inferior separator, or even an old style De Laval machine. 

Fortunately it happens to he not only a matter of patri- 
otic duty but at the same time one of dollars-and-ccnt3 
advantage as well. 

A New Type De Laval Cream Separator skims cleaner 
and produces a better quality of cream than any other 
separator or skimming method. 

Likewise, by reason of its easier turning, easier cleaning, 
greater capacity, simplicity and durability, it saves time 
and labor over any other machine or method. 

Moreover, the use of a De Laval Cream Separator is 
better than any other way of utilizing milk because it keeps 
the valuable skim-milk on the farm. 

Nor should the installation of an improved De Laval 
machine be delayed a single day. It begins saving the first 
day it is put in, and will likely have paid for itself by 
spring. 

We guarantee all this to be true — but the better way is 
to demonstrate it in your own dairy to your own satis- 
faction. 

That every De Laval agent is glad of- the opportunity 
to do — without any obligation on your part unless satisfied 
that every claim made is fulfilled. 

There are local De Laval agents almost everywhere. 
If you don't know the nearest one simply address either 
of the main De Laval offices as below. 

THE DE LAVAL SEPARATOR CO. 



165 Broadway, New York. 



29 E. Madison St., Chicago 



'LIVE iWWMWMMWBfM$0^ 

- DR E jri E D 

De Soto CREAMERS & PRODijiE0^ 




the producers as well as the consum- 
ers. I have asked some of our most 
progressive dairymen to give me the 
data of cost of producing a quart of 
milk, taking in both breeds, Guernseys 
and Holsteins. 

The figures ranged from 6.5 to 7.1 
cents per quart. My own figures are 
G.8 cents per quart from my herd of 
grade Holsteins. 

Now about' the action taken against 
the Twin City Milk Producers Associ- 
ation: Is it not like "killing the goose 
that laid the golden e^g "? 

No industry can exist that is work- 
ing at a loss. Feed is high; labor 
hard to obtain, beef will be high and 
beef prices will tempt the dairyman to 
send his cows to the block. It has 
taken years of hard labor to develop 
our herds, but they must go if we can- 
not make an honest living at dairying. 

And what of the consumer? Is not 
milk one of the cheapest foods he can 
use, even at 12 cents a quart? Is there 
a home with children that can get 
along without it? 

I wish the Honorable Commission 
that is stirring up this hornets' nest 
were living on dairy farms and were 
forced to produce milk at the figures 
they suggest, buying hay at $18 and 
$20 a ton, bran, $35-$38 a ton; oil meal, 
$55-$60; barley, $1.15 per bu.; oats, 
62 cents per bu. 

They would find out that they don't 
know half as much as they think 
they do. 

"Live and let live." That is my 
motto. 



Profit^ 

A perfect ventilating sys- 
tem keeps bams filled with 
fresh air and free from mold 
and taint. Keeps live stock in 
better health — enables them to 
put on more flesh or get more 
work from every poimd of feed. 

Cupolas 

make your stock more productive. " 
This means $ $ $ to you. 

Bird, rust and rot-proof. Mado 
of heavy galvanized steel. 
Shipped ready to install. Easy 
to erect — cost no more thaa 
ordinary kind. 
There's an O-K dealer In 
your town — if not, write us 
for particulars of our full 
line. 

rmUP BERNARD CO. 
2206 RoydAvc. 
Siom City, 
lovra 




POWERFUL AIR GUM 

in riflo f reo f or Bellhi» Art 



• nd Kelllloua Pioliu^K or2& pkim. P<>"t ' "'Jl!!' 
Older your cHiucs, GATES MfQ. C0..0»t.e2l ClUeAOC' 



18 



FARM, STOCK Aim HOME. 



January 1, 1910. 



iRM 



NFW P ^ ^ tenant 
lib II farme^ or if you are 
tired of fighting climate 
handicaps in farming, 

hoi-e is your cbanco. You can 
buy, at low prices and on easy 
mm ■ w terms, a hiKh, gently rolling 
with almost perfect natural draioaKo in the 

IHLANSSOFLODISiANA 



, toclear, plow and plant, where there f ample 
all, healthful clunute, mild winters, 9 months paiitoro 
year— B natural corn and live Btocfc country. Many 
• Nothem f arroere now prosperinR there. Invaatigata 
ourself I Get the bif, new book of facts, 

IVbere Soil and Oimate Are Never Idle," 

FREE if you send for it NO«W! 
/ow rate excursions to the Ilicrhlnnda from nearly all 
ts flret and third I'uesdays of each month. 

ng-Beli Farm Land Corporation 

!)7 R. A. Long BIdg., Kansas City, r jo. 



All About SH09." Written by InTentor. Address 1 
iewitt-Lea-FaccIc Co., Hewitt BIdg. , Samner, Wa^Ii. ! 



5AFF TY first; 

I^Y Only Fdf| 
Trees Thdt 



Yoa can now hBTe ever- 

yjireen windbreak of the 
Bnest evergreens I 
havo ever grown. 
^ Four times root 
e>rnned and 
)' transplanted. 
Abaolu te I7 
bardy. 
J Buy now b«for« 
■^•/ pricea go a[>. 
My Bafety firat 
pl*D eruarootces 
you a llvlpe 
wlndbrenk.Pav 
half caab with 
order. Hold 
balanco q o t i I 
Oct. 1st. then 
deduct from bal- 
ance full prlro 
for all dead trees. 
No risk. DO fancy 
irlces. raally tho 
— reat« squareat of- 
Ter ever made. 




pataSogj FREE 





FoH of barcair? on 
overBTeens, fruit a 
and tloutra. Sold 
dirett from nursery 
to you at nriccn you 
never herd of. QobU 
Ity CTaranLaod. Ji«- 
lowheroare sarapiea 
of a few of uiy bar- 
ealna. Don't miss this 
, chance. Wiito i'o r 
cataloff— now -- today— 
bt-f r,r© yon buy. Low 
KbitA Will be a sorpiise, 

EVERGREEN $|S0 

B %0 V Seedling 3 years old ■ 

Juet one of the many ba^'gainB I offer. Tney are 
^aranteed to reach yoa alive and in growing condi- 
tion. They are Btrone and hardy, good big roots. 
Would be cheap at J'i.GO. My special advartiBing 
offer 100 for $1.50. Ail cash with order. 

GUARANTEED <'MONEY BACK" 

Everbearing Strawberries 
Plants for C; | C A 

FAmoua Pro- V g Q U 
Ifre&sive Im- Q nTli„«iJ^ 
pa-oved Ever- POS'palBj 
bearing Strawberries. A delicious,] 
inicy borryfor t^ble use, cRnnint? or L 
preeeivee. Goaranteea to contutnat 
bearing from Spring to Frost. Try' 
eome. llKmaanaa planted them lasti 
iiwiiinn iiiiO report wontl'irful crops. At^ 
my price of 100 for SI. EO prepaid, It'a I 
Steat bargaki. Write for catalog today, 
FLOWCRINO BULB BARGAIN • 1 .08 
8 Hardy PhTox, 1 Golden Glow, 1 Yncca, 12 Gladioli Bulba-a i 
ccmbiDation worth S3. 60 but coata at my BPECtAii price only | 
Tbese Gladioli Buibs ara tho assorted eoiiection-- | 
ware from which took iii-'t pr-zB at the Iowa atsta Fair, 
I gi^y other bareaioB in my bis catalosr, Wtlte today. 

aw. FEURtS NURSERY GO, ziisBrldpe St. HftMPIQW, lOWfl | 



( \ OLDS' 

F f Seed Book 



td Packet Flower Seed FREE 

^OR 30 years 1 hava sold reliable ceedi. . 

Thonsands o£ cnstoiiiors testify to this. 

My seeds not only srrow, but produce big: 
slds. They must make good or I will. 31st 
iiual catalog now ready. Write for copy. 

ists All Kinds of Farm 
»ar den and Flower Seeds 

ae best arranged, mc st comprehensive and 
sleot catalog to order trom ever issued, 
few specialties are: 
irtHIed S«ad Potatoes 
l*c«naln Crn-ini SMd Com 
idlEread Oats ond Barley 
Iwat, Spaltz, Rya, Buckwheat 
irMiara Clovar and Alfalfa 
•tad Oardan and Flower Seeds 
Dd pogtal today. Mcn'ion this pa< 
r. WiJI includupacIietOowerBOCda. 

L OLDS SEED COMPANY 
«w«r3S MADISON. WIS. 



Hiirs Evergreens Grow 



Best for wlndbrcalt3 and hedeo. Protect crops 
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O.HILbAIIKHKuyflO., . Everireea 
B ox 248 0 naiuloe, Iir». SpaclalUHs. . 




HAVE YOU ANY BEANS? 

We are bnyern for cash of White, Hed Kidney, 
llr'iwn or SwoUlNh and Boston Yellow Bye 
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and (freen- podded garden beans. Bond samplea 
for bid, 

SMRTNNUr, KJNa « OO., Saadamaft 
Mlnno.iQolla. Minn. 



I Correspondence^ 

CONFIDENT THAT JUSTICE WILL BE DONE 

S. R. Houlton, Sherburue County, 
Minn., writes: 
To Farm, Stock and Home: 

It seems to me the Minnesota Safety 
CommiBsion came very near making 
an unforunate mistake in setting the 
price of milk below the cost of pro- 
duction for those who supply the Twin 
City market. There is no question 
but that the commission is made up 
of able and conscientious men, who 
are Intending to be fair in the matter, 
but their first decision showed a lack 
of practical knowledge of conditions 
with which producers contend. Dis- 
regarding authentic figures as to the 
cost of i)roduction and also the deci- 
sions of commissions in other cities 
such as Milwaukee, Duluth and Chi- 
cago, where the price was in every 
case set from one to three cents per 
quart higher, they appeared to arrive 
at their figure thru comparing the 
price of butter fat with milk, and al- 
lowing something in addition for the 
skim milk. 

In doing this there was a failure to 
realize that the milk producer for the 
winter market is v.'orking under a dif- 
ferent set of conditions to the butter 
producer. He is under greater ex- 
pense in making daily deliveries of his 
product and insuring its arrival in the 
city In good condition. He has built 
up a specialized dairy of fall cows for 
the production of winter milk, under 
expensive winter feeding conditions, 
and must have a paying price for his 
milk or be forced out of business. 

The butter producer thru the equal- 
izing eliect of the cold storage plants, 
has a chance to make up thru the 
summer what he may lose thru the 
winter. It was promised by members 
of the commission that the price of 
milk would be maintained during the 
summer the same as the winter price. 
But it is recognized at once by pro- 
ducers and distributors familiar wtih 
practical conditions, that this mTin- 
tenance of price during the big produc- 
ing season of the summer months 
would be practically impossible. So 
that the placing of a figure admitted 
by the members of the commission 
themselves as probably below the cost 
of production would be working an ob- 
vious injustice to milk producers. The 
difficulties of producers are now fur- 
ther aggravated by a twenty per cent 
advance in feed prices since the rul- 
ing of the commission. I have felt 
all along that the commission would 
remedy this injustice as soon as the 
facts were clearly demonstrated to 
them. 

I am a member of the Producers' 
Association and have run a 50 cow 
dairy for the last 15 years, the prod- 
uct of which is sold on the Twin City 
market. 



PROFITS NOT DAZZLING. 

L. B. Hanna, Mower county, Minn., 
writes: 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I am not a member of the Twin 
City Milk Producers' Association. How- 
ever, I feel it my bounden duty to 
support them in their demand for bet- 
ter prices for their milk. I am a pro- 
ducer, in a moderate way, and it has 
been my one aim the past four or five 
years to sever my connection with my 
present employer and devote my whole 
time to my Jerseys. I am a careful 
manager, and efficient, if you will par- 
don me for thus stating the matter, 
and my herd produce milk and butter- 
fat much in excess of the average of 
home production. 

The gross income at prices I com- 
mand (please note that I receive con- 
siderably more for my product than 
the average producers here on ac- 
count of the quality, and I demanded 
more) runs aronnd $12.50 per month 
per cow- /-and yet the actual profits do 
not permit me to see daylight, as tho 
saying goes, with reference to quitting 
my present salaried position and turn- 
ing to dairying as a remunerative busi- 
ness — wholly. 

I am very much disappointed to 
that end, and unless prices materially 
advance for stock and dairy products, 
only a personal sacrifice of reasonable 
profit to continue in the work will 
give preference to selling the grain 
and fodder. 

1 am personally in touch with a 
number who are selling at a loss if 
they kept book account, and the day 



haa almost passed when haphazard 
production can be caniod on for any 
length of time without Insolvency. 

I am free to give my opinion, how- 
ever, that a reduction in cost of plac- 
ing milk in the hands of the consumer 
must be had before the price of the 
product Is equitable. I think too much 
is demanded by the public. On the 
other hand, with a reasonable profit 
to tho producer, he should be able to 
deliver a cleaner and better product 
and lessen the overhead charges that 
are now taxed to clean milk after It 
leaves the producer's hands. 

The public has very little knowl- 
edge of production cost — and I fear 
most of them would quit in disgust at 
a small trial. 



WANTS WHEAT GRADES CHANGED. 

Theodore Speltz, Freeborn County, 
Minnesota: 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

We are vitally interested In getting 
the Federal grades on wheat changed 
so that we can buy this wheat and 
give the farmers all It is worth and 
at the same time know about what we 
are going to get for it when we ship 
it on the market. 

We have had some very sad exper- 
iences along this line. Wheat that 
would under the old rules grade No. 1 
or No. 2 has been grading sample 
grade under the new Federal rules, 
and has made us some heavy losses, 
and of course, later on we had to re- 
duce our grades to the farmers and 
they have been very much dissatisfied. 

We think that grades ought to be 
made so that the farmers would be 
better satisfied and that the elevator 
man could instruct his agents so that 
we could figure out just about what 
we could pay. As it was heretofore, 
the grading was very uncertain, some 
cars would grade quite well and then 
again many others would grade way 
down for very trifling reasons. For ex- 
ample, if a car of wheat was otherwise 
No. 3, and contained just a few kernels 
of Humpback or a small percentage of 
cockle or wild peas, it would be grad- 
ed way dov/n, and in this way it has 
been very difficult for us to say just 
exactly what certain samples would 
grade. 

We are heartily in favor of changing 
the grades so that prices paid are 
equitable both to the fariiier, miller, 
and elevator man alike. 

PRODUCER ASKS ONLY JUSTICE. 

Subscriber, Litchfield, Minn., writes: 
To Farm. Stock and Home: 

I have been watching the develop- 
ments in this controversy relative to 
the market milk situation with keen 
interest. I am not a member of the 
Producers' Association and will not be 
affected by the fixing of a price on 



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January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



19 



milk, but take pride and interest in 
the development of the dairy interests 
of this state. 

As far as I know none of the forces 
opposing the producers have chal- 
' lenged the statements of the dairy ex- 
perts of our experiment station in re- 
gard to the cost of milk production. 
The point that the opposition seem to 
be working at seems to be the finding 
of definite proof that the price of 
milk has been set by the Producers' 
Association, and to bring them into 
court under the Sherman anti-trust 
law In other words, they are willing 
to admit that the cost of milk produc- 
tion has increased, but are not willing 
that the cost of production shall be 
used as a basis for determining the 
price of milk. 

Unless the producers are allowed to 
sell their product at a price that will 
net them a fair profit they will natural- 
ly be forced out of business. Should 
it come to this I believe the consumer 
would suffer more from the shortage 
ol this valuable form of food than the 
producer would thru lost business. 

In my opinion there Is a greater is- 
sue at stake in this and similar con- 
troversies than is commonly consid- 
ered. There is at present a force at 
v.-ork in this state (and other states in 
the northwest) that, in my opinion, is 
too radical in their arguments, and 
tend to increase rather than decrease 
the class disturbance in this country. 
Unless this milk price controversy, 
and similar issues, can be settled with 
justice to all, producer as well as the 
consumer, I fear it will help bring 
about changes that, according to my 
judgment, will benefit no one. 



NO KICK ON INCREASED BOOZE PRICES. 

Subscriber, Waseca county, Minn., 
writes: 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I am not a member of the Twia 
City Milk Producers' Association. But 
i have been in dairying for some years 
myself so I can't see any reason for 
not getting a price that would allow 
the producer a fair profit. Feeds are 
doubled and sometimes trebled in 
prices. Help is scarce and hard to 
get. Other things have advanced in 
price. Take, for instance, spirituous 
liquors have raised 100 per cent. Some 
ci these fellows put up a big holler 
if milk or butter advance a few cents 
p«r quart but pay 15 or 20 cents for a 
spoonful! of booze, and they don't 
kick a mite. If they expect to get 
wholesome milk and cream, they 
should be willing to pay the price, so 
the producer gets a fair living, or he 
will have to quit the business. 



— Return to channels of trade as 
junk, machinery that has become use- 

— Give thoro lubrication and proper 
care to all machinery when not in use. 
less. 

%< iii< n i8 <m < n i mmD »i n i<iH»i|t< m» i8 <n i n |t< » itjg 

I POULTRY I 

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9 charge. Address Poultry Editob, «■ 
§ F., a. & H. ^ 

»<! m il H »l»» » {fe<|M}Hfr>^% 

HENS ON EACH FARM. 



A PEW MORE 



There are one million and a half egg- 
less farms in the United States. 
These statistics, recently issued by the 
Federal Food Administration thru 
the office of A. D. Wilson, Federal food 
administrator for Minnesota, are pro- 
nounced by the farming experts "an 
economic anomaly and an agricultural 
absurdity." Out of a total of 6,371,502 
farms, 1,. 527,743 report no egg produc- 
tion in the last census. 

Just now the government is sending 
some forty poultry experts out over 
the country to give the farmer all the 
assistance he desires and all the en- 
couragement he needs to correct this 
condition. Poultry and eggs will save 
heat. Our soldiers, the soldiers of 
the Allies and the destitute civilians 
over seas need meat. We cannot in- 
crease any of the meat animals as 
rapidly or as economically as we can 
Increase poultry. The government 
v/ants the poultry production doubled 
for next year. That is the quickest 
and the cheapest way in which we can 
add to our meat supplies. To do this 
means that next year we must pro- 
duce 6,-500,000,000 pounds of meat food 
in the form of poultry and eggs. It 
ia a vital part of the general food pro- 
duction campaign and that campaign 
must be carried out in all its detail to 
insnre victory In this war. A starving 
Boidlor cannot fight to win. The de- 
rartmont does not suggest that exten- 
sive poultry enterprises be taken up by 



the general farmer, in fact it warns 
against that very thing, but it does 
urge that great poultry increase be 
made on every farm in the country. 
This is imperative. 



TO GET WINTER EGGS. 

Pullets that are the most profitable 
begin laying by early winter. They 
must not be overcrowded nor too 
closely confined. Close culling all thru 
the early part of the season is advis- 
able so that when the laying season 
is at full tide none but the most pro- 
lific birds will be eating high-priced 
feeds. Then when the breeding sea- 
son comes, the eggs for setting will 
be secured from hens fully up to 
weight, with no glaring defects and 
who have acquitted themselves credit- 
ably on the nest. When culling, all de- 
formed birds, all that are slow in ma- 
turing, and all who are lacking in 
vigor should be taken out. 

Pullets need a variety of food and 
a good range. In consideration of the 
present prices, a desirable grain ra- 
tion consists of 50 pounds of corn and 
50 pounds of oats. For the mash ra- 
tion use 36 pounds of bran, 24 pounds 
of shorts, 24 pounds of cornmeal, 16 
pounds of meat scrap, and 8 pounds of 
oil meal. 

Feed Skim or Buttermilk. 

If it is possible, feed the chickens 
skim milk or buttermilk, as it is the 
best food obtainable, advises Mr. Fox. 
With this diet pullets need no meat 
scrap or oil meal. The heavy laying 
pullets should have oyster shell before 
them at all times. 

The pullets should be fed grain 
twice daily and should have fresh 
clean water at all times. A mash 
should be kept before the fowls. Sup- 
ply one nest for every three birds. 

Don't feed the lice and mites. They 
suck the blood of the fowls and lower 
their vitality. They should be exter- 
minated. 



REEPCHICKINS COMFORTABLE' 

Hens, even under present high 
prices of feed, if given a dry, warm 
house, g^ood feed and plenty of exer- 



cise, will give good returns. 

One of the principal objects of poul- 
try is winter egg production. As it is 
an entirely unnatural time for eggs to 
be produced, it is necessary to keep 
the birds in a well ventilated house 
free from drafts. Winter egg produc- 
tion depends as much on good winter 
quarters as on feed or care. 

The type of house is not so impor- 
tant as the fact that it should be tight 
on three sides and have plenty of ven- 
tilation. The house should be pro- 
tected from cold winds. An orchard 
or grove of trees is one of the most 
efficient methods of wind protection. 

To insure egg production, it is not 
necessary to have the house heated, 
but it should maintain as nearly uni- 
form a temperature as possible. One 
of the greatest drawbacks to egg pro- 
duction in this part of the country is 
the fact that one day it is warm and 
sunshiny, and the next cold and 
cloudy. This affects winter egg pro- 
duction more than continued cold 
weather. 



Double- Vol ked Eggs. — There ia oc- 
casionally a bird in the poultry flock 
that offends regularly by laying 
double-yolked eggs. Such a hen is of 
no value commercially. She is dis- 
eased, and so is not likely to become 
a record breaker. It is said to be 
caused by .overfeeding, which results 
in abnormal development of the func- 
tions. An occasional double-yolked 
egg need not alarm the poultryman. 
All flocks produce these once in 
awhile, but when they become a regu- 
lar occurence the matter must be 
looked at in a different light. The 
first thing to do is to observe whether 
the birds are getting too much feed, or 
poorly-balanced feed. If this is ob- 
served, the rations should be changed 
at once. It is only in extreme cases 
that such action must be taken, but if 
the flock is not being fed right, it will 
be the better for a change anyway. 
It will show in other directions. One 
must aim at regularity of egg produc- 
tion and uniformity in the size of the 
egg, for these determine the profit. 
Irregular layers are apt to be the 
worst offenders in different respects. — 
I. B. Henderson. 



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Biggest Money-Making Opportunity 
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THE U. S. Government calls on a// home owners to raise more poultry- 
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The 1918 features Include X-Ray Duplex Heater, that so distribute; 
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1^ 




20 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 





Nr's.Naiy L ^i^eJoW - Editor 



For the Home Couiu il 

FUTURE FARMERS AND UOMEMAKERS. 

Our boys and girls have had their 
fourth annual corn contest. They 
have made such progress in selecting 
corn since the first contest. Not only 
do they select the corn and potatoes 
but they bake bread, plain cake and 
doughnuts, but they make aprons, 
patch and darn. We hear so much 
about efficiency and a contest similar 
to this makes boys and girls more 
efficient not only in selecting corn 
and baking but in other things as well 
they will try to choose the best. 

In learning this way work is a 
pleasure, as they are interested and 
having the boys and girls interested 
is one way to help make them more 
efficient. 

Winning the Banner. 

This contest was first begun by a 
professor of agriculture in a high 
school of a small town near us. Sev- 
eral rural districts near the town 
entered the contest. A beautiful ban- 
ner was given the rural school receiv- 
• ing the most money in prizes. Not 
only were the boys and girls learning 
how to select good seed corn and bake 
but they had a chance for a substantial 
money prize, besides the honor of 
keeping the banner until the next con- 
test. Should any one district win the 
banner twice out of three times they 
are to always have it. 

The ages of the boys and girls com- 
peting for the prizes are from 10 years 
lo 20 years, inclusive, divided into 
several classes, the younger ones do 
not have to compete with the older, 
but with those of like age of other 
i districts. The day the banner , is 
awarded is a great day for all the 
rural districts, as it is on Saturday, 
and an entertainment is held at the 
high school, awarding the banner and 
giving the prizes. The entertainment 
and music are by the high school se- 
nior class and a small admittance is 
charged. The judging of the entries 
is by distinterested parties from out- 
side of any competing district. 

Connmunity Interest Aroused. 

The entertainment is in the eve- 
ning at convenient hours for those 
living at a distance to attend. The 
boys and girls do not have to raise 
the corn they enter, but do have to 
select it. They have to make and 
bake whatever they exhibit them- 
. selves but they can have as much help 
before that as they need. Whatever 
is entered must be their own with no 
help from older people. 

The county agent or agricultural 
teacher shows the boys and girls a 
perfect ear of corn for our state — 
then the boys and girls remembering 
what he has told them select from the 
seed corn at home ten ears of corn to 
exhibit. 

Higher Ideals in Seed Selection. 

The average farmer, providing he 
has had no opportunity of learning 
how to select seed corn as it should be 
selected can consider himself fortu- 
nate should he have ten perfect ears 
of corn. That is "broad," but it is 
only too true. The next time a coun- 
ty agent is in your vicinity ask him 
to show you how to select corn. 
Should you have no agent get one. 
The more useless you think they are 
the more you need one. 

This "new fangle" farming has come 
to stay. It is no dream. Planting 
root crops "in the moon" and vino 
crops before "sun up" belongs to the 
long ago, when a woman would run 

she saw a mouse. It is a fact that 

Mif! of the boys and girls, nfter look- 
;it the corn saved for seed, dia- 

■ fl that corn, choosing the corn 
n the crib, selected what they 



thought was right, and took first 
prize. 

She Sings While She Hoes. 

I know one girl ten years old that 
has had for two seasons a few rows 
in the garden for her very own, doing 
all the work, even the planting (after 
rows were marked). She has had 
sweet corn, peas and string beans be- 
fore they were on the Minneapolis 
market (home grown). Whatever she 
raised her father promised he would 
pay her market price, and corn was 
25 cents per dozen ears and string 
beans were worth $4 per bushel. 

Was working in her garden hard 
for her? It could not be, as she sings 
when hoeing and weeding. Try this 
in your own home and then you will 
know just how delicious "my corn," 
"my beans" and other vegetables are. 
Don't give the youngsters the weed- 
iest part of the garden,, the dullest 
hoe or government seeds. Not only 
does this little girl raise her garden 
produce alone, but the best she saves 
for her seeds next year. 

With some of her money she pur- 
chased a little pig. When he grew 
too big to be a cute plaything, she 
traded him for a small calf — with a 
little "to boot" on the pig. Give the 
youngsters something of their own 
or a little piece of land to raise a 
crop of their very own. It won't hurt 
them but will do them good, and at 
the same time you will be learning 
something, too. 

Play Time Also Important. 
Boys and girls should have time to 
play or recreation, and when their 
work is done, let them play. Don't 
think of something else to do and 
keep them everlastingly at it, making 
their lives just one pesky thing after 
another. In our own town all the 
children have skates, skiis, rifles, sleds 
and bicycles. Some are fortunate 
enough, to have all of these and can 
drive "Dad's "flivver" in the bargain. 
If noise is any sign of a good time, 
they are immensely happy, because 
they are a noisy, laughing bunch of 
youngsters. Why? They are inter- 
ested in their work. They are doing 
something worth while. 

L. Blanche White. 
Hennepin county, Minn. 



For the Home Council. 

BE KIND TO THE OLD. 

Do you who, once upon a time re- 
member of reading Trilby, remember 
that Trilby, when she comes to die — 
this lovable but morally badly educat- 
ed girl, can think of no sin she feels 
guilty of but one, one that, all her life 
since, has left an ache in her heart, — 
and it was, deceiving her little broth- 
er, telling him she would take him on 
a certain day's outing, then going off 
to her own pleasures and forgetting 
her promise. The hurt look, the quiv- 
er of his lip when lie found she had 
broken her promise, she could never 
forget. Perhaps had he lived on she 
could have made it up to her con- 
science by making it all up to him, 
but he did not live long after. 

A hurt to a little child is one a 
sensitive soul must make up or it 
never forgives itself, and it is the 
same when we hurt an old heart, when 
there comes a time we feel that we 
have been thoughtlessly neglectful of 
the old, and who have borne it all so 
meekly, and now it is too late for us 
to go back and make it up. Oh, if the 
young could only think of this in time. 
Once I heard a young wife reprove her 
husband for grieving bo bittr y after 
the death of his aged father, .-ho had 
made his home with this son for a 
few years before his death. "You 
have nothing to regret," she insisted, 
"why then weep so? You gave him a 
good home, fire and food, and laid him 
away nicely." Ho turned away with 
a gesture of contempt for what he had 
done. "What did that amount to?" he 
exclaimed. "Didn't he give me all that 
once, and with tender love and close 
interest as well, then make it possible 
for me to have a home to give him of 
my own, but how did I Ireat him after 
lie came to me? All interested In my 
own l)iisinc8B, my own Hell", my own 
pleasures. How many a lonely, lonely 
hour I left him to the solitude of his 



arm chair by my fireside. I see, 1 feel 
it all now, and nevermore can I undo 
my neglect in that way." Perhaps the 
wife could not understand the why of 
such a heartache, but many of the 
rest of us can. I can over the only 
grandfather that I ever really knew. 
He was a farmer, living near to my 
home, and my grandmother died 
twelve years before grandfather died. 
Like a wise man he insisted upon run- 
ning his own farm and keeping his 
own farm home until, suddenly, at 82, 
he passed from life. He married 
again, it is true, for a man cannot 
make a home alone, and while we 
young people refused to call this last 
wife, grandmother, we did not, other- 
wise, hurt our grandfather's feelings 
over this last woman of his choice, 
and we felt that she certainly did her 
duty toward him. 

No, it was merely, on my part, the 
careless indifference of a girl who does 
not consider that the old of her family 
love the young in that family as they 
did their own children, and are inter- 
ested to the end in all they do, and 
are hurt by their indifference. I did 
not think how lonely grandfather must 
have been in those 1?:! years, shut 
away the lonely winter days, and all 
the nights, while I, intent on my own 
work, my own companions, my own 
pleasures, hurried by his home, get- 
ting away almost completely — except 
by fits and starts — from my social 
duty, if no more, to him. 

Then, when he was gone, just as I 
was old ^ough to realize his worth, 
and what he might have been to me, 
and what I owed him of kinship, it 
was too late. Then came the heart- 
ache, never to pass when I think back 
upon my careless neglect. To all 
young wives, I say, teach your chil- 
dren not to neglect the old in the 
family. The young can never give 
back the old in the family the love 
that these gave the child. Teach ten- 
der reverence. 

There is a family that I often visit. 
My interest in this family hinges sole- 
ly on my love and respect for an old 
lady in the family, mother of the 
mistress of this house, grandmother 
of her children. This woman has sac- 
rificed much for her daughter and, 
really, raised all of the daughter's 
children. The grandmother is a wom- 
an highly respected wherever known. 
In common with many aging women, 
her hearing is quite dull. It sets one's 
teeth on edge with vexation to note 
how this daughter allows her children 
to resent this loss of hearing in their 
grandmother. The younger children 
do better than the older about it, al- 
tho this is annoying to callers. 
These yell so loud at "gran'ma" they 
confuse her. The older children sim- 
ply do not repeat their questions to 
her or other statements if she does 
not hear enough the first time to know 
what they are saying, or guess enough 
of it to make a sort of a reply. Then, 
so often, they crossly tell her she 
could hear but she does not try to. 
Some day those children, if they ever 
amount to anything at all, will feel 
that dull heartache, that sorrow be- 
cause they were not kind to grandma 
in this, her first sign of failing sense 
to sound. 

The inevitable in this case is hap- 
pening. Grandma, an intelligent wom- 
an, one yet interested in the world 
and her neighbors, is beginning to 
keep silent in company and sit off to 
herself pretending to be interested 
when she is not hearing a word, as 
you know people so afflicted will do. 
Her grandchildren have been allowed 
to hurry up this state because of their 
impatience with her lack of hearing 
good. 

One would judge the mother ought 
to have better sense than to allow 
this, and to know the neighbors and 
all who hear will dislike her children 
for this, but some mothers are like 
her, and, well, the faults of mothers 
in this line is subject for a further 
chapter. 

Ida M. Shiifi.br. 




A Good Piano 

ON EASY TERMS 

Xf you would like to have a beautiful, 
flue toned piano In your home, write us 
for the special offer we are now making In 
l)lace& where we have no local agent. You 
can save a good deal of mon<"y and at the 
same time secure a piano you will be proud 
of and buy It on very easy terms. Write 
at once and we will send you f uU Informa- 
tion by return mail. II you would like to 
consider a good used piano ask for our 
Bargrain Bulletin No. 61 just out, describ- 
ing many fine bargains at from 885 up. 

W. J. DYER & BRO. 

Dept. 98 ST. PAUL. MINN. 

Established 47 Years 



— Some pruning may be done on 
trees on warm days during the winter. 
It 1b well to paint the wounds made 
with some clear paint to prevent 
checking. 



SANITARY- 
CLOSET! 

Get Galloway's Special Offer 

To introduce this wonderful mod- 
eminventionoftheSanitary Indoor 
Komf y Kloset. Asecessityon every farm. 
Comfortable and convenient always. 
Just as sanitary, too, due to a special 
chemical action. A special patented 
ventilation principle makes it positively 
odorless. This unusual offer givesyou an 

Indoor Komfy Kloset 

AT ESG SAVING. 

.your children andyourselt. The 
•Komfy model ia the very latest; 
down to the minute in every de- 
tail. Answer this ad now and 
findout all about it and also get 
the full details of a 
NEW PROPOSITION 

Myapecial Introductory proposition and 
eellins plan, with your co-4>peration. 
will save yoa some money and help 
you pay for your own cloeet. Wnte 
today Bare. Thie ofiter is limited. 

WM. GAtLOWAY CO. 

Box lie WATERLOO, IOWA 




THE t ORIGINALyif CHEMICAL! 

oset 

30,000 SOlD-FirrH YEAR 

More Comfortable, 
Healtliful, ConTenient 

Elim^inates the oat - hoase, 
open vault and cess-pool, 
which are breeding places 
for germs. .Have a warm, 
sanitary, odorless toilet right 
in your house. No going out 
in cold weather. A boon to 
invalids. Endorsed by State 
Boards of Health. 

ABSOLUTELY ODORLESS 

Put It Anywhere In The Honse 

The germs are killed by a chemical process In 
water in the container. Empty once a month. 
No more trouble to empty than ashes. Oloset ab. 
eolutely guaranteed. Guarantee on file in the 
office of this publication. Ask for catalog and price 
ROWE SANITARY MFQ. CO. 4301 6tb STm DETROIT, 

Aslc about the Ro-San Waahstand — Hot and Cold MICH. 

Running Water Without Plumbing 




30 DAYS FREE TRIAL! 

end tralght prepaid on ■ 

>new 191» "RANGER" bicycle.' 
Write at one* for our big cata- 
log aad epacial offers. Take year 
choice from 44 styles, colors and sizes 
in the famous "RANOER" line. 
Marvelous Improvamenta. Extra' 
\ ordinary values in our 191S price 
offers. Yov. cannot a fford to ouy 
without gettinft our lattst propo- 
,* eitiona and Factor»-Direct-tO" 
J Rider prica.i and terms. 
> Boys, oa a "Rider Asent" and 
'\ make bie money takinR orders 
for bicydos and supplicp. Get 

OUT liberal tcrrtu on a Bnmple to In- 
troduce the now "RANGER". 
TIRES. cQuipTnent, aiindriea and 
-In thr> bicrcio line at naif 
». Writt Today. 

Cycle Company 
DapUFSSChicaso; 




Ranger 

miaetrlo 
Llghtod 
Motorblka 



MUSIC TAUGHT FREE 




In Your Nome. Write today for our booklet. It tells 
how to learn to play Piano, Organ, Violin, Mandolin. 
Guitar. Hnnjo, etc. Beginners or advanced pupils. 

American School of Music, 39 Lakeside Bld8.,Gliicaco 
FREEI— GENDiNE EASTMAN PREMO 

FILM PAOK CAMERA, Size 2)ix3)«, (or scll- 
iiiK 2G Art aad Roliaioua platurM, or S5 pkiru. pctmX 
CBrHiiat loooaeh. Ordoryooroholca. BantproMlil. 
OEC. OATH OOa • OtSblBai • • CHICAM 




0 



Jawory 1, I91S. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



For the Home Council. 

THE WOOLEH SITUATION FOR i9l8. 

The women who do the family buy- 
ing will be interested in the following 
letter to Farm, Stock & Home from 
Mr. H. R. Naftalin, president of the 
Minneapolis Woolen Mills. Mr. Nafta- 
lin writes: 

I am very glad to have the oppor- 
tunity of bringing to the attention of 
the 600,000 readers of your paper the 
situation that we are being confronted 
with the coining year. From careful 
observation: and study T tbinlr it is 
entirely safe to say that no one par- 
ticular industry will be s.o affected 
with increased high costs as the 
woolen textile and knitting business. 

In the first place the cost of raw 
materials for our industry has gone 
up in the last two years more than 
100 per cent and fully 75 per cent dur- 
ing the past year, but whatever this 
increase is, we know it, or can readily 
figure it when we are ready to sell our 
goods. We are not. however, so for- 
tunate on other items of expense. 
While labor has advanced the past 
year from 30 to 50 per cent there is 
no assurance that equally great ad- 
vances will not be necessary in 1918. 
This applies to executives and salaried 
men as well as wage earners. Actual 
living expenses of the latter have ad- 
vanced proportionately as much as 
those of the wage earner, and in addi- 
tion there is a constant call on them 
for subscriptions to war bonds, war 
relief and various other demands to 
which they rightly should subscribe. 

The war taxes for this year are pay- 
able in 1918 and very few of us know 
how much these will be. We v^•ill also 
have the 1918 taxes to consider and 
there is every reason to believe they 
will not be less than the present ones 
and may be greater. Transportation 
delays and the uncertainty of secur- 
ing stock makes it necessary to carry 
at least 50 per cent greater floor 
stocks of material and this, together 
with the increased cost, necessitates 
an interest charge on investment that 
will be greater than ever before. 

Everything else used in our business 
aside from the actual product and 
what goes into it has advanced tre- 
mendously, — coal, paper, belting, lum- 
ber, paper boxes, etc., have advanced 
and are hard to get. 

All of these things will add to the 
cost of the finished article. 1 have 
outlined but a few of the more impor- 
tant finished additional expenses but 
I have done it for the purpose of show- 
ing that these additional expenses will 
show f Jlly as high a percentage as the 
Increase in materials alone. Very 
few prices for 1918 have been made 
at this time but it is safe to state 
that anyone who has not carried over 
materials or finished garments from 
last year will have to add about 100 
per cent to prices that prevailed at 
the beginning of 1917. 

In addition, so far as the civilian 
consumer is concerned there will be a 
certain shortage of woolen merefian-. 
dise. The g^overnment will require 
about 60 per cent of the production 
of the leading woolen mills m. the 
country, at least nulla have been- nor 
tified to that effect and on account of 
the scarcity of materials the total 
production of woolen goods will be 
less than heretofore. 

The quality of goods £» atoo ffftely 
to SttlTer as in the attemnt to- keep 
prices down as low aa possibrft, gmall' 
er percentages of woof and' greater 
quantftfes of 7n?rm'pnlated materials 
will go into the finished garments. 

Theae conditions are piretty welC niB- 
derstoed by the retaflera. wftcc are CDn>- 
tlnoally m the market for wooren 
goods, bnt very few constimers have 
figured on so great art advance in 
prices as are bound to exist. If the 
farmer will remember tiiat the raw 
wool that brought 2.S to 32 cents In 
19>6 wag worth a year later from .55 to 
75 cents a pound, it will help him to 
realize that a 50 cent pair of wool sox 
is worth at least $1 now, and if he 
v/ill look into the a<Mitional costs 
of labor and other materials, he nxuat 
agree that a 100 per cent advance ia 
the least that can be expected. 



For tfie Homfi Council. 

TRAIinse LITTU CfllLDREK 

Build up victuea and taxilta wiE dior 
appear. 

Praise tlx slightest stigui t!k« Vft- 
tne v«a af» trylna; to wiltlvatte. Thte 
will d» raami ' * a™ a (Coxko Mold- 

it ^mg m to :,Tr ' , for our 

chlldklH^ an'' ' ir fndi- 

vifiuaHty. ■ , oHJolished 

by exi;<!CtinK <;hildren to be good, and 
by showing them that we trust them. 



We should never call a child "bad," 
never wound his self-respect. This 
does not mean that his naughty ac- 
tions should be "glossed over," but as 
one wise educator has expressed it, 
we should re&lize that every fault is 
simply tlie absence of some virtue, 
and we should try to build up that 
quality in which the child is deficient, 
rather than condemn him for that 
which he has not. 

Build up the virtues and the faults 
will disappear. If a child is selfish, 
we should dwell on unselfishness; if 
tlie child is untidy, on neatness; if 
slow, on quickness; and we should 
always remember to praise even the 
slightest sign of the virtue we are 
working to cultivate. A child will try 
tO live up to the thing for which he is 
praised. "How quiet and helpful my 
little Peggy is today" will do more 
good than a dozen scoldings about 
noise and mischief. 

Stories can be told to aruuse and 
stimulate high ideals. Stories have a 
wonderful educational value and al- 
most any lesson can be taught in story 
form. Tell stories about birds, trees, 
flowers, animals, great and good men, 
simple stories of home and family life, 
stories from history and from the 
Bible. The eager little minds are 
ready for anything you wish to give 
them, and if you are a natural story- 
teller, great indeed is your opportun- 
ity. Ideals of right conduct, love of 
family and sympathy with every living 
thing can all be given thru the right 
use of stories. 

Much has been said and written 
about pre-natal influences, but volumes 
more are needed on past-natal in- 
fluences. One of the first things a 
baby learns is to "smile back" at his 
mother, and in all his earliest years 
the child reflects the attitude of those 
aroimd him. He imitates the things 
which he sees and hears, in order to 
understand them, and "as the twig is 
bent, the tree's inclined." 

A true m.other leads a consecrated 
life. She will always be absolutely 
truthful and will keep every promise 
made to her child. She will recognize 
the good in all things, and will never 
speak ill of anyone in her child's pres- 
ence. She will keep away all thought 
of fear, and will awaken a spirit of 
loving service toward others, and a 
growing belief in the Power which is 
within herself, until at last he grows 
into a recognition of the Universal 
Love and Goodness which underlie the 
whole of life. 

Mrs.. Elvira Hta-tt. 



For the Home Council. 

GHOST CRETOMNE CLOSET. 

No, it is not a ghost, just a fancy 
general utility closet for the storage 
of the winter or summer clothes, 
where moth cannot touch, nor dust 
disturb. It has been designed espe- 
cially for the person that does not 
have all the closet room they desire, 
or it may be taken to the attic and 
hung up and one could feel absolutely 
certain that nothing will mar the 
beauty of their clothes. It is not ex- 
pensive, and can be used on the bed- 
room door, or, if desired, on the inside 
or outside of a closet door, all de- 
pending upon how much room one 
has for storage of their clothes. 

It is made of cretonne and long 
enough to hold a full length dress. As 
many hangers as one or one and a 
half dozen can be hung on the rod 
and kept in it at one time. 

A framework of wood is made (,18x 
14)i and a centerpiece of strong Eod, 
heavy enough to bold the weight of a 
dozen dresses or suits. A hook is sus- 
pended from the center to the fcack 
of it from the outside, so it will hang 
on the door, or a string tied, in the 
center will hold it to a hook, on the 
cFoKet door, or any otlver plaeei it is 
considered best to hang. 

This frame work is covered with 
a cretonne bag fitted plain and made 
into a square shape and long enough 
to allow the clothes to hang without 
crowding; Three edges are sewed to- 
gether and bound with tape so it will 
Be irapoasible for moth or dust to- 
penetrate. The one opening is sewed 
part way up, bnt left open far enough 
so the clOth««j may slip info ft caatly. 

Hangers are slipped on the rod and 
pushed' to tlie back and' a dozen or 
more gown^? or suits can be placeJ in- 
side, then the ftag fs sewed shut, or a 
wire- caw he purchased which wlTT clip* 
«ntor tthe edfefr, and one- tO' alTp into ft 
tc* mafire ft air tfght, for about .'>0 cents. 
Th* bar l3 then hung- away until the 
«loffifta are needed and" they win be as 
bright when removed as when placed 
in it. 

The hffg mav be madf* of white mus- 
lin, tho tho figured cretonne would 



Use Plenty 
Of Water 





Strength 
in Flour 

The strength of a flour is 
determined largely by the a- 
mount of water it will absorb. 

Bread made from a good 
strong flour will not dry out 
quickly. The extra amount of 
water absorbed in the mixing 
keeps the bread moist and fresh. 

If your bread dries" mA in 
no time, and you have to bake 
often and in small batches, it 
is probably because the flour 
you use lacks strength. 

Bread made from PiBsbury's 
Best flour stays fresh -a k>ng 
time, because Pillsbury*s Best 
is a strong flour and aba^rbs 
lots of water. 

The Flour Question Settibd 




i 



v' '-\ 

I '' ' I 

■/'^ I 



il 



if 



i 



I. 



i 
II 



Pillsbuiy Flour Mill* Company, K^ancapolis, Minn. 

wrmttttm 



22 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



UNCLE SAM SAYS: 

"EAT MORE FISH" 

Qiiolal Ions boUiw un Luko Superior, Canadian 
and I'licltio couHl will uppoal to tho tbrllly 
liouso-wlfo. 




SABLEFISH (formerly Black Cod) 
llooommondod by tho U, 8. Bureau of Fisheries 
We offer the following, packed In 100-lb, 
(net wt.) boxes: 

SABLEFISH (lilack Cod) lb l4o 

RED SNAPPERS (lied Cod) lb 1«e 

ROUND OCEAN WHITINO lb Oo 

PICKEREL lb 1 30 

PIKE lb ISO 

HERRING (loose frozen) lb 9c 

DRESSED HERRINQ (save the waste) lb t Oo 

CHOICE CHICKEN HALIBUT lb 20o 

WHITEFISH lb 160 

TULLIBEC WHITEFISH. lb lie 

For 5U-lb boxes add 26c. 
NORTHERN HERRING, 10 cartOnS (tlO IbS.). $9.00 
IN CARTONS 4 " (a61bS.).- 4.00 

"Frozen with tho Wiggle in Their Tails." 

lOO-Ib. assortment, above varletCs 12.90 

60-lb. " " " 7.60 

Wo carry a fuU line of salt and pickled flsh. 
OUR GUARANTEE! Prompt Shipment, satisfac- 
tion or money refunded. WE NEVER SUBSTI- 
TUTE! Write for Illustrated price list and 
watch our ads for other flsh. 

NORTHERN FISH CO. Dept. S, Dululh, Minn. 



WINTER FROZEN FISH 




Herrln^r 8c lb. 

Pickerel (Round) l^olb. 

" (Dressed and heads oil) 13c lb. 

Pike 16c lb. 

Large Whiteflsb 16c lb. 

Tullibees 13c lb. 

We offer for Immediate shipment the flnest 
winter-caught flsh at prices quoted above. 

Fancy Frozen Ocean Fish — Bed Snap- 
pers, 140 lb; Dressed Sableflsb, 14c lb; Whiting, 
9c lb; Halibut, 20c lb. 

JOHNSON & OARK. 
Dept. 2, Fidelity BIdg. Dulatb, Minn 



FROZEN FISH 

Fresh Chilled Alaska Cod, lb 15c 

Yellow Pike, lb 18c 

Northern Pickerel, lb 14c 

Burbot, dressed and headless, lb 8c 

(Recommended by tr, S. Dept. of Fisheries) 

Alaska Herring, 30 lb. boxes, lb 11c 

Alaska Herring, 70 ib. boxes, lb 10c 

Liike Su perior Herring, 30 lb.boxes,lb. .9HC 
Lake Superior Herring, 70 lb.boxes,lb. .S^aC 

Luteflsk, 25 lb. tubs $3-00 

Luteflsk, 601b. tubs 5.67 

Luteflsk, 1001b. tubs 11.34 

Luteflsk, 200 lb. tubs 31.48 

We carry a complete line of Smoked 
and Salt Fisb. Send for our latest 
price list. 

WESTERN FISH CO. 
Dept. F, St. Paul, Minn. 




^J^^^K^ FrozenFish 

• ^itfKj^ Waro-La Frozen 

■if mSr Fish. Now at the prices 

■ >iW^ quoted below: 

Herring. 8c Ib. 

KoaiKl Pickerel ISC lb. 

Uressert Pickerel 13c lb. 

l>res«eilSk!itevving: 13c lb. 

Dressed Halibut 80c lb. 

Round Witlleyed Pike 1.5clb. 

Tnllibee Wiiitefish 13c lb. 

Drc8»<Ml Sabloiish 14clb. 

Add 2.')C. to above prices fof 50-lb. boxes 
Prompt shipment — Quality and no substitutions 
guaranteed. Write lor price list of other flsh and 
recipes. _ 
WAROE LARSEN FISH COlVtPANy 
Dept. F. S. H. DULUTH, MINN 



APPETIZING, toothsome, 
" rich, tender flsh. "that 
fairly meltin your mouth" 
cauKht In deep Icy cold 
waters and instantly froz- 
en alive. Inspected by 
Minn. Slate Food Commis- 
sion lor your protection. Dnluih prices; 100 lb. 
boxes not WKt. Sliver Star Herring, 7!^c per lb: 
Whiting, Be; iiod Hnappors (dressed headless) 11c; 
Tnlibee twhltoHsh) 14c; 8ableHsb(dressed headless) 
13>^c; Pike l«c; Pickerel, 14c. Chicken Halibut 
(dressed headless) 16c; Salmon (dressed headless) 
16c. One-half cent per lb. higher than above prices 
for 50 lb. lots, also when ordered eh ippnd fr'>mour 
branch houses at Fargo, N. D., Aberdeen, 8. D., Des 
Moines, la , as wo pay tho freight to those points. 
LarKO practical cxik book Froo with each $16 order. 
For a real treat Ordor Nov». Profusely Illustrated 
catalog Froe. SAM JOHNSON * SON'S FISHERIES. 
Ino.. Dululh, Minn., Oopl. 3. 

We Pa, ihe Freight '^Mi?; 

at Fargo, N. D., Aberdeen, H.l>, and 
J>nH Molncs, la. Vou Save Both 
Time and Money when yonr sblpnionts are 
inudo direct from tho shipping point nearest 
you. All our flsh are inspected by Minn. 
State Dairy and Vood Dep't. This gives you full 
protection, Hwoot. rich, tasty, Juicy fresh flsh. 
Dninth Prices: Koyal Ilorring, lOOlb box (gross 
welt'lit), I7.«r,; Piko (Jersey 11 j.(), per Ib. «c; Uoc*- 
lini. lie; Hkatciwlng, 1 lo- HabloHsh, ISJjIc; Pickerel, 
iilinon. 16c. Add Tide more per 100 lb. wbon 
Hhi ii' "Ills are made from on r other shipping points. 
Hhip iii'iitH will be made Deo. IGth. Think ahead— 
Honil your order now direct to 

«. S, JOHNSON FISH CO. "r* Duluih, Minn. 





look well in a room in harmony with 
other decorations. This is a very use- 
ful place to hang the good clothes. 

ESTHEll A. COSSE. 



OUR QUESTION BOX. 

To Make Pop Corn Balls. 

Mrs. J. S., Pierce county. Wis., 
writes: "Will some member of Home 
Council please tell me how to make 
the old fashioned pop corn balls?" 

To Color Carpet Rafgs. 
Mrs. N. L, Hall, Martin county, 
Minn., writes: 

I read in the Dec. 1 issue, Home 
Council, that Mrs. B. J. H., of Anoka, 
wishes recipes for old fashioned col- 
oring of carpet rass. The following 
are recipes that my ancestors have 
used for years: 

Blue for Cotton: For 5 pounds 
of rags, dissolve 5 ounces of copperas 
in water sufficient to cover the goods. 
When it reaches scalding 'point, put 
the goods in "and scald one-half hour. 
Take out and air; put clean water in 
the kettle, enough to, cover the goods, 
then put in 6 ounces of prussiate of 
potash. Put in the goods and let re- 
main 30 minutes. Remove and add to 
the water 2 ounces of oil of vitriol. 
Return the goods to kettle and let re- 
main 20 minutes or longer if the color 
is to be dark. 

Green: First color the rags blue, 
then take 4 ounces sugar of lead and 
2 ounces of bichromate of potash, dis- 
solve each separately in one-half pail- 
ful of water. Dip the goods from one 
to the other until the desired shade 
is obtained. Or dye blue first and 
then dip in yellow dye. 

Yellow: Dissolve % pound of sugar 
of lead in hot water (one-half pail). 
Dissolve % pound of bichromate of 
potash in one-half pail of water.. Dip 
in the lead dye then in the potash un- 
til the desired shade is obtained. 

To Rid the House of Bed Bugs. 

In reply to Mrs. Alvin P.'s request 
for a sure method to rid house of bed 
buss, Mrs. T. K. G., Mechanicsville, 
Iowa, writes: 

Here is a sure cure for Mrs. Alvin 
P.'s troubles, and very simple, and 
she will find everything cleaner with- 
out much work. Take an oil can which 
is used for machinery (pint or quart 
can). Fill with gasoline and soak 
every crack, mattress, around wood- 
work. If any place is missed, soak a 
second time. She will not need to 
take anything out of her rooms, just 
open windows and doors. Do this in 
morning and the rooms will be all 
right to sleep in at night. 



For the Home Council. 

KNITTING MDFF. 

A new idea in a knitting bag. Bags 
of every description are being used, 
but it remained for an ingenious wom- 
an to devise a new way of carrying 
her knitting about with her, without 
the necessity of being burdened with 
a bag for the cold weather. And now 
that more women are asked to and 
needed for the work of making sweat- 
ers, scarfs, hats, wristlets, etc., for 
our soldiers and sailors, there will be 
even more carrying their work about 
with them. Not all will carry it to 
church, but it is practically impossible 
to step into a trolley, train or other 
vehicle without seeing someone pull 
out knitting of some description. It 
may be blocks for quilts for the hos- 
pitals, or the garments for the men, 
but it is something. 

Bags are not difficult to manage, 
when walking, but they are a little 
bit of a burden when one has to get 
on and off cars, and when they are 
crowded, it is hard to get them safely 
through the crowds, without jabbing 
one or another with the needles, 
which might snap in two or maybe 



Order from the Old Reliable Flsh Firm 

Fresh water frozen Ilorring, 8c; 
PIko. 15c; PIckerol, 12c; CIscoos 
^ - (Kraall Lake Superior Whitcflsh), 

Sableflsh He; WhlilriK, »o. Any asBortmeDt of above 

varieties .'nfiO-lb boxps and up. _ 

I.AKK SIJI'KKIOIC FfSH COMPANY 
Dept. S, 208 E. FIril St., DULUTH, MINN. 

References, American Kxchango National Hank. 



WH guarantee real fresh 



ro7.en Lake Huporlor 
Herring In sanitary strong 
huxc-M, safely (lullvorea at 
your station 90.00 per l oo lb«i piko, 1Soi*i pick. 
orol, I 4 oU| Whiting, 9 cla. For other klndy Mend for 
tipoulal prICOM. ELLINGSON & HANSON.Ouluih.Mlnn. 



pull off the stitches, which each one 
knows is a little discouraging. 

So the knitting muff has been found 
to be of more service than the bag. 
It also serves a double purpose, that 
of keeping th3 hands warm and of 
carrying the work. 

The muff is made in any shape and 
size, only it must be as wide as the 
needles are long. It has a lower 
pocket made the same as the one for 
the hands tho it is not always 
made of silk, since it gets too rough 
"and is easily 'worn with the continuous 
use. The ends are fastened together 
with snaps, thus the work or needles 
cannot fill out. My personal expe- 
rience has been that I have broken 
two sets of needles by losing them 
when I was working on the train. 
The one wasn't fast and slipped from 
the bag. This pocket cannot be seen 
when the muff is carried. Other ar- 
ticles may be carried as well as knit- 
ting, such as gloves, handkerchiefs, 
purse, etc., with equal security. 

Esther A. Cossb. 



HOW TO MAKE A PODLTICE. 

Linseed is generally considered the 
best material to use for poultices, be- 
cause, as it contains considerable oil, 
it can be used at a higher temperature 
than other substances without danger 
of blistering the skin. 

Have for the adult, about one and 
one-half pints of water boiling forci- 
bly; into this sprinkle slowly, stirring 
the water with a spoon while doing 
so, sufficient flaxseed to make the 
mixture just thick enough to be easily 
spread with a knife, but not so thin 
that it will spread by itself. 

The mixture must not be allowed 
to stop boiling during the addition of 
the flaxseed and should be beaten 
lightly. Spread onto the muslin even- 
ly about one-third of an inch thick. 

Mustard is often added to flaxseed 
poultices in order to increase the 
counter-irritant property. The propor- 
tion of mustard to flaxseed used is, 
for an adult, one to. eight, and for a 
child, one to sixteen. Dissolve the 
mustard in tepid water and add it to 
the poultice after the flaxseed has 
been removed from the fire; then, 
beat the poultice well so that it and 
the mustard will be thoroughly mixed. 

A poultice should not be left on 
longer than one hour, as after that 
it is not even as warm as the body. 

After removing the poultice, dry 
the surface of the skin and if it is 
very red, apply a little oil or vaseline. 



WOODSMEN EVOLVE CONSERVATION CAKES 

Two north woods cruisers of expe- 
rience and reputation — John Raine 
and Edward Canute — spent the first 
week in December learning the new 
conservation cooking, as students of 
Miss Mabel McDowell, bread expert 
of the home economics division, De- 
partment of Agriculture, University of 
Minnesota. The men went away with 
much up-to-date knowledge for the 
camp cooks thruout the northern part 
of the state, but they left much good 
knowledge of camp cooking in return. 
The men applied the science learned 
to the materials used in camps, and 
evolved some conservation recipes. 
Two of these have to do with the 
baking of milkless, eggless and but- 
terless cake and doughnuts. 

Cake — 1% cups water, 1 cup sugar, 
% cup fat, 2% cups barley, 2^ cups 
white flour, % teaspoon nutmeg, % 
teaspoon salt, 2 rounded teaspoons 
baking powder. 

Doughnuts — 1% cups sugar, 1 cup 
water, % cup fat, 1% cups white 
flour, 1 cup barley, 2 teaspoons baking 
powder, % teaspoon nutmeg, 1 tea- 
spoon lemon extract, % teaspoon salt. 



Happy Homes. — I am a homesteader 
on a timbered 160 acres in Montana 
and have been married nearly 18 years 
so feel I am in position to give some 
of the men advice on the subject of 
happy homes. I notice the women, 
both old and young, are giving their 
opinions; also some of the single men, 
but few of us old fellows. Here is 
one I have tried ever since we were 
married: 

"Fall In love with your wife!" Then 
every day do the same. — Yon Axban- 

dleson. 





Vna 

Cock Bttt 
Tru — 
St4 Slit 
la 

Ftumd Cam 




AGoodVlolinOutfit 



For $11.75 



Includes a selected violin of beautiful 
finish acd tone, also vioUn case, bow, chin 
rest, tuning pipe, box of rosin, extra 
strings, instruction book, and free lessons 
(correspondence method). Your money 
back if not perfectly satisfied. Ot'ier out- 
fits at $1.5, $20 and up. Also cornets, saxo- 
phones.olarinets, drums, ante.s, accord lonH, 
mandolins, guitars, nkeleies, and the new 
tango banjos, etc Victrolas and records, 
pianos, organs, sheet music. Write for 
free catalogs. 

W. J. DYER & BRO. 

Dept. 103 ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers 
In Musical Instruments 




When writing to advertlsera alwajry 
mention Farm, Stock and HoiBti. 



January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



23 



For the Home Council. 

SOME WAR-TIME DISHES. 

Plain Indian Meal Pudding. — Scald 
5 cupfuls of sweet skimmed milk; into 
it stir cupful of cornmeal, % cup- 
ful of molasses and a level teaspoonful 
each of salt and ginger. Cook in a 
double boiler for half an hour. Turn 
into a buttered pan and bake slowly 
for two hours. Serve with thin sweet- 
ened cream. 

For a change, add half a cupful of 
seeded raisins or a cupful of thinly 
sliced sweet apples. This, not being 
rich, makes a good dish for children. 

Corn Douglinuts. — Scald 1 cupful of 
sweet milk and pour it over 2 cupfuls 
of yellow cornmeal, add 2 level table- 
spoonfuls of melted drippings and V2 
cupful of granulated sugar, % a level 
teaspoonful each of salt and nutmeg, 
1 well beaten egg and 1 heaping tea- 
spoonful of baking powder, sifted in 
% cupful of flour. Mix well and place 
where it will chill or at least get very 
cold. (We let it stand over night.) 
Roll thin, cut out and fry in deep hot 
fat. 

Rice Drop Cakes. — Heat 1 cupful of 
milk, add to it a rounding tablespoon- 
ful of lard or drippings, a little salt, 
1 well beaten egg and 1% cupfuls of 
flour sifted with a heaping teaspoonful 
of baking powder. Beat until smooth, 
then add % cupful of boiled rice. 
Either fry until brown upon a pan- 
cake griddle or drop in spoonfuls upon 
a baking pan and bak^ in a quick 
oven. Serve hot with syrup, honey or 
fruit syrup. 

Whole Wheat and Rye Cookies. — 

Cream together 1 cupful each of white 
and brown sugar and butter and lard, 
or drippings mixed. Add 2 well beaten 
eggs, a little salt and any desired fla- 
voring. Dissolve a scant teaspoonful 
of soda in 1 cupful of sweet milk, add 
to the mixture and beat well. Into 
3 cupfuls of whole wheat and 2 cup- 
fuls of rye flour stir a heaping tea- 
spoonful of baking powder. Mix all 
well together, roll thin, cut out and 
bake in a moderate oven for 15 min- 
utes. 

Salsify Cutlets. — To 2 cupfuls of 
boiled and mashed oyster plant add 1 
cupful of bread crumbs, a tablespoon- 
ful of melted butter, a level teaspoon- 
ful of salt, a little pepper and 1 well 
beaten egg. Mix well together over 
the fire and set away to cool. Form 
into cutlets, using a short piece of 
macaroni to represent the bone, 
dip into starch or beaten egg, roll in 
crumbs and fry brown. Serve with 
stewed tomato and brown bread. Par- 
snips can be used in the same manner 
and so can carrots and turnips, where 
one cares for them. 

Mrs. H. L. Mtli-er. 

Montana. 



G0NTBI6DTED RECIPES. 

stuffed Celery. — Make a paste of 
rich cream cheese, seasoned with salt, 
paprika, a few drops of table sauce, 
and made soft enough to spread with 
olive oil. Fill tender stalks of celery 
with this mixture, chill and serve with 
chicken or roast turkey. — ^Helen Ly- 
man. 

Rolled Oats Gems. — One cup of 
rolled oats put to aoak in three-fourths 
cup of sour milk over night, in the 
morning beat in one e?g, three table- 
spoonsful of sugar, one tablespoonful 
of melted butter, one-half teaspoon of 
soda, a little salt, one-half cup of flour. 
— Helen Lyman. 

Suet Pudding. — 1 cup chopped 
Buet, V2 cup molasses, 1 teaspoon cin- 
namon, V2 teaspoon of cloves, pinch 
of nutmeg, pinch of salt, % cup of 
milk, Vz teaspoon soda, flour to make 
stiff. Put in greased dish and steam 
three hours. Sauce: 1 pint milk 
(water can he used), piece of butter 
size of a walnut, 3 teaspoons corn- 
starch, Vz cup sugar, pinch of nutmeg 
pinch of salt. Bring milk to boiling 
point, then a'ld the rest, well beaten. 
Serve hot.— Helen Lyman. 

Pot Roast. — Pot roasts are usually 
made from the rump and upper round 
of beef. These cuts are juicy but 
rather tough. Slow cooking is neederl 
to make them tender. Heat the kettle, 
put in the mfat and turn till all cut 
RurfaceH are seared. Pour in 2 table- 
Bijoonfiils of vinegar and cover tightly 
for a minute. When the vinegar 
comes In contact with the hot kettle. 
It vaporizes and penetrates the meat, 
which helps make It more tender. 
Then add a «mall amount of water, 
covnr and conk slowly. 

Nuts as a Meat Substitute. — Nuts 
are a concentrated food and can be 



made to take the place of meat to 
some extent. This is how some nuts 
compare with beef steak (round) : 
Peanuts, (shelled), one-quarter more 
protein and three and one-half times 
as much fat; peanut butter, one-half 
more protein and four and one-half 
times as much fat; almonds (shelled), 
a little more protein and fat over five 
times; walnuts (meats), nearly as 
much protein and six times as much 
fat; cocoanut, one-third as much pro- 
tein and five times as much fat. 

Scalloped Fish. — 2 cups cold fish 
(cod, haddock, or halibut), IV^ cups 
milk, 1 slice onion, blade of mace, 
bit of bay-leaf, tablespoon drippings, 
3 tablespoons flour, % teaspoon salt, 
Vs teaspoon pepper, Vz cup crumbs, 
moisten with drippings. Scald the 
milk with onion, mace and bay- 
leaf. Remove seasonings. Melt the 
drippings, add flour, salt and pepper, 
then gradually the milk and boil hard. 
Put one-half the fish in a greased bak- 
ing dish, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per and pour over one-half the sauce. 
Repeat, cover 'with crumbs and bake 
until the crumbs are brown in a hot 
oven. 

Fish Chowder. — 2 pounds fish (pref- 
erably cod or haddock), 3 potatoes, 1 
quart water, 2 teaspoons salt, % 
pound salt pork, % teaspoon white 
pepper, 1 small onion, 1 quart milk. 
Cut the fish into small pieces. Put 
the bones and any trimmings to boil 
in the water. Cut the pork into small 
dice and heat in a sauce pan. Slice 
the onion and fry in the pork fat, be- 
ing careful not to brown, then skim 
out the onion. To the fat add the 
potatoes sliced, and strain over them 
the water in which the fish bones have 
been boiled. Cook for 5 minutes. 
Add the fish and seasoning and cook 
for 15 minutes or till the fish is done. 
Add the milk and serve. Crackers 
(pilot biscuit are the most desirable) 
may be added to the chowder just be- 
fore serving. 

Fish With Green Pepper. — One and 

three-quarters cups cold cooked fish, 
one cup white sauce, one-half small 
green pepper, one-half slice onion or 
flavor to taste with extract of onion, 
salt and pepper. Cut a slice from 
stem end of pepper, remove every 
seed and parboil pepper 15 minutes. 
Make a white sauce with one cup milk, 
two tablespoons butter or drippings, 
two tablespoons flour, bit of bay-leaf, 
sprig of parsley, salt and pepper to 
taste, scalding the milk with the 
parsley and bay-leaf. Cook the onion 
finely chopped in the butter or drip- 
pings three minutes, or flavor with 
onion extract to taste; add the flour 
when well mingled, the milk, salt and 
pepper; when thickened and smooth 
add the fish broken into flakes and 
the green pepper cut into narrov/ 
strips; heat thoroughly, and serve. 



MlNNEaPOLIS CITY CODNCIL COORTS 
LIME LIGHT. 

G. W. Gold, Redwood county, Minn., 
writes: 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

In regard to the milk business, I 
feel very strongly. It doesn't seem to 
me that the people want to give us a 
fair deal in the matter. We are all 
paying nearly twice, and for some 
feeds more than twice the normal 
price. Hay is higher and labor is 
higher and still they want us to pro- 
duce milk and sell it at the old price. 
We have a milk route in this town. 
The first thing people cut out is milk 
and they will go and pay a great deal 
bigger price for some other thing that 
hasn't near the food value. We are 
not members of the Twin City Milk 
Producers' Association, but we believe 
in them to the last ditch. There is 
nothing that would suit me better than 
to see the Twin Cities go up against 
a real good milk famine. I am sure 
that the producer has a right to mar- 
ket his goods where he can get the 
best price. I agree with Col. March 
when he states that the council of 
Minneapolis was looking for some 
cheap lime light when they started 
this milk investigation. 

We have had a hard time to get 
people to stay with us on 8 cent milk 
here In the country but I think that 
we have them coming now and they 
will stay. 



— Using the production of 1913 as a 
basis, the French sugar beet crop for 
1917 is short 67.9 per cent, or 148,- 
000,000 bushels. This heavy loss to 
the resources of France explains her 
desperate need for sugar and her de- 
pendence on imports. 



on KEROSENE, FUEL OIL 
or ANY OILTHW FLOWS 

A dollar saved on tKe coat of production meaiw a 
dollar added to your net income. 

Five or ten years a^o, gasoline cost 10 cents per gallon. 
Today it is twice and three times tKat figure. If you can 
save tKe difference between the old cost and the present, 
it means just that much added profit. 

But you can-do more than that cost of fuel. The satisfactory sab- 



with the new Evinrude Oil En- 
gine. Built to start and run on 
kerosene and fuel oils, it operates 
at a saving of four-fifths on the 



stitution of these low ^rade and 
easily obtainable oils for costly 
gasoline represents a real addition 
to your farm income. The 



(unconditionally guaranteed) 

embodies the most advanced principles of en^ne constrtiction and 
workmanship. It is built to stand the hard usa^e of daily farm de- 
mands and every complicated and troublesome device has been eli* 
minated. It does not require an expert operator. Starting readily, 
even in zero weather, you may depend upon it to ran without atten- 
tion as long as there is fuel in the feed tank. An efScient, 
dependable and practical farm engine placed in yourreach. 

Tear out this pa^e, MTrite your name and address on the mar^n, 
and mail to us for catalog and fully descriptive literature, 

DEALERS: Responsihle dealers (we invited to write far full 
information as to exclusive territory. 

Evinrude Motor Co. 9 ^nlwAUKElf'^s. 



Also Mfrs. of the Evinrude Detachable Rowboat and Canoe Motor 



No carbnrctor, 
mixing valve, 
batteries, ma^ 
neto, timer, 
coils, wiring, 
switches or 
spark plug. 
Ignition produced 
by hi&h 
temperature 
generated during 
Icompressioa strtdca. 




ave Wisely^ 

Whare Quality Counts Most 

Get your range direct from Kalamazoo 
manufacturers — save money in buying — save 
high priced fuel in use. Get this book showing: 
our full line — stoves, ranges, all styie^ aad sizes 
—built right up to the highest mark of (juality. 

Quick Sliipment— we pay the freight and guarantee 
safe delivery. Cash or easy payments. 30 days' 
tnal. Thousands eave money— why don 't you? Write today. 
Ask for Catalog No. 120 
MUMAZCO STOVE CO., Mfrs.. KALAMAZOO, MICHISAN 
We manufacture Stoves, Ranees, Gaa Ranges, 
Furnaces, Kitchen Kshinets, Tables. 




GUARANTEE 

Against Reduction 



Government prices on steel and iron do not affect con- 
tracts which the mills had before prices were fixed by the 
■ B sn^b government. As these contracts are at much higher 

In i^ivil^it^^ prices, and will take the output of the larger miils for 
■■■ ■ iwi^i^fci^y many months we do not see any possibility for lower 
prices on stoves and furnaces than those we now quote. But if by any chance should 
we be able to reduce our prices before July 1st, 1918, we guarantee to refund 
you the difference between the trew price and the price you pay. 
Write today. KALAMAZOO STOVE COMPANY, MFRS., Kalamazoo, Mich. 



A Good School 

That offers most thoi'o courses in Prepara- 
tory, Bookkeeping, Shorthand, Stenotypy and 
Typewriting. On act nt of the war there is a 
Tremendous demand at (j. /d salaries. This school 
is known all over the Northwest for its super 
lor training. WrUfl for Ca,',alog today. 

AUSTIN SCHOOL OF COMIIERCE, lUSTIN, MIKN. 



Coffee Wliolesale 

10 lbs. © 25c S2.60 Prepaid J Add 3c per lb. In Bill 

18 lbs. @ 24e. $4.32 Prepaid) mm from SI. Paul 

60 lbs. ("1 23c $11.60 By Freight Prepaid 

This ColTee is guaranteed and if not saiisfac- 
tory return italourexpcnsoandgetyourmoney 
back. Order this coffee and you'll always buy it. 
JAPAN TKA COMPANY 
F. B. Anderson, Mcr. 
I 45 W. 6lh SIroel ST. PAUL, MINN. 



y—^ Beacon Len 



FroiDfiGforrlouur 



duplicated at less 
than retail prices. 

ns Grinder f-.:;! 



Buy ^OrCCir WHOLEMLB 
Your y^yJT r C.C. IN 6»LB LOTS 

Get the BK8T and SATEIO ots per poand. 
WB PAT POST, EXPKFS.S or FREIGUT 

IF TOP l»VH QOOD CnFFKR RPHt) KOH i-HTPR f 1>T 

JBVmt COFFEE CO. (EstlSSl) Coffee Specialists 
Oeotai. 2»55-S7 W. Madl«m St.. CHICAOO. 



FPFF Wonderful Book 



birds, , 

. heads and tun 

Learn by mail. A necessity for huriterg 
uod nature Ijvera. Quickly learned by men 
andwomeo- Fuscinatin*?- Success guaTant^a. 
Decorate FOOT home and deo witb epleodid art. 
Make biK profits from yoar spare time.. WntO 
today for illuBtrrited book. It'U delight you. 
'- W.Vhool y* T^x)dermy|407l EI wood Bldg.. 




Omaha 



Wrestling Book FREB 

Here's year chance to bfl an expert wrestler. Learn, 
easily at honae by m^il from world's champions I 
Frank Gotch and Farmer Bums. Free book tells I 
son how. Secret holds, blocks und triclin revealed. I 
Don't delay. Baatronfr aud bealrliy. Handle bie| 
men with esBo. Write todcv. S fa your •ire. I 
_FjrmT BumSf^OT \ Rameo Bldg., Omaha. HthA 



MOVIE MACHIHE eBCE 

Havayo4trown'*movi«" ■■^•^^ 

at horn.. A wonderful moWnff plctmv ma. 

chine, oomplet. with (rosffenontoruidSsets 
reel., all different view.). Powerful lens 
■howiiuK pioturM l»vre uid G)e«r, Giv«i for 
aellfosr 25artaDdrelli^iou picuires or£fi pkfrs. 
poet «ar<ra at lOo each. Ordor etuite. todsjr. 
OATESMFa,Ca, Oipt.t321 CHrCASA 




FA.TH33SrT A.TTO]R.3SrH3YS. 

WILLIAMSON & MERCHANT, <JM.T. 
Williamson aad Frank D. Merchant), patenC 
attorneys and solicitors; main ofiBoe. 929-931 
Guaranty Loan Building, Minneapollb, Minn. : 
branch office. Room 63, McGlU BulWln«, 
Washington, D. C. 



When writing to advprtl»er» slway« 

mention Farm. Stock and' 'Bom. 



24 



FARM. STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 




M. Slovak, tbe sveat artist, in bis 
Idealization, "The Swastika Girl," chos- 
en as the subject for illustrating the 
Nineteen Ei^^hteen Parin, Stock & Home 
calendar oft'er, bas, indeed, transcribed 
onto his canvass, in a most happy >vay, 
n most bewildering,' color arrangement 
as be conceives to be tbe red man's 
ideal of young womanhood. The ex- 
pression of it is accentuated by the 
chromatic in an eirort that required 
the rainbow should be ro3>cd and the 
spectrum ravished and nil the captured 
colors compelSed to contribute to this 
captivating color effect. 

Send us a dime tor a two months' 
subscription to Parni, Stock & Home 
from someone not now a subscriber. 

Immediately on receipt of the ten 
cents, we will send the new subscriber 
a calendar (size 7 inches by 32 leches) 
and we will also send a calendar to 
you. 



Farm, Stock & Home, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Knclosed find a dime. For It send 
F.; S. & H. two months, and a calen- 
dar to 



Name 



H. V. n. 



You will also send a calendar to my 
address, which Is 



Name 



r. O. 



II. F. D. 



FREE 



LITERATURE ON 

ECONOMIC SUBJECTS • 



FREE 



■ • --".ted write for FREE ECONOMIC 
rURE. pertaining to Direct Leg- 
Public Ownership or Single 
ease state in which subject you 
are especially interested. 

F. H. MOHROE, President, 
Henry George Lecture Ass'n, PALOS PARK. ILLS 

Free for the Asking l:;::^"^^ 

MRTniDat, 1070 Hsnnopin Ai'*nn*, Mlnnoapelte. 
lilnil.. 9mQr»imrf P. O. M. Unllarlai, ohurnh. 



When writing to ndvertlBera alwaya 
m-iiiiQii Farm. Stook and Home. 



FASHION LETTER. 

Fashions which interest the home 
woman are the things for herself and 
children which are simple and easy to 
make, and the style features are not 
lacking in this selection of useful gar- 
ments. 

l<"irst of all there Is the high col- 
lared waist which is being worn by 
well dressed women because it is so 
simi)lo and businesslike. If you do 
not care for the high neck, the waist 
is equally pretty with the collar rolled 
low. A little more dressy is the waist 
gathered at the shoulders with the 
fashionable long shawl collar. 

A very good looking house dress 
which will require very little time to 
make is also sliown. It hangs straight 
from the shoulders, but a narrow belt 
r.t the waistline gives a trim appear- 
ance. To save the dress you should 
have one or two of those quickly made 
one-piece slip-on aprons. 

Simple, but in very good taste is 
every one of the dresses illustrated 
for school girls. The jumper dress 
with plaited skirt has a gulmpe of 
contrasting material. The little coat 
dress is in one piece, and is belted in 
at the waistline. A very tiny girl 
may wear the little coivt dress which 
is p,athered at front and back to the 
yoke. 

A coat which can be made success- 
fully by the home dressmaker has a 
single-breasted closing, and a convert- 
ible collar wl'ich may be buttoned up 
as shown in tlie sketch, or opened out 
over the shoulders. The coat may bo 
worn with or without the belt. 

8632.— When the neck of this waist 
Is worn buttoned up, there is a point- 
ed diagonal side closing which is very 
attractive, but when the collar is rolled 
low the fronts turn back to form wide 
reveres. The long sleeves are gath- 



ered into deep cuffs. Sizes, 36 to 42 
inches bust measure. 

8637. — This dress for a tiny girl goes 
on like a coat and buttons all the way 
down the front. It is gathered across 
front and back to a shoulder yoke. 
The wide sailor collar is lace trimmed. 
The sleeves may be made long or 
short. Sizes, 2 to 8 years. 

8.'{56. — A semi-tailored shirtwaist 
with a long roll collar is very fashion- 
able. There is an inset vest which 
gives the square neck effect. The 
waist is gathered at the shoulders. 
The sleeves may be long or short. 
Sizes, 36 to 44 inches bust measure. 

8606. — This single-breasted coat 
model hangs straight from shoulder 
to hem, but it is belted in at the waist- 
line. The collar is the most interest- 
ing feature, for it may be worn high 
or low. The sleeves are finished with 
turned back cuffs. Sizes, 4 to 12 years. 

8639.— The advantage of this prett" 
little dress for the school girl is that 
it slips on over the he d and requires 
no fastenings of any kind. The plait- 
ed skirt has a straight lower edge, 
and it is joined to the blouse at the 
low waistline. Sizes, 4 to 10 years. 

8619.— This is the easiest kind of 
an apron to make, for it is all in one 
piece and buttons under the arms. 
The neck is cut quite low and round 
at back and front and the apron is 
to be slipped on over the head. The 
apron is cut in one size. 

8627. — This neat house dress has a 
double front, so that when one side 
becomes soiled the other may be; 
turned out to save laundering. The 
sleeves may be long or short. The 
dress is in one piece from shoulder 
to hem and the belt holds it in at the 
waistline. Sizes, 36 to 46 inches bust 
measure. 

8604. — A one-piece dress which 
opens like a coat. It is belted in at 



Be Sure and Give Size When Ordering Patterns. 




For sizes and descriptions see Fashion Letter. 



SPECIAL NOTICE— READ CAREFULLY.— No patterns exchangred. Be sure you 
arc Blvlng (he number of the pattern you want, for we cannot aflord to be respon- 
Bible for your ' wn mistakes. 

NOTICE. — Send all orders for patterns to Pattern Department, Farm, Stock & 
Home. Do not send to Mrs. Blgclow, Home Council, or anyone else. Send them all 
to I'attern Department, Farm, Stock & Home, Minneapolis. Minn. If we do not send 
you pattern ordered we will, of course, make it right. 

Some co.citume patterns have two numbers, one opposite to, and referring to 
waist and one to skirt. In such case there are two separate patterns, 10 cents each. 

All patterns sent on receipt of 10 cents each. Be very careful to state not only 
the number of pattern but also the size wanted, either by waist or bust measure or 
9,»re. as noted In descriptive matter, and give full address. The omission of any one 
-)f these particulars necessitates the delay of correspondence and further expense of 
poHtfiKe. 

Do not cut out the picture of pattern wanted. It Is likely to get separated 
from your lettar. All you OMd to do la to 'nltr tho numbw ot the pattern waated. 



the normal waistline. The long sleeves 
are gathered into turned-back cuffs, 
and there is a broad collar of the eame 
material. I^rgo patch pockets are 
stitched at the sides. Sizes, 6 to 14 
years. 



Free Book hy Invcntcir of FI-T, K Silo. Write 
Hewitt-LM-Fnnck Co., Hewitt BiJg., SuinDer,Wa$h. 



I 



The Fat of the Land 
Is Yours in Manitoba 

Wheat Fields 

The WheatFieldsof Manitoba 
are calling you. Come where 
Golden Grain brings Golden 
Gain. Leave the high-priced 
land and live on your own farm 
in Mid- Western Canada— $25 
to $35 an acre is all you pay — 
Easy Terms of Payment. 

Manitoba Wants You 

because you can make big money at 
mixed fanning, stock raising, and 
dairying, besides raising wheat. Re- 
member, Manitoba Wheat won the 
World's Wheat Championship, Sept. 
23, 1917, at the Twelfth International 
Soil Products Exposition, held atPeoria, 
111. — besides winning all other wheat 
prizes. , 

Remember, live stock will be needed 
in Europe to replenish herds killed off 
for food supply. It would be well 
worth your while to look into the big 
opportunities for stock raising that are 
offered by Manitoba. We have a special 
free book on the subject 

Land values in Manitoba, it is freely 
predicted, will double in price, after 
peace has been declared. Get in now, 
before the big rush of homeseekers. 

Free Books 

Don't fail to send for these Free 
Books offered by the Manitoba Gov- 
ernment. They tell the story of success 
made in Manitoba of farmers from 
various parts of the United States. 

XXTs^f-A lljAiiir Just send the coupon 
WW a a.M,^ x^%9WV or put your name and 
addressx>n a post-card, and we wrill send these 
free illustrated books by return mail. 



FREE COUPON 



Superintendent of Immigration and Colonization 
Province of Manitoba 



I 

Room No. 717 Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada | 
Dear Sir: Please send me your Free Books on Mani- ■ 
toba Farming. I 

Name ■ 



Address . 




Inventions Wanted! 

Manufacturers constantly writing os 
'for patents. List of Inventions actually 
requested and book "How to Obtain a Pat- 
,ent" sent free. Send rough Bketch for free 
report regrarding patentability. Special assist- 
ance given our clients in selling patents. 
Write for details of interest to every inventor. 

Cliandlee & Chandlee» Patent Attoraeyi 
Est. 22 Year* 423 TthSt.^Washingtoo.D.C' 



9 • Passenger TouriD^ Car 

To be Given Away 

April 1, 1918 




Our plan is absoluteiy fair to each one 
who taices part. No one will have ins^do 
information. There is no element of 
chance involved. Write for specifica- 
tions of car and full particulars of the 
plan. 

Farm, Stock & Home. Minneapolis. 

Si i'd me f-peciaoations of the auto you will 
give away April 1, 1918, and all other informa- 
tion regarding it. 

Name 

P.O 

R. F.V 



January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



26 



M^e's 7^ New 1915 
CA1aIX>Ci of Seed & Nursery 
BARGAINS - Send for it 



WORLD DEMOCRACY IN 1918. 

[Continued from page 7.] 

praised and approved, and these loans 
■will now be closed. That leaves about 
$10,000,000 in loans for us to close 
between now and spring, as fast as 
the papers are signed and recorded 
and as fast as the farmers want the 
money. The appraisers are still work- 
ing in the field and I anticipate that 
they will be able to appraise and ap- 
prove of probably $5,000,000 more in 
loans before their work ceases this 
fall. 

We have very little trouble in form- 
ing the farm loan associations, and 
after they are formed they are char- 
tered for all time. It is a simple mat- 
ter to receive a loan thru an associa- 
tion after they once their their char- 
ter. If the work will be continued 
next summer at about the same speed, 
I anticipate that every county in the 
Seventh District will be organized be- 
fore December 1st next fall. In other 
words, the Seventh District will be 
completely organized in about a year 
and a half after the bank was opened 
for business. 

The principle upon which the law 
operates is sound. We are offering to 
the farmers a low rate of interest, 
namely, 5 per cent, and the money is 
loaned to the farmer for a long period 
of time and paid back on the amortiza- 
tion plan. This is the way in which 
real estate loans should be made. The 
farmer is now, for the first time, given 
real long time credit on a correct basis. 
The purpose for which the money is 
wanted, as stated in the application, 
is interesting, as it shows a gradual 
development of the agricultural indus- 
try. About 70 per cent of the loans 
applied for are to be used to take up 
old mortgages made for a short time 
and at higher rates of interest. The 
other 30 per cent is divided between 
purchasing livestock, erecting build- 
ings, purchasing land, building silos, 
equipment, etc. It shows that the 
farmers are willing to borrow money 
under this plan in order to improve 
their farming conditions and practice 
a better system of farming by going 
into the livestock industry, rotating 
crops, etc. 

I might state here that the farm 
journals have rendered invaluable 
service to the farm loan system by 
printing articles from month to month 
which have explained it to the farm- 
ers in detail. Thru this means of 
publicity the farmers have been 
reached, and it was a service which 
has been entirely voluntary on the 
part of the owners of these journals. 
They have probably done more to ex- 
plain this new service than all other 
agencies combined, and just credit 
should be given where it belongs. 

The Federal land banks have been 
in operation only a little over six 
months, but in this brief period they 
have demonstrated absolutely that the 
system is safe and sound and that the 
law is workable and will render the 
service to the farmer which Congress 
anticipated. It was to be understood 
that considerable time was required to 
organize such a comprehensive system 
as this, not only the banks had to be 
organized in all their departments, but 
districts had to be divided, associa- 
tions formed and chartered, appraisers 
appointed and economic study inaugur- 
ated with respect to agricultural con- 
ditions, soil conditions, land values, 
marketing conditions, etc., and all this 
had to be done the first year. As the 
system v/as entirely new, we had no 
experience to guide us. Every prob- 
lem that came up was new and had to 
be decided, and rulings made from day 
to day, rulings which will become the 
fundamental law of the system for the 
future. As the work goes on it will be 
easier every day, as the system be- 
comes established work will be speed- 
ed up, short-cuts will be made where- 
ever they can be, every department 
co-ordinated, waste time will be elim- 
inated and as the machine becomes 
perfected from month to month and 
year to year, I can see no reason why 
the Federal land banks would not be 
able to do ja great volume of business 
end do it correctly and more quickly 
than any other loaning agency that 
ever occupied the field. We will have 
the knowledge, the experience and the 
Information which no other loaning or- 
ganization ever had. The farmers will 
gradually become familiar with the 
law and the rulings of the board so 
that they can comply with the require- 
ments and every detail will be attend- 
ed to promptly and this, of course, will 
help to speed up the work. 

When we commenced our work we 
■were told that the system would never 
Bucceed because the farmers would not 
be able to understand it and there 



would be such delay here and there 
that practically no business could 
be done. We never believed this, and ex- 
perience has shown to us that these 
men were wrong. The farmers have 
taken hold of this matter and have 
shown that they had a full understand- 
ing of this law right from the begin- 
ning. 



HOW TO MEET THE GAR SHORTAGE. 

BY HUGH J. HUGHES. 

The railroads of the United States 
have increased their rolling stock 2 
per cent during the last three years. 

During the same time, the volume of 
business to be handled has increased 
70 per cent. 

The tremendous loss of shipping 
has had the effect of clogging our 
Eastern ports with shipments destined 
for Europe, and Eastern lines of rail- 
roads are congested with freight oc- 
casioned by orders from our allies and 
for our own armies. The result is 
that thousands of freight cars have 
moved from Western to Eastern lines 
and are still held in that section of 
the country. 

On the other hand Eastern cars 
have been withdrawn from Western 
lines and the natural result is a famine 
of freight equipment on Western 
roads. 

In Minnesota this shortage of equip- 
ment averages something like 30 per 
cent. 

Much of the business of the North- 
west is seasonal, i. e., the bulk of 
the grain is moved between Septem- 
ber 15th and January 1st; the bulk 
of the potato crop is moved between 
September 15th and December 1st; the 
bulk of the livestock shipments comes 
between September 1st and February 
1st; the bulk of the coal shipment 
comes during the period September to 
February. 

The railroads, consequently, are ex- 
pected to move the maximun number 
of cars during the fall and early -win- 
ter. 

If these shipments could be spread 
out over the year, a much smaller 
number of cars and engines could take 
care of the business. 

This period of heavy freight falls at 
the same time that the maximum 
freight is being hauled thruout North- 
em United States, coal, grain, live- 
stock, fruit and other perishables. 

So, the situation is not local but 
national. 

What We Might Do. 

This fall the car situation has been 
unusually serious, especially the mat- 
ter of providing refrigerator cars for 
potatoes. 

Yet, the railroads show by actual 
figures that they have supplied during 
the past fall enough refrigerator cars 
to have moved the entire Minnesota 
potato crop. 

What is the answer? 

Underloading. 

The custom of the potato trade 
makes 600 bushels a car load. Six 
hundred bushels is only 50 per cent 
of the capacity of the modern refrig- 
erator car. The man who loads a car 
to but 50 per cent of its capacity is 
not giving himself service and he is 
at the same time depriving his neigh- 
bor of a car. The rule of minimum 




T) Y all means, send for My Catalog this year. Never 
in the history of the World has there been such a 
tremendous shortage of seeds. I knew there would be 
a big shortage a long time ago, so I did my best to help you 
out by producing all the seeds I could. 
Even though I had all the seeds in the coun- 
try this year, I could not supply the demand. 
If you understood the seed situation as I do, 
if you could see the hundreds of lettei's com- 
ing in from my friends everywhere begging 
for seeds, you wouldn't lose a second's time, 
but write for My Catalog at once. I know 
many of my friends will lose out on 
seeds this year, but when my supply 
is gone, a million dollars couldn't buy 
seeds from me, even as much 
as I want to help you out. 




Vou can now 
have all the 
apples, plums and cherries you want. My 
apple, plum and cherry trees are espe- 
cially grown for this Northern Section. 
They are the hardiest, strongest trees money and 
science can produce — and they baar the most 
delicious fruit you ever tasted. Hansen Plums 
produce fruit in two years. My apples on the 
wonderful Baccata Root withstand the coldest 
weather and cr>n be successfully grown every- 
where. Don't think that because apples have never 
before been grown in your neighborhood that you 
can't grow them. Get rome of my trees and sur- 
prise yourself and neighbors. You'll be delightedl 
Get my catalog right away and see these fine bar- 
gains lor yourself. Simply mail the Coupon. ^ 

D. B. CURNEY, Pres., i 

I 

Gurney Seeds Nursery Co. a 

105 Gurney Square, Yankton, S. D. 



Mr. D. B. Curncy, Pres., 
GURNEY SEED & NURSERY CO., 
105 Gurney Square, Yankton S. D. 
Dear Sir: Send ma your free Catalog at once. 

Name 



Town 

State- 



.'R. F. D.. 




At Your Local Stores, 



OUR readers will find many lines of goods advertised in 
Farm, Stock & Home that are on sale or should be on 
sale, at the stores in which they trade' 
Ask your merchants for the goods you see advertised in 
Farm, Stock & Home and tell them where you saw the adver- 
tisements. 

If there are any goods advertised in this publication that 
you cannot buy at your regular places of trading, write us 
what the articles are, and tell us the names of your local dealers. 
Farm, Stock & Home, Mmneapolis, Minn. 



When writing to advertisers do not forget to mention Farm, 
Stock and Home. It will do you and the advertiser good. 



GRAVE tY'S 

CELEDRAXED 

Real Qiewing Plwg 

fiadaStrltttuiirilBattSn^QjudSf _ 

Before the !nventIon 
et our Patent Air Proof PoucN 
Many Dealers Could Not Keep 
the Flavor and Freshness In 
PEAL GRAVELY PLUG TOBACCO, 
Now the Patent Pouch Keeps It 
Fresh and Clean and Good. 
A Little Chew of Gravely Is Enough 
•nd Lasts Longer than ■ big ohsvw 
of ordinary plug. 

— ^ — 



MJSTER qOAT-yoU CAN BE 
'EXCUSED FOR CHEWING ANV 
. OLD THING BECAUSE you CAN* 
I READ THAT BILL SOAR.0. p 




lOOK FOR THe rnffTECVOti 

seAL ins NOT Re At. 

GAtAVfiY WITHOUT 
THIS SEAL 




26 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



loading should give place to "loading 
to capacity," and all exceptions to this 
rule Bhmilfl lie taUen up on the merits 
of the iT\dlvidual case. This would 
help malorially to relieve the refrig- 
erator car shortage and to some ex- 
tent the fihortages in other lines. 

Shorten iho time allowed for load- 
insj; and unloiwllng. Ordinarily time is 
wasted at both ends. The obligation 
for rapid movement falls on the rail- 
road and the shipper and consignee. 
Unless all work to one end there is 
waste of rolling stock. The car stand- 
ing idle OH the tracks one day during 
the period between spotting and un- 
loading, loses, on the average, 15 per 
cent of its total efficiency. Keep the 
cars moving; cut out the short haul, 
loading cars for a ten or fifteen mile 
haul is not unusual. In most cases 
this can be prevented by some other 
means. Cattle can be driven to mar- 
ket; motor trucks can be used. Re- 
member that the short haul reduces 
the efficiency of the car to its lowest 
point, bec.iuse the time taken for load- 
ing aud unloading consumes the larg- 
est part of the total time that the car 
is employed for the short haul ship- 
ment. Cut out the "cross haul." Hay 
is today being shipped out of neigh- 
borhoods in Minnesota that are com- 
pelled to buy hay. Such conditions 
mean a total waste of railroad equip- 
ment and entirely remove cars for a 
time from service that actually is 
necessary. 

Fill up the local market before at- 
tempting to ship. 

(a) Advertise your products. 

(b) Buy locally wherever possible. 

(c) Turn your raw material into 
the most compact possible form for 
shipment, i. e., hay into beef or but- 
ter, corn into swine or beef. 



HIDES AND LEATHER DURING THE WAR. 

WILLIAM J. BtrRNBTT 

The market recently has taken a 
big slump; the causes are these: 

First cause: Over speculation by 
packers and dealers in. last two years, 
largely due to big war orders received 
from the Allies. The effect of this 
was to cause speculators to hoard up 
big stocks, expecting further advance. 
This caused the tanners to buy for- 
eign hides. Vast quantities were im- 
ported and the foreign exporters 
shipped immense quantities here, be- 
ing attracted by the high prices in 
this country, also it being difficult to 
ship to Europe. 

Second cause: High prices of 
leather and shoes caused the people 
to economize. This greatly decreased 
the consumption. Tanners having paid 
high prices for hides and skins held 
up their prices for leather, but are 
now having a very poor trade in this 
country. The result is they have been 
buying very few hides, going from 
hand to mouth for several months. 

Third cause: Most all the war or- 
ders prescribed leather made from 
packers hides. Isn't it easy to figure 
out the result when country hides 
were being so discriminated against, 
unwisely, we think? With immense 
stocks imported during the excitement, 
with millions of hides being held in 
many places in this country in deal- 
ers and small country packers' hands, 
with people economizing on foot- 
wear, and many foreign children go- 
ing without, what else could be ex- 
pected but a big decline? 

Fourth cause: Very recently the 
United States Government sent out 
demands to all packers and country 
dealers to report stocks on hand, evi- 
dently with the purpose of fixing a 
price on hides and leather, same as 
they have on wheat and coal. We 
think that is the cause of this last 
decline. Hides now have declined 
from one-fourth to one-third cent in 
value from the extreme prices that ob- 
tained during the excitement; they 
may be as low as they will go, but 
no one can tell. Even now hides and 
skins, at the big decline, are extremely 
high compared to the previous ten- 
year average. All that are slaughtered 
and those from animals that may die, 
should be carefully taken off and 
sh timed to market. 



THE MILEIN6 MACHINE. 

iiy B. 1). itiNonAM. 

The development of new farm op- 
erating machinory during the last few 
years has kept psice with the general 
progress of the times. Within the last 
few years, wo have seen the develop- 
ment of ttio tractor, which has in- 
creased the efiiclcncy of man power 
rii' the farm many fold. 

Dairying on tho farm Is also com- 



ing to be considered as one of the 
principal features of farrm work, and 
in many cases is really considered 
the j)rincipal work of the farm. It is 
well known that the farmer that milks 
a bunch of cows has always been a 
good debt payer. There is not such 
a great element of chance as in grain 
farming, nor even in raising beef cat- 
tle; but, just milking cows does not 
meet the economic requirements of 
these times. The man who would 
make a success of dairy farming now, 
must not be satisfied with "just cows," 
but must strive to be ever improving 
his herd. Haphazard dairying will not 
bring success any more than haphaz- 
ard management of any other busi- 
ness. The successful dairy farmer, in 
order to improve his dairy herd and 
eliminate the non-paying cows, must 
be a regular user of the scale and 
tester, to determine which of his cows 
are producing profit. 

In addition to this, it is essential to 
increase the efficiency of his dairy 
work by introducing such machines 
and barn equipment as will save labor. 

We can think of no other one thing 
that will sive as much labor for the 
dairy farmer as the milking machine. 
There can no longer be any question 
of the practicability of the milking 
macliine. Of course, it goes without 
question that some machines are 
much better than others, just as the 
same holds true of other lines of ma- 
chinery. Milking machines are being 
used today on many of the highest 
priced herds in the country. Their 
success is established. It only re- 
mains, then, for the dairy farmer to 
take advantage of this labor saving 
machine. 



Competent labor such as the dairy 
farmer requires, has been scarce for 
some years past, and now that so 
many of our young men are being 
called to the colors. It naturally fol- 
lows that help will be more scarce 
than ever before. Under these condi- 
tions the purchase of a milking ma- 
chine is, without question, the best in- 
vestment that a dairy farmer can 
make. 

With the use of a milking machine 
it is possible for one maij, to milk as 
many as thirty or forty cows alone, 
something that would be a physical 
impossibility without the use of the 
machine. 

Aside, however, from the economic 
phase of the subject, is what might 
be termed the social side of it. Our 
standards of living have raised not 
only in the cities but on the farm; In 
fact, quite possibly more on the farm 
than anywhere else. The farmers in 
the last few years have enjoyed un- 
precedented prosperity as a rule. They 
have bought automobiles, talking ma- 
chines; have sent their boys and girls 
to college; they dress better and take 
more enjoyment out of life than farm- 
ers could do twenty years ago. Hav- 
ing modern conveniences on their 
farms, and enjoying mr.ny of the lux- 
uries, or at least what were consid- 
ered luxuries a few years ago, the 
farmer of today is not going to be 
satisfied to sit down and milk cows by 
hand, knowing that eight or ten cows 
is his limit, when it is possible for 
him to do the work with a milking 
machine, which not only makes his 
work much more pleasant, but also 
enables him to do three times as much. 

These are some of the things that 



are going to make 1918 a banner year 
for the milking machine business. 
Another aspect of the situation is the 
patriotic viewpoint. We are told, by 
no less a personage than President 
Wilson himself, that, in a large meas- 
ure tho responsibility of winning this 
war, rests with the farmers. It is 
necessary to increase the production 
of food products, not only for our own 
account, but to help feed our Allies. 
The American farmer is as patriotic 
as anyone, and we are sure that a 
great number of farmers will be in- 
fluenced to buy milking machines by 
this one thought, that it will enable 
them to contribute their share toward 
the successful prosecution of the war. 

There are, however, some critical 
conditions to meet. Factory labor is 
becoming scarce. Material of various 
kinds is hard to obtain and it is very 
likely that the output of the various 
milking machine companies will be 
more or less curtailed. It is advisable, 
therefore, to make the decision early. 
We would respectfully urge your read- 
ers to investigate the merits of the 
different milking machines as early as 
possible, if they have not already done 
so, and place their orders at the 
earliest date possible. Later in the 
year it may not be possible to ;nake 
deliveries when they are wanted. 



IMPROVE EQUIPMENT AND PRODDCTION. 

JIY ISAAC LINCOLN 

Situated as the country is, it is nec- 
essary that every farmer in the 
Northwest should do his utmost in the 
production of both grain and livestock. 
The question of labor Is one that will 



Strangling the Periodicals 

Congress at its last session passed a hasty postal law increas- 
ing the postage on periodicals from FIFTY TO NINE HUN- 
DRED PER CENT. 

Some periodicals will be killed — all will be restricted m circu- 
lation and crippled. There will be fewer readers, and the habit 
of reading curtailed. The great function of periodicals is to 
assist in the spread of ideas — by printing the achievements in the 
world of thought, culture, and science. 

Thus to shut out farm journals — as these zone rates will — will 
lessen the productive power of our country by millions of dollars 
thru loss of better methods. Shut of? trade journals and you 
decrease the manufacturing power by more millions. Shut off 
the religious papers and there are shut off channels that have 
raised millions of dollars for distressed humanity. Shut off the 
great periodicals of the home and there is throttled an avenue 
that has given expert instruction to hundreds of thousands of 
mothers and saved their babies to health and citizenship. 

These national periodicals are printed in the big cities — and 
the first zone, the cheapest zone, is in or near those cities; there 
are many educational opportunities near cities, and the cities will 
read anyway. Small towns and distant districts depend to a 
large extent upon periodicals; thus this law increasing periodical 
postage where it is most needed shuts ofif opportunity where 
needed. It penalizes periodical readers. 

Repeal -this 'law. Repeal this FIFTY TO NINE HUNDRED 
PER CENT periodical postage increase. Sign the petition 
below and m.ail it. Put a cross mark in the square — save the 
periodicals and the work that they have done and are doing for 
national education and patriotism. 



SIGN BELOW 



CUT OUT. MAIL TO CHARLES JOHNSON' POST, Room 1417, 200 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 



PETITION TO CONGRESS— Sign Here! 



The spread of education, of culture, of scientific knowledtre and advancement, and of our vast internal mercliandising and 
niannfacluring has been, and always is, vitally dependent upon the freest and cheapest circulation of periodicals. The penalties 
resulting from any restriction on the freest ^jossiblc circulation of periodicals will be destructive of the best interests of our economic 
life and the opportunities of developing our best citizenship. . 

Tlie riosta! amendment passed by the last Congress increasing the postage on periodicals from FIFTY TO NINE HUNDRED 
PER' CENT will throttle or destroy our periodicals at a time when tlie widest and most extensive circulation of publications is 
essential to the patriotism, education, and upbuilding of our country. , . . 

Therefore, 1 the undersigned, do most earnestly demand the repeal of th%s burdensome periodical postage amendment. 



Na 



Post Office. 



State 



Kural Koiiti 



your lil 

a s|)are moment, put a cross mark here. 

Will you help in securing the repeal of this iniquitous law? 
CUT OUT. MAIL TO CHARLES JOHNSON POST, Room 1417, 200 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY. 



January 1, 1918. 



PABM, STOCK AND HOME. 



27 



"FOSTER" TANNING 

SINCE 1880 • 



PARMSTOCKAN 
DHOMETKEMOS 
TVALUABLEPB 
RMANENTIMPR 
OVEMENTTHAT 
CANBEMADETO 
THEOLDFARM. 

Here is a new game. The 76 letters 
in the little chart form seventeen 
Words of Wisdom, and they are not 
the jumble that, on first squint, they 
seem to be. 

The winner of the game must do 
these things better than any other 
player: 

1. Pick out the seventeen Words of 
Wisdom and write them down. Dis- 
play your very best skill when doing 
this and, of course, you must pick out 
the correct Words of Wisdom. 

2. Next see how many times you 
can form each different one of these 
seventeen Words of Wisdom by vising 
the letters in the little chart. A letter 
may be used as many times as it oc- 
curs in the chart, but not more. For 
example: Take the word "The." It 
appears two times in the Words of 
Wisdom. The letter "T" and the letter 
"E" each appears ten times in the chart 
and the letter "H" appears but four 
times. Therefore, you can form word 
"The" but four times, being restricted 
by the letter "H" which appears in 
the chart four times. 

3. Ne.xt step in the game is to cor- 
rectly write each word as many times 
as you have a ) ight to form it without 
violating the rule, "Not to use a letter 
more times when forming a word than 
the letter occurs in the chart." Bear 
in mind to use your best skill in pen- 
manship when writing the words. Mis- 
spelled words will count against you. 

Everyone submitting an answer to 
this game will get a prize costing not 
less than 25c which we will buy for 
you in the store of any merchant in 
your nearest town or anvwhere else 
that you say. 

The player who turns in the best an- 
swer accbrding to the decision of three 
judges will be given a ?10 book of 
Liberty Lioan stamps. 

The player whose answer the judges 
decide as standing second will get a 
J5.00 book of Liberty Loan stamps. 

The ne.xt ten players who turn in 
the answers selected by the judges as 
being the next ten best will, each of 
them, get a 50c book of Liberty Loan 
stamps. 

All answers must be in the mail or 
at your nearest Postoffice before mid- 
night of January 31st. The successful 
players will be announced as soon as 
the judges give their decision. 

The judges will be the President of 
the Minneapolis Business College, an 
Expert Accountant, and the Circulation 
Manager of another paper. 

Each player must make a 75c sub 
scription payment when he sends us 
his answer. The payment will be cred 
ited to his own or the subscription of 
anyone else as he directs. Old sub- 
.scribers count the same as new. Old 
subscribers' paid time will be extended 
one year from expiration date shown 
on label pasted on his paper. 

Farm, Stock & Home: 

Here is a 75c subscription payment 
and my list of Words of Wisdom. 

Credit the 75c to the subscription ac- 
count of 

Name 



P. O. 



n. F. D Box No 

You will give me credit for the 75c 
subscription payment in the Words of 
Wisdom game: 



Name 



P. O 



, . Box No. 



n. F. D 

When ties occur exactly similar 
prizes of same value will be given. 

ONEIDA COMMUNITY 
PAR PLATE 

Guaranteed for Ten Years 

Lady Randolpii Churchill, mother of the 
English Statesman, Winston Churchill, is 
one of the distinsfuished patrons of Oneida 
Coromuriity, Ltd., among whom may be 
mentioned, Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, Bar- 
oness de Mever, Mrs. James B. Haggin, 
Mrs. Oliver Harriman, Duchess of Rutland, 
Mrs. F. C.Havemeyer, Mrs. Robert Jordan, 
Mrs.Honore Palmer, Princess Froubetzkoy 
Coiintoss Cadogan, Mrs. Reginald C. Van- 
o.erbilt. 

It is the combination of beautiful design 
and superior quality that has made Oneida 
Community Silverv/ear so popular. 

For the woman among our readers who 
gets the greatest inspiration from our 
Home Council Dept. and who is looking to 
furnish her table with silverware of repu- 
tation wo offer 26 pieces of Oneida Com- 
munity Par I'late in the beautiful Prim- 
rose Design. 

We will bo pleased to send full particu- 
lars to any woman who writes. 

Farm, Stock & Home 

Minneapolis, Miniu 




necessarily be considered by every 
farmer. I believe that we will be able 
to get sufficient labor to harvest our 
crops, altho it may not be of the kind 
we particularly desire. However, a 
large acreage can be put in by using 
improved machinery and larger ma- 
chinery, and a larger amount of grain 
can be produced by diversifying the 
crops. If a farmer has rye, oats, bar- 
ley, wheat, flax and corn, he can with 
the same help, produce vastly more 
than tho he confines himself to the 
raising of one or two crops, and by 
using both Marquis and Durum wheat, 
he can lengthen the time of his har- 
vest considerably. 

Doubtless every farmer is consider- 
ing these propositions as I am, for 
they have been constantly before me 
for some time, and this fall I put in 
about one-third as much rye as I shall 
sow wheat next spring. I expect to 
sow about the same amount of oats as 
I did rye, about the same amount of 
barley, and I shall put in two-thirds 
as much corn as I do wheat. In this 
way I shall produce more grain with 
the same force than I could in any 
other manner. 

Th6 production of hogs should not 
be overlooked, for even at the present 
high price of feed, if a man will han- 
dle hogs intelligently, there is a great- 
er profit in them than ever before. 



MINNESOTA 4T THE INTERNATIONAL. 

The Department of Agriculture of 
the University made a splendid show- 
ing of a small group of animals at the 
recent International Live Stock exposi- 
tion in Chicago. With a total of 16 
animals, 24 prizes were taken. 

The honors won were as follows: 
Cattle. 

Standard Lad 4th, five prizes as fol- 
lows: 

Hereford yearling, open, first, $25. 
Hereford association special, first, 
$15. 

Champion Hereford, $50. 
Hereford association special, $50. 
Reserve champion yearling, no prize 
money. 

Prizes won by the other cattle 
shown were as follows: 

Lucy grade. Shorthorn junior, yearl- 
ing grade or cross bred, open, first, 
$50. 

Shorthorn association special, $25. 

Monte, senior calf, grade or cross 
bred, open, fourth, $20. 

Angus association special, third, $5. 

Jack, junior calf, Angus, open, third, 
$15. 

Angus association special, $7. 

North Star junior calf. Shorthorn, 
sixth, $15. 

Dandy, two-year-old, grade or cross 
bred, special, fourth, $10. 

Dandy, Lucy, Monte, grade herd, 
third, $25. 

Swine. 

Cross bred barrow, weighing 150 
pounds and under 200 pounds, first, 
$15. 

Cross bred barrow, weighing 150 
pounds and under 200 pounds, second, 
$10. 

Chester White barrow, farrowed aft- 
er September 1, 1916, and before Feb- 
ruary 1, 1917, third, $10. 

Poland China barrow, farrowed be- 
tween February 1 and June 1, 1917, 
fifth, $8. 

Poland China barrow, farrowed be- 
tween September 1, 1916, and Febru- 
ary 1, 1917, sixth, $7. 

Duroc Jersey barrow, farrowed after 
February 1, 1917, fifth, no prize money. 

Horses. 

Fashion Vernon, Percheron mare, 
five years old and over, fourth, $20. 

Minnesota Princess Clydesdale 
mare, four years old and over, third, 
$30. 

Zanness, Percheron mare, five years 
old and over, eighth, no prize money. 

Only one sheep was shown, carry- 
ing oii a prize as a grade or cross bred 
lamb, taking the Shropshire special 
prize of $7. 

Stock Judging Honors. 

The Minnesota student stock judg- 
ing team won fourth place in a group 
of ten contesting teams. Mark Mc- 
Carty and J. H. Calash ranked second 
and third, respectively, in individual 
standing among the fifty contestants. 

Dr. C. W. Gay, head of the animal 
industry work at University Farm, is 
highly gratified with the outcome of 



Minnesota's efforts at the Interna- 
tional show of this year. He believes 
that great benefits accrue to the Uni- 
versity from taking part in such enter- 
prises and believes that the Minnesota 
College of Agriculture should keep 
pace with the colleges of its class. 
Furthermore, he believes that events 
of the kind stimulate interest and en- 
thusiasm among students. 

Short Talks 



This department is conducted by tho 
Editor of F., S & H. Questions sent In by 
pald-ln-advance subscribers are answered 
free of charge by him personally, and by re- 
turn mail. A copy of the answer is retained 
and published for the benefit of the readers 
of F., S. & H. 



This issue of Short Talks is devoted 
to a statement of the supplies situa- 
tion as seen by F., S. & H. as a matter 
of general information to its readers. 

Machinery and Supplies Situation. 

The difficulty of getting prompt ship- 
ments owing to the shortage of cars 
touches every line of equipment and 
•supplies needed by the farmers and 
business men of the Northwest. It 
must be reckoned with at every turn 
as a factor that cannot be forgotten 
and may cause delay at any moment. 



Machinery. — Machinery manufactur- 
ers are having difficulty in securing' 
the steel necessary for their needs. 
The cause back of this is the diffi- 
culty of securing coke, coal and lime 
raw iron — ag.iin fundamentally a 
freight car sliortage. Large companies 
having long standing orders are fairly 
well fixed. Small companies or those 
whose orders have recently expired or 
will expire within a short period are 
seriously troubled as to the future. 

All alike urge upon the farmer the 
necessity of placing orders promptly in 
order to prevent delay and disappoint- 
ment. 

Further, the actual needs of the 
county in the way of machinery can 
be known only thru the actual orders 
placed in the hands of dealers, and 
the priority board at Washington can- 
not and will not permit the manufac- 
turers of farm machinery and equip- 
ment to go it blind. 

If farm machinery and equipment 
falls short of the actual need it will 
be because the farmer has not signified 
his intention to use such equipment. 

The needs of the community should 
be studied and the best way to insure 
against shortage is to place orders 
with the local dealers, who, in turn, 
will forward these orders to the parent 
company, who, in turn, will present its 
actual orders to the priority Board as 
a reason for the preferential treatment 
in the matter of being supplied with 
steel out of which to manufacture. 

Old machinery should be protected 
against the weather, its worn parts 
replaced, every effort made to put it 
in working condition in order that the 
new supplies may get to those who 
must have an equipment. 

Working parts and repairs should be 
ordered now, because in many lines the 
repairs on hand are limited and may 
run short unless warning of their need 
thru orders taken is given to the man- 
ufacturers. 

Silos. — Manufacturers of silos have 
a double shipping, problem on their 
hands: 

(a) To get the raw material. 

(b) Assured shipments. 
Tremendous inroads on the lumber 

supplies have been made by the ship 
building program. Cement and steel 
are up against the same car shortage 
problem that manufacturer's supplies 
in other lines have to meet. 

The same question of preferential 
supplies that affect the machinery men 
hit the silo manufacturers. 

The only assurance of delivery in 
time for next season's use is the early 
ordering of material necessary, whether 
the silos be constructed of wood, cem- 
ent or block, steel or other material. 

Barn Bquipment.- — Situation the same 
as machinery. Necessity for early sup- 
plies and orders the same. 

Wire Fencing. — The same situation 
as other steel supplies; tremendous de- 
mand for trench needs in Europe. 
Early orders made necess.^iry by this 
situation and car shortage. 

Coal. — The coal shortages are chiefly 
in sizes of hard coal used in the ordi- 
nary coal heater and range. Supplies 
of soft coal are adequate. Hard coal 
mixtures must be accepted wherever 
they can be substituted for straight nut 
and stove. Small individual allotments 
made necessary by the fact that coal 
supplies are arriving locally thruout 
the Northwest in quantities sufficient 
to t.nke care of only immediate needs. 
Voluntary substitution of soft for hard 




Have us Taii 
Your Hide 

And you will be aellBhted with the 
One robe or coat you can have at 
small co»t. We specialize in 
Robot. (Jur tanning In v/lnd. wa- 
ter and molli-ijroof. — leavfs tjldo 
Btroni? and biKiutltuiiy soJt. In 
Dnaklng robes and coats only 
best materials and eirx-rt work- 
maashli) are ured. fimufaction 
(/uoranteed. We are Oldem and 
Laronsl Custom Tanrma for 
Nmlhwenem FarmKra. 
WE ALSO BUY HIDES. 
FURS AND PELTS, and make 
prompt cash returns at tjlg.hest 
market prices. Send for cir- 
cular, price list and tags. 

FOSTER ROBE A TANNING COi, 

1604 5th St. S. E., Minneapolis. Minn. 

rTRAPPERS-1 

A trial shipment will convince 
you that we pay the highest 
prices for Furs, Hides, 
Pells, etc. We 
remit you the 
day your ship- 
ment is re- 
ceived and 
_ charge do eom- 

Write today for free Trapper's Guide No. 
10, catalog of trappers' supplies and price list 

NORTHWESTEKN HIDE & FXTB CO. 
Minneapolis, Minn. Est. 1890. 




HIDES, FURS, Etc. 

EMibBslMd Since iaC7. 

D. Bergman & Co., 

Saint Pauly Minnesota 

DadDltMl witb the Lmseiit and OI<l<!ee Ronu la tbe Vest. 

Prices end Imaxdkite Cash Retan. Wnte fee 
>^ price list, tec* and (uUinfoniKtioa. ""^ •« 




Ship to Us 



CET FULL PRICES 
and LIBERAL GRAD> 
INC. We practice no 
triclcery. We make quick 
remittances. Once you 
Bhip to us, you will ehip 
to us always. Send for 
Tfe* ^ „ ,~ ""'^ SPECIAL PRICE- 
LIST. . We will keep you posted all the eea- 
Bon. Highest Bank References. Let us send vcu 
?„'i^,5''^^S!? '"^ MANUFACTUBme OEPAHTMEMI CAT*. 

10 CUE. Money-saving prices. 

OHSMAH & SONS CO., Box 742 Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 




McMillan fur & wool co. 

. MINNEAPOLIS, HIINN. 



■ It 18 a good tiling for boys, and our UP- 
lJ°"J?SIf TAMNiNO is a good thing 
Ifor HIDES, the kind of tanning that 
I stays soft in the coldest weather. Cnstom tan 
I ners and mf rs. of coats, robes, rugs, mittens 
lotc. Write for catalog and shippine tans to 
I SQUARE DEAL TANNING CO., 
E. M am St., DETROIT, MINN 




eslaiined 

/^'^Robes and €oats«i 

SHIP US YOUR HORSE. 

or any skins yon may have. We 
will tan and make theni into warm 
durable robes, coats or any fur 
article. Experienced furriors and 
tanners. Ail work guaranteed. 
Write today tor our free i'- ustrat- 
ed catalog price list, tags, etc, 

MINNEAPOLIS TAIVNIN6 A FUR MFC. CO. 
1621 3rd S>. N. E., IMinneapells, Minn. 




FURS: HIDES 

for spot cash. 10 to 50% more money to ship Furs and Hides to ns than to sell at 
home. Write for Price List, market report and about oar 450-p. H. & T. Guide. 
Enter big contest free to ail for shippers, especially to boys nnder draft age. 
4-10 Acre FUR FARMS and 200 Valuable Prizes FREE. 
Win prize. Make big money trapping. Ship to as, highest prices, quick retnms. 
No commission. Est. over 26 years. Fnrs and Hides tanned. Robes made. 
Write today. ANDERSCH BROS., Dept. i, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 




FREE 



Send 25 cents for 12 stretching 
pattern.? 4 sets (3 sizes each) 
Muskrat, Skunk, Raccoon and 
Mink. It mention this paper 
will include "free" 6 trapper 
picture postals in 16 colors. 



BAIT 



Send 25 cents for trial size 
(3 oz.) "Betterbait" the best 
bait for land animals. We 
pay the highest prices for 
Raw Furs. Write today. 
HersiaDRe*! C».. Uilwaokcs, Wit.. U.S.A. 




January 1, 1918. 



coal wherovei- possible will help owt 
the other fellow. Use wood and to as 
larg'e an extent as possible. I'lan on 
a lurser uee of wood next winter. Seu- 
Bon a few cords of home grown wood 
lor that ptrrpoee. 

Boltlns Cloth or muslin used as a 
Bcreei) oil Windows admits fresh air 
and keeps the lieut !n, prevents drafts 
and is a genuine fuel sa\er. If local 
coal afhortaRGs exist, report the facts 
to your county coal committee by tele- 
phone, or wire Judge John F. McGee, 
State Coal Administrator, Minneapolis, 
Minuesota. 

TraclorH. — Manufacturers have tTia 
same problems as machinery men. 
]<]arly ordcr.s must be made in order 
to avoid delays. 

Automobiles.— Possible alow dellveriy 
but no ehortag'e. 

L.eather Goods — llarne«*ieB, Etc. — Ow- 

ins' to the tremendous demand made 
upon the leather trade by the Allied 
armies, there is a shortage of leather 
and a« advartce in prices probable on 
account of increasing' need of leather 
supplies for American armies, local 
trade is unable to secure orders beyond 
immediate prospects oi sales, con.se- 
quently, old harnesses should bo re- 
vamped and repairs made wherever 
possible and orders placed now for 
spring delivery. Substitutes may be 
accepted wherever sucli substitutes 
would serve the same general purpose. 

Groc«Tle«. — Supplies in most lines 
adequate. Vegetables an-d home canned 
stuff largely replacing canned goods. 
Same rea-sons for home gardens will 
continue next year. Probably grocer's 
supplies in some lines will run shoit. 
Advise with your local grocers. Re- 
member that sugar is a necessary part 
of human diet, and that France, Italy 
and Great Britain must have a large 
part of our sugar supply. VV'e use at 
present per capita twice as much — 
87 pounds — as the system needs. Cut 
down on the sugar, use other sweets, 
as honey, sorghum, maple sugar, corn 
sy)-up and the like. 

Hay ami Straw. — The feed situation 
thruout the Northwest and Southwest 
is serious, and very much spotted, gen- 
erally speaking. The Northern part in- 
cluding northern ]Minnesota and North 
Dakota and Montana is short of feed, 
while southern Minnesota and South 
Dakota have an excess. In many in- 
stances, these local shortages can be 
relieved locally. All such cases call 
for close study. Before the railroads 
are called upon to furnish cars be sure 
there is no other way of supplying the 
feed necessary. In cases where local 
shortages are apparent, ask your Coun- 
tv Marketing Committee for a confer- 
■ence on the situation. Get the farmers 
and business men together and find 
out what the total shortage is and 
place orders as much as possible on one 
account. This helps speed up ship- 
ments and avoids delay. 

Consult Paul Ragatz, Public Safety 
Commission Marketing Agent, Minne- 
sota Transfer, with regard to either 
supplies or sales. 

Good oat straw has a feeding value 
to the feeder of approximately one- 
half that of prairie hay. On this basis 
where balled and shipped out should 
cell on the farm at about one-fourth 
or one-third the price of hay to allow 
lor cost of handling, freight, etc., 
which, of course, is the same as in 
the case of the more valuable feed. 

Straw should not be burned until 
the situation next spring determines 
■whether it will be needed or not. 

The marketing division desires in- 
Jormation from every locality regard- 
ing extra supplies of straw and hay, 
prices f. o. b., etc. Send this informa- 
tion to Hugh J. Hughes, Chairman 
Marketing Division, 412-416 South 
Sixth Street, Minneapolis. 

Feed. — Reports conflict on the feed 
situation. Present price high in line 
with price of roughage and on both 
milk and meat products, information 
•desired by Marketing Division as to 
prices paid for feeds, especially bran 
and shortE for the period September, 
1917, to Jji.iuary, 1918. Send informa- 
tion to Hugh J. Hughes, Chairman, 
412-41G South Sixth Street, Minneapolis. 

Cattle. — Heavy sales of cattle from 
"Western ranges, from Texas to Mon- 
tana forced on account of shortage 
■of pasture; large killings of stock not 
In fit condition and of stock that should 
be held for future breeding purposes. 
Northern Minnesota localities sliort of 
feed and selling foundation stock. 
Southern Minnesota communities hav- 
ing excess feed should consider possi- 
biilt.v of shipping in stock and consum- 
ing this feed, both in order to hold 
stock for future breeding purposes and 
in order to realize value out of the 
feed produced. Future outlook of the 
business runs to high prices on ac- 
count of general world shortage. 

Sheep. — Shortage of wool calling' 
iBtronK allention to sheep raising. 
Northern Minnesota interested in sheep 
as an aid to cut-over land clearing 
and as a matter of revenue to the tim- 
ber land farmer; no immediate promise 
of <heaper wool or of over-production; 
worthy ev(!ry consideration as a com- 
muiiiiy proposition. 

-M. — Outlook bright for strong fu- 
prices. Government action fixing 
iictween hog and corn price favor- 
I o coi n feeders. Two litters a 
., BUggosted where lireeder has 

well-developed sows and propei- facili- 
ties for taking care of the fall Utters. 

Potntne«< — The potato market for 
1!»1(;-1917 was peculiar — a large short- 
Hgc of jiotatoes In the Northwest caused 
iiHtial condltionN to reversir IhemselveH, 
and after the local supply of potatoes 
was used up. Bhlppers were put (o their 
wilJi ends to secure nu(Hclent Hupplles 
for the NortbwcBt conHumcrs. Towns- 
people anO fMTTicra alike were buying; 



aa a consequence of this shortage, com- 
ing In mill winter, at a bad time for 
shipping and handling, local prices paid 
for potatoes went to extraordinary 
heights. 

This season conditions are reversed, 
the country has an estimated excess 
over the normal needs of 100,000,000 
bushels. This excess is largely in the 
tliree states of Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, which states have pro- 
duced tremendously out of proportion 
to thoir local needs. The surplus must 
be sliipped out, therefore, and there Is 
nothing In the local situation to main- 
tain strong prices. During the last 
two months frosted stock which must 
1)6 immediately consumed has pushed 
tlie good stuff largely oft the market. 
This good stuff is pushed back, wait- 
ing for a chance to move, in the hands 
of the dealers and the farmers. Unless 
we can speed up potato consumption 
•during the balance of the winter and 
early spring, there is nothing In even 
the frost losses, which are large local- 
ly, but small from the total national 
viewpoint, to prevent a large overhang 
of potatoes next siiring, which will be 
met by an unusually early supply from 
tlie south. This situation suggests 
early, steady, consistent selling wher- 
e\ er prices offered cover cost of pro- 
duction with a reasonable margin of 
profit. 

Horses. — Demand for medium weight 
horses for army puri)osos strong; liable 
to cause "wild-cat" breeding, liemeni- 
ber that the world's need Is for in- 
creased power on the farm; that cross- 
ing breeds at this time to produce a 
so-called cavalry type of horse will 
only result in producing a generation 
of scrubs. Cut out the scrub stallion 
and breed only animals of good (luality 
and assured pre-potency. Stick to 
breed lines and prices for the future 
will take care of themselves. 

Marketing Division SnKKestions. — 

Suggestions of the Marketing Division 
for lOlS are based upon the experienci>s 
of the past season. Where the potato 
business is an establislied part of the 
farm cropping system, and where tlie 
community as a whole annually plants 
a large enough acreage of potatoes to 
assure a somewhat stable supply, deal- 
ers have come in and established ware- 
houses and a competitive market. This 
condition, however, holds true for only 
a small part of the entire state of 
Minnesota. Many sections of the state 
are without such facilities for market- 
ing or guarantees against waste inci- 
dent to disorganized effort. It is 
strongly recommended that co-opera- 
tive potato growing and shipping as- 
sociations be considered wherever the 
acreage is reasonably beyond the point 
of supplying of local needs. Assistance 
will be given to such organizations by 
the Marketing Division or by the Agri- 
cultural Extension Division of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. This majy well 
be extended to the handling of all 
perishables. The fundamentals of suc- 
cess are: 

1. Sufficient acreage. 

2. A common variety of seed. 

3. Proper treatment of seed to pre- 
vent disease. 

4. Proper grading and sorting. 

5. Adequate storage facilities. 

6. Either competitive buying on the 
ground, or organized co-operative ship- 
ping associations. 

It is suggested that in many instances 
full advantage is not being taken of 
the existing co-operative associations 
thruout the state. It is not fully 
enough recognized that associations 
organized to do one specific thing can 
easily be adapted under stress of pres- 
ent needs to do another. The live 
stock shipping associations, for ex- 
ample, may readily become a livestock 
buying association. A co-operative ele- 
vator company may easily extend its 
operations to take care of the potato 
marketing. This line of suggestion 
offers a fruitful field of study in view 
of the fact that Minnesota already has 
many hundred of such associations ac- 
tively and successfully engaged in es- 
tablished lines of business. The prob- 
lem of meeting new conditions is pri- 
marily a local problem, and perhaps 
the greatest now facing us. 

.\nple9. — The situation among the 
Minnesota apple producers calls for 
thoro organization and effort along 
the line of securing a standardized and 
high grade product. The market de- 
mand for high class fruit is determined 
by the quality of the pack furnished 
by "Western apple growers. To meet 
this competition, pruning and spraying 
are necessary, and picking and packing 
on the Western basis essential. The 
market demand for windfalls and un- 
pruned and unsprayed fruit limits itself 
to the pie apple trade and is precari- 
ous and unsatisfactory at best. 

Public Safety MarlsetlnK Orsaniaia- 
tion. — The Marketing Division of the 
Foods Committees, acting as agent for 
the Minnesota Commission of Public 
Safety, has County Marketing Commit- 
tees thruout the state. These county 
committees, usually consisting of the 
County Director as chairman and men 
selected from each main marketing 
point in the county are, In reality, a 
state-wide Business Ad.Iustment Com- 
mittee. These local committees have 
been actively engaged during the past 
six months in studying local needs, and 
in trying to meet all business and 
local needs and to keep local business 
moving without friction and without 
loss. They are working, together with 
the Marketing Division, to keep the 
whole state keyed up to the highest 
efficiency. The underlying Idea is that 
each communit,y is to take caro of it- 
self and Its own needs and have a sur- 
plus loft for the state; that the entire 
state is to do the same and have a 
big surplus left for the nation. 

Should local supplies In any line run 
short or should there be an excess that 
cannot be marketed satisfactorily, get 
in touch with the local Marketing Com- 
mittee man or with the County Chair- 
man of the Public Safety Coniml.sslon. 
If this shortfiKe or excess cannot he 
met within the county, take the matter 
up In II clear and explicit wnv with 
the (Thalrman of the Slate Marketing 
Division, 412 Sixth St., Minneapolis. 




Makes Farm 
Work Easy 

Is there an In- 
ternational 
Harvester Mogul 
Kerosene Engine 
on your farm? 
This is an important 
question because 
few factors contrib- 
ute more to farm life, in the way of economy, time 
saving, comfort, and lasting satisfaction, than the 
right size and type of Mogul engine. 

You don't mind the lack of hired help nearly so 
much when you have a Mogul engine to do the 
chores. Morning and night it takes care of the jobs 
that used to be so tedious and tiresome. It does not 
get tired or quit just when you need it most. When 
you find how useful it is and how cheaply it works, 
you buy more labbr-saving machines for it to run 
until it is doing all the power jobs on the place. 

Mogul engines are the standard steady reliable 
power. They are designed, made, backed and 
guaranteed by a manufacturing experience that 
grew out of three-quarters of a century of good 
farm machine building. They work economically on the 
cheapest engine fuel you caa buy — kerosene or distillate. 
They start easily. They rua steadily. They serve you well 
for years. 

Buy Mogul power and run your farm more profitably and 
with less labor. See the dealer and write us for catalogues 
describing Moguls ranging in size from 1 to 50-h, p., in all 
Styles, for all purposes, all using kerosene for fuel. 

International Hamster Company of America 
CHICAGO USA 




TAKE 
THOSE 



OATS = WHEA 




This famous book tells how you can do it! 
A postal brings it and my amazing bffer of 



WILD OAT 
SEPARATOR 



FREE! 




This wonderful Wild Oat Separator is the greatest 
success of the age. Absolutely takes all oats from 
Minnm^pMi wheat, barley, fla:^ in rccord time! Never clogs! Now - 
being used by over 10,000 American farmers in the Northwest! Worth thousands 
of dollars in added wheat yields! I give it absolutely free with my famous 

ATU A Ail SEED GRADER 
Wri A I rl Am and CLEANER 

USED BY OVER 500,000 FARMERS 

My Wild Oat Separator fits into the Easiest hand power machine ever built! 
Chatham in a jiffy — no screws! no Now's the time to End out about this great 
hnUc! Tin nailct Droposition. Mail mea_postal today. I'll 

Combined m makes you abso- 'E^^in'T^f''^ ^^p"^" ^^^^ 

lutely master of all wild oats and all crops," my "Wild Oat 

other mixtures. Separator Free" offer. 

This ^and machine actually clean3,^ades, my low price, long time 

separates and sacks grain or grass seed or credit — Thirty Days, Free 

foulest mixtures! All in a singis operation! Trial! This is a record 

Think of that! Has big capacity. Operates breaking offer. Mai] 

by gas engine power — or hand power, postal for it now. 

MANSON CAMPBELL & SONS CO. 

D»pt.'305( Detroit, Mlclk Dept. 30S> Minneapolis, Minn, 

Dept. SOS. Kansas, Mo. 




WE BUY FURS 

and hides at highest prices. No commis- 
sion. Write for price list and shipping tags 

J. E. McCOMB 
WINNEBAGO, - MINNESOTA 

How to Grow Progressive Strawberries 

Instructions Ires. The benefit of my 25 years 
strawberry experience and 2UU feet of Progrssslve 
Everbearing Slrawberrles, 150 plants for $2 6U prepaid 
J ATI P. EAKEB, Prop., Northwood, Iowa. 



INVENT! 



SOMETHING. It may Bring Wealth. 

Send postal for Free Book tolls 
wbattoinvontand how tooblaln a 
PalonI thru Our Credit System. Send Sketch. Freo 
Opinion as to J'atentubi I i ty. talbe rt « Parker, 
Pat. Lawyors, 4288 Talberl BIdg., Waahington, D, C. 



PATENTS 



That Proi cct and Pay 
Send .SItetcli or Model 
_ for Search. 

BOOKS and ADVICE PUKE. 
WalsonE. Coleman, i'atoi.ezawj/er, Washington, D-C 



GUARANTEE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 
— Farm, Stock and Home will not ad- 
mit the advertising of condlmental 
stock foods, investment schemes, pat- 
ent medicine for Internal human use, 
or any announcements of any adver- 
tiser who will not live up to his agree- 
ments with subscribers. The usual 
guarantee made by publishers simply 
covers the filling of the order by the 
advertiser, so that they can, and many 
do, advertise almost any thing offered. 



Potted Winter Blooming Bulbs 

We gnarantee them to reach yoa 
'safely, ^ven in coMeflt of weather and 
to blossotK satiafuctorily this winter in 
your home. Potted in rich earth and 
fertilizer. Tho^ are rooted and ready 
to mako instant growth. Your choice of 
Narcl8HU8, llyncinthst Tnlips and 
rrocDs, 2 pots for 25 ctfl, 10 pots tor 
$1 00 Pojitpold. 

Our Nurseries and Seed Farms were 
established here in Northern Iowa over 
a half century tifo and our *'Bll£zard 
Kelt" Btrains of Fruits, OmamentalB, 
£vcrbcurlne StrairberrlcSf Garden 
— Seeds, etc., are being grown sucoess- 
fully in every state in the Union. Gatalogue of 
our various **lillzzard Kelt'* products and a copy 
of our paper Uordiicr's Garden Experience, Free. 
The Gardner ^Jurscry Oom KoxS^* Osok^ Iowa 




PURE-BRED 





We have a limited arrount of 1917 SW- 
vor Kinoi n«ld*s Vallow Denl.Mlna. 

1 3 and NorthwoBt DonI, RTOwn ut 
Dtcorah (close to MinnoROta line) 
unci Bclocted. cured, kilii-driod 
iind tested under the direction 
of I^f. .1- A. Hendrika. 

Mho ttonio line 191G IOahlt Wnrm 
DiiNT nnil Karly Ykllow Drnt, 
VArietioB. Wu lure Ui« only Mvd 
tiHo that makaii b sworn atat*' 
<Mit whura com wus srowD, 
Tniinntion, etc. 
rnrd from you will brtnff full 
n formation, prices. «tQ.j 
>on't(lpluy. Our limited j 
»iuch onnnot bo durllctttod 
at any pHcu. 

THE ADAMS SEED CO. 

95 Box 
OECORAH IOWA 

I91H caUloir, riold, Ontu cqj Out- 




January 1, 1918. 



FARM. STOCK AND HOME. 



29 



i [X i^^ i < i ^ ti i t^n i n i c«HMn i ii i H t i | n it<iii n i i <i<i i 

LEGALS 

This department is conSiicted by BHTTR 
XtAN CHILD, attorney-at-law. 816 Lumber 
Exchange Buildingr. Minneapolis, who will 
answer questions as fully as possible In the 
space permitted in these columns. In casts 
that require the services of an attorney he 
Is recommended. 

Questions should be separated from orders 
for subscriptions and other business, and 
written only on one side of the paper. 



AnsTvers to Questions. — ^This column 
cannot attempt to advise as to whether 
one can win a case or not or what his 
rights are in a proposed law suit. We 
design to give the law as ajjplicable 
to such facts as ai-e not in dispute of 
general interest to the Farming pub- 
lic. This will explain why some ques- 
• tions are not answered in this column. 
A question that has no interest to 
readers other than the 'sender will not 
be answered. 

Snpport of Chndren.— L. S., Olivia, 
Minn. "I am divorced from ray hus- 
band. He has left the chQdren for nie 
to support. Can I get the monecs^ back 
that I spent in support of them?" 

Ans. — Yes, the Supreme Court of the 
state has just held that where a father 
abandons his minor children and there- 
by compels their mother, his divorced 
wtfe, to Care for and support them, 
there is an implied promise on his part 
to reimburse the mother for the money 
spent in doing that which he ought to 
have done. 

W ill S. A. J., Beach, N. D. "Has 

the executor of an estate the authority 
it not mentioned in the will to sell 
the property without consulting with 
the heirs or guardian providing he sells 
the same at or above the appraised 
value fixed by the appraisers?" 

Ans. — No. The executor cannot sell 
the real estate without a decree of 
the Probate Court unless the will ex- 
pressly empowers him to so sell the 
real estate. 

Guardians, administrators or execu- 
tors cannot as such convej- real estate. 
If the will authorizes conveyance, it 
Is in the nature of a power of attor- 
ney by the deceased. Otherwise, regu- 
lar probate proceedings In the Probate 
Court are necessary to make the sale. 

Repayment of Lioan. — S. C, Mora, 
Minn. "My father borrowed one hun- 
dred dollars from me last July and at 
that time told me he would pay it back, 
but now he does not want to pay it 
barck and tells me that he does not 
have to as I have no witnesses. What 
can 1 do? As I am not yet of age, 
can 1 hire a lawyer and could he get 
the money for me and how much would 
he charge me for getting the money?" 

Ans. — The loan to your father was a 
legal loan and he is legally obliged to 
repay the $100 with interest. The fact 
that there were not witnesses is not 
important as your own statement if 
properly supported by surrounding cir- 
cumstances would probably support 
your story. The amount is not large 
enough to try to recover at law. You 
would have to have a guardian ap- 
pointed in order to bring the action. 
Ynur father will probably think better 
of the matter and see you repaid. Tf 
he does not, it Is a. small contribution 
to relieve you from futUTe filial duties 
to hrm. 

Treatmrer'B CompenHatton. — S. H. G., 

Hilaca, Minn. "I was selected treas- 
urer of our township on March I3th 
with the understanding between me and 
the fSupervisors that I was to receive 
1 per cent on all moneys received, but 
that I should pay for my "surety bond: 
which cost $8. L.ater on I heard that 
the Legislature passed a law limiting 
the compensation of town treasurer to 
$40. I think this became a law in 
Aprril the 17th. This would make my 
compensation only Please state; 

to ■v.'Tiat eonrrpensEftion I am entitled,' 
ana also if this new law would have 
effert on money received between 
march 13£h and April llthT ' 
"IS — Bv Chapter 29.5 JJaws of T917. 
f ""feet April 17, provided that 

ti ijrer'e compensation should 

J: i rd '$>10 in towns containing not 

more- than 9f, aections of land. An 
offlcia.1 nalary can be rednced during 
the teem cff oflfice, therefore this law 
applies %o you and your comprenaation 
woura he f-TO for the ofTicial year. The; 
premlirm lor the Irond should he paid 
by the one retiufred by Inw to pay it 
re^rdless of your understandii^. 

I Veterinarj 

¥ Conducted by C. C. Isrpv. 

All queetlom from -paW-Jn-advancfe «rt>- 
Bcribers, when accompanied by lull address, 
are answered free of charge try In-. Llpp by 
return mall, in order to giv tii/i. ly s rvice 
to th« nubflcriher. Copies of these answeca 
are then colleeted and published .for the In- 
formatlon of the readers of F., S. & M. 

__ - a 

Bonn, — O. M., Jaokffon, Minn, "^rgh- 

teen months old Hte«r has had ^ boll 
on the head all summer. Others on the 
hind quarters. .rieaMe advise." 

■Ans. — No treatm<!nt can be presorfbed 
in this colirmn that wHI cure tUi» fon- 
dltion You had better have •your Icrcal 
veterinarian o^ill and treat him after 
he has firKt examined him. 

Ti'trr^ Cut. — SubBcrlbnr, THIrm, «Ror.<io 
was cut on wire fn .7uty on the joint 
above thf hoof. The. cut is 'healed but 
horfse cannot step on the foot. What 
causeK fblH and whs(t should be done 
to cur* It?" 

Any.. — fiorne of the Internal structures 
of the foot must have bfrn fn.lured 
at the tirnr; ffhe was cut. It Is impos- 
sfWe to state what tissues were In- 
ltrr<»a or to what extent, imless she can 
br: tf*a.TnfT)t-/l. 

Wire Cat, — B. I., Watson, Minn. 



"Seven year old horse had a bad wire 
cut on the left hoof three years ago 
and at times is very lame. Have used 
pine tar grease and lard and kerosene. 
The frog seems to be rotten. I have 
also used butter antimony. Please 
advise." 

Ans. — This will require a surgical 
operation to remove all of the diseased 
frog, so that healing may be properly 
started. It would serve (\'our interests 
best to secure the services o£ your 
local veterinarian. 

liairaeueHH. — E. E. T)., Mont. "Mare 
became lame suddenly, overnight, last 
spring and is still lame. She is so 
bad she can hardly walk. I do not 
seem to be able to locate the lameness; 
at times it seems to be in the foot, at 
other times in the shoulder. The lame 
ness does not bother her so much when 
standing still as when going up hill 
She was never -foundered to rny knowl- 
edge. Please advise." 

Ans. — The symptoms are not suffi- 
ciently characteristic to warrant an 
attempt at diagnosis. If you have a 
local veterinarian within convenient 
reach it would be best to consult him. 
An examination will be required be 
fore intelligent advice can be ofEerea. 

iPtmples — ^Retained Afterbirth. — Sub 

scriber, Minn. "1. Horse has had 
T>imples on the side, increasing in size 
and number since last August. When 
they go away they leave a scab or a 
lumpy appearance. Horse has good 
cai'e and plenty of exercise and seems 
to feel fine. Is fed oats and timothy 
and clover hay. What causes these 
pimples and what is a cure? 2. What 
causes some cows to retain the after- 
birth?" 

Ans. — 1. The small enlargements that 
you describe sometimes are the result 
of overheating. Should this be the 
cause in your horse, there is no rem~ 
edy. There are also numerous other 
causes; treatment for each of "which 
varies with the cause. Tt would be best 
to have your local veterinarian examine 
and then prescribe. 2. This is due to 
numerous causes like infectious abor- 
tion, thriftless condition, rapid closure 
of the neck of the womb, and lack of 
expulsion efforts on the part of the 
cow. 

Foul Sheath. — J. N., Thornton, Wash. 
"The sheath of stallions are swollen 
and remain so in spite of treatment; 
1 would appreciate advice. I have tried 
the following remedies without results. 
Washing the sheath every 10 or 12 
days with warm water and fed the 
following mixture (1 pound ginger, 4 
ounces gentain, 1 ounce nitrates potas- 
sium. % ounce antimony), one table- 
spoonful twice a day. This did no good 
and I next tried 10 grains nux vomica 
morning and night; next thing tried 
was one teaspoonful twice a day of 
sulphate of iron, but same results. 
Horses ai^ fed wheat has' (wheat cut 
a little green) and about three-quarters 
gallon Tolled oats each per day. They 
are traveled 4 to 5 miles evei-y day 
in fair weather. Percheron breed, 6 
to 10 years old; weight, 1,950 to 2.280 
pounds in good flesh and good spirit. 
Serves mares all O. K. but don't like 
the looks as they are Tor sale." 

Ans. — No advice can be given unless 
th€fse stallions can be examined. You 
have tried all the remedies that can 
be suggested without first looking 
them over. 'It would be a good plan 
to have your local veterinarian call 
and examine them, and then prescribe 
according to the results of his ex- 
amination. • 



Why Grade "Potatoes? — Becanse it is 
progressive. For years the growers of 
fruit in California and the Pacific 
Northwest have competed successfully 
"With growers a thousand or two thou- 
sand miles nearer the markets they 
entered. The western growers grade 
their products so every box is uniform 
and pack in such manner that every 
trutt is perfect when It reaches the 
consumer. Following their lead New 
York apple growers and others now 
grade and pack carefully. Apples from 
such states are standard in markets, 
demanded and well paid for by those 
who know good frurt and wish always 
to be sure they get it. 

Southern potato growers' associa- 
tions have graded potatoes tor years 
and marked their best grades. In the 
poor martcet year of 1915, practically 
every car of 10,000 sent out by one 
southern association was sold direct. 
The buyers knew just what they would 
get fi'om this association and took its 
stock at a fair pries, while ungraded 
potatoes went begging. Other ship- 
pers* associations and many large 
growers have recognized the trend of 
events, and would have graded all their 
potatoes, even had the Food Aflminis- 
tion not required it. Be up-tO'date, 
then, and grade your potatoes. 



iBaans In Danger. — The bean crop 
harvested in Minnesota this sinnmer 
is in danger, announced A. C. Amy, 
TjTilvcrsity Farm, St. Paul. Much of 
the crop oT field beans, says Mr. Amy, 
was Injured -by frost before maturity. 
This -prevented normal ripening. Con- 
tinued danTf) weather in October pre- 
vented the beans from drying out nor- 
mally. For these reasons, beans in 
Btorrage at this time carry an undue 
amount of moisture unless they are 
spread otrt and dried bv artificial heat 
discoloration and in some Instances 
mold will set In and lower their mar- 
ket value very greatly. 

An additional danper lies In the fact 
that if the moist beans are frozen their 







1 





^ Jih^^^ Western Canada you can buy at from »1S. , 
to S30. p*r acre good farm laiui that will raise 20 4o 
4S bushels to tho aero of $2. wheat-it's easy to figure 
the profits. Many western Canadian farmers '''■coi-t's of them 
e L _x 1^ ^ from the U. S.) have paid for their land Irom a i,ing!e crop 

Such an opportunity for 100% profit on labor and investment is woith investigation 
Canada extends to you a hearty invitation to settle on her 

FREE Homestead Lands of 160 Acres Each 

or secure some of the low priced lands in Manitoba, Saskatch*;: ^ " 

owan or Alberta. Think what you can mako with wheat at! 
$2. a bushol and land so easy to get. Wonderful yields also of} 
Oats, Bariey and Flax. Mixed Farming and cattle raising.^ 
The climate is healthful and agreeable, railway tacilities excellent, good I 
Bcnools and churches convenient. Write for literature and narticulara aal 

to Mdaced railway rates to Supt. immigratioo, Ottawa, Casada, or to \ 



R. -A.. 

311 Jackson St. 



ST. PAUL, MINN. 
Caoadian Government Agent. 




• WILL $3600^ 



FIRST GRAND PRIZE 

In the picture are hidden a nnmbep of face?;. How many 
Can yon find? Some are looking right at you. otliftrs ehow 
only the side of the face — you'll find thc-m upside down and 
every way. Mark each fare yon find •with a poncil, clip ont 
picture, send to us -with name and addross NOW. We wilt 
give away a $360.00, 1918 Model, Ford Touring Car as First 
Grand Prize and Thousands of Dollars in Cash Eewards, 
Prizes and Special Premiums. Each worker ■svill bo re- 
warded. Solve the puzzle. If you can find as many as STVB 
FACE.S we will send you at once « ann t'rnn XTatna 
toward the .$360 Ford Auto and other iswJJ ST&K VmtS 
Grand Prizes. We will also give away sc-vpnil f:40 Eicycles. 
These will be given free and extra, reganHoes of who rets 
the Auto. Someone will get Ford Auto— AVEY' KOT YOTTI 
FABM ITFE, Dept- 381 SPEIfCEH, HID. 



power of germination will be reduced 
and their value as seed for next year 
will be greatly diminished. 

Many beans were grown in Minne- 
sota last summer and Mr. Arny feels 
that warning should be sent out in 
order to prevent serious loss to Min- 
nesota's farmers. 



— In view of the probable shortage 
of farm labor next spring, now is a 
timely occasion to rig up several three- 
and four-horse eveners to be used on 
the farm implements. One man with 
a four-horse team will do almost as 
much work in preparing the spring 
seed-bed as two men, each using a 
two-horse team. 



That God gives to each century the 
heroines it needs is revealed in the 
story, "A French Mother in War 
Times," one of the two hundred "True 
Stories of the Great War." You will 
get a new insight into the mentality 
and spirituality of the French while 
they are passing through the Calvary. 
Send $1.00 today and get six books, 
"True Stories of the Great War," a one 
year's subscription to Heview of Re- 
views and three years' subscription to 
Farm, Stock & Home. Besides the first 
dollar, you will pay $1.00 each month 
until $6.50 has been sent us. 




will reduce wflamed, swollen 
Joints, Sprains, Bruises, Soft 
Bunches; Heals Boils, Poll 
Evil, Ouittor, Fistula and 
infected sores quickly 
as it is a positive antiseptic 
and germicide. Pleasant to 
use; does not blister or remore 
the .hair, and jroacan work the hotic 
S2.00 per bottle, delivered. 
Book 7 M free. 
ABSORBINE. JR., the antiseptic liniment for mankind. 
CedDcee Paiotul, Swollen Veins. Wens, Strains, Braises; 
•tops pain and inflammation. Price $1.00 per bottle at 
dealers or delivered. Will taH jrou more if fon niite. 
Liberal Trial Bottle for lUc in Mamix. 

M. f. YOUNG, P.O.F., 94 Temple St., SpringfleUi, Mats. 




FISH 



STRICTLY ERESH, Weather fro- 
zen Lake Fish, direct to con- 
sumers, packed In barrels or 
boxes, at the foUowlnjr prices: 
Henring, $7.00 per 100 lbs; Pickerel, 81 0 per 100 lbs; 
P he, SI 4 per 100 lbs: Tullbees. 8tO per 100 lbs. 
M trade Is conUned to Lake Snpprlor and Nor- 
thern Lakes Fish — absolutely no ocean or other 
artUtclally frozen or f;tor:iKed fish handled. Send 

order to ^ KEHHER, *''pVs"" Duluth, Minn. 

Established 1892. V. S. Food Administration lil- 
cense G. 41936. 




f<9 RDErnC T>nre-bred Chickens, 
Ofc DHCCUOj Ducks, Geese, Tur- 
keys, Hardy nortliprn riiiseci. vigorOTJS, heriii- 
tifiil Fowls. Vi^igs at low prices. Americit's 
Ttonen- Ponttry Farm. 24 years exp. Kiirffo 
fine Annntil Poultry Book and ('nt.ilonto KKKK. 

F. A. NEUBERT, Box 601, Mankato, Minn. 



Keeps Our FREE Horse 
Book In His UhTsaty 

,A, B. Abel, Moscow, Idaho, irriles; — ^Foar 
book 4s exceedingly interesting, superiW 
edited and reflects credit ztpaa its eompiien. 
I keep itinmy library for Teference."^ 

eirmOa Mark. B«sistesed) 

is^wUwith a signed Guarantee to cureRm^ne, 
Thoropin, SPAVIN— or Shoultfcr, Knee, Ankle. 
Hoof or Tendon Disease— or money retBmedJ 
Every year for over 22 years, Save-The-HOTse 
has cured thousands of stubboiti and supposedly 
incurable cases after all other methods failed. 
Our FREE 96.pa8e BOOK is cur 22yean' e«peneoc« 
in tr^bng every known kind of lacreness. Witii it yoo 
can dagnose and treat 58 kinds of Jaiaetiess — and our 
expert vetennaijr advice is also f-ee. If you are a bono 
owner you need ihia book. Write today fca-yoor copy. 
TROY CHEMICAL CO. 

2 State Street, Binshamfoa. N. Y, 

Drueelsll rutrj-whert lett Savc-Ihe-Em* vit'i Siftitd 
Guaranui, tr wi and it direct bj Purci! Puis Prtfaid, 




CET RID OF 

WmiBS and Bofs 

You can remove every one 
of them. We guarantee to 
rkill and bring from the body, dead, in 
I avery shori time, all pin rrorins affll bote, 
with the safe and surejremedy. 

Absolutely harmless. Can be- given to Tnares 
In loal before the eighth month. jHorse owners 
I write us that NerrvermlfugP hss rtaioved from 
500 to SCO bota and worms from n siogle 'bocse. 
An animal that is wormy cant help butlse ugly 
and thin. If your horses are troubled with 
worms send us your order tndsy. fi Capsules 
, S1.25, 12 (or $2.00. BALLittC C U N FREE 
[ with 4 dozen $8.00, with 2 dozen S5.00. ?iis1«g«»aU. 

Farmer's Korso Rsmedy Company, 
I Dept. OS, 092 7tti street, MHwautee.-Wis 



HEAVES 



Bie 




PROFITS NOW 



In sawlnK lumber with 
ourup-to-datBsaw mills. 
Ma.l<cyour engine earn 
moQoy all year. Start 
irow when the price of 
(Itimber Is highest ever 
known, and tho demand 
enomiotis. Don't miss 
the chance to make big 
(Donep. Write Mr our IinEID catalog c and prices. 
It. R. Howell & Co.,Mtrs., minneapolis,Mlnn. 



Mon«y Back 
li ll FaUs 

A horse with heaves can't do it5iail Khareof work. 1 
Core the heaves and yoa have a bot-KO worth its MHnlae | 
" > work or in money. Send today fci- 

FLEMING'S TONIC HEAVE POWOE8S 
(91.00 par packa^e^. S.iti!;fact«ry i etmltt? or money back. 

Flommg's Vast-Foekot Veterinary Adviser. , 
H«lps yoodistiniraish heavee froTTi oihPT nilmeote. Wrtto 
for tho Adviser. It is ITtEE. 
FLEMING BROS.,Ch3m;crta, 
236 Union StosK Yards, CMeaea, IH. 



Sow about (be old ball? Had bim 
■bout aft long: an yon otn liM Umt 
Well, there's niiother fellow In the 
same fix. Find out wbo and <i«hex« be 
iH by OHlne the F., S. & U. Claaalfled 
odvertisinST. 



When writing to advertlsnrfl almas* 
mention Farm, Stock and HaoMk 



30 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



Sigp Ba^ FREE . 



WriHon by Inventor of II I, K Silo. Address | 
H«witt-Lca-Fuock Co.. Hewitt BIJit.. Sumper.Wjth. 



Make Big Money. i^„?„d 

yoii liko toboonoot thom? 
Wnlo today for free cat- 
aloKiio. (Onr now wagon liorso Is coming fino ) 
MISSOURI AUCTION SCHOOL, W.B CaUI'NETBU. 
Prcbidonl, blC Walnnl Bl. Kansas City, Mo. 



Auctioneers 



Breeders' Directory^ 



Look Over the List When Xou Want 
to Buy Live Stock. 



BATKS — For listing under one kind of 
stock, $10 00 per year, payable quarterly In 
advance, or less 5 per c«-nt It the full year 
Is paid in advance Listing under two head- 
ings $18.00. Listing under three headings 
$16 00 per year. All listing under more 
than three headings will be at the rate of 
$4 00 per year per additional listing, pay- 
able as above. 

One year's subscription to Farm, Stock & 
Hume Included No orders taken for lesa 
than full year's run (24 times). 

CATTLE. 

MOI.S'i'EIN-FRESIAIVS — 

B. H. Fiilten, Nevir Richmond, Wis. 
N. I>. IliiFson, Weatbury, Minn. 
The Wilcox Co., White Bear, Minn. 

It. Itrni-kctf» liOns Lake, IVIInn. 

Ihe "Old Home" Farm, Audubon, Minn. 
HI^UCFUUUS — 

Herman Pfaender, Route It New Vim, 
Minn. 
niDD-POLLBD — 

H. e:. Jones, Lake Wilson, Minn. 
CUEIINSEV.S — 

Boy F. Backer, B. 4, New ITUu, Minn. 

Curlboii Fiiruis, TwIk, Mlun. 

F. W. Kliiibnil. Wfilthani, Minn. 

Th« "OW Home" Farm, Audubon, Minn. 
M. M. Williams, Meadow Farm, Little Falls, 

Minn. 
GALLOWAYS— 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield. 
Minn. 

HORSES. 

PERCHEBONS — 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 
BELGIANS— 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 

H. Lefebore & iSons, Fairfax, Iowa. 
SMiUES — 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 
CLIDESDALBS— 

J. VV. & F, T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 



SWINE. 



CHES'I'EK WHITE — 

B. H. Ftiiten, N^w Bichmond, Wis. 

Dakota Stock Farm, Arliu($tou, S. D. 
DUItOC .lERSEV — 

Roy W. Jaoubs, Wndena, Minn. 

W. B. Perrin, Le Sueur, Minn. 

W. Smith, I>nrkers Prairie, Minn. 

Win, J. Waterman, Sauborn, Minn 
^ G. L. Bennett, Wadena, Minn., K. R. 5. 

The "Old Home" Farm, Audubon, Minn. 
LARGE YORKSHIRES— 

Coribou Farms, Tnig;, Minn. 

Tlie Wilco.Y Co., White Bear, Minn. 



SHEEP. 



SHROPSHIRES— 

Caribou Farms, Tw's, Minn. 

'~ SHETLAND PONIES. ~ 
A. G. Godwin, Alexandria, Minn., 



POULTRY. 



WHITE PT.YMOUTH KOCKS — 

B. H. Fulten, New Bichmond, Wis. 
BARRED PI<YMOIJTH ROCKS — 

Roy W. JiicoltH. Wndena, Minn. 

E. W. Smith, Parkers Prairie, Minn. 
WHITE HOLI,AlVD TURKEYS — 

Roy W. Jacobs, Wadena. Minn. 
BLUl': ANDALDSIAN CHICKENS— 
BHODE ISLAND REDS— 

The Wilcox Co., White Bear. Minn. 

G. L. Bennett, Wadena, Minn., R. B. 6. 
BOURBON RED TURKEYS — 

Mrs. E. R. Bartlett, Box 50, R. 2, Good 
Thunder, Minn. 

G. L. Bennett, Wadena, Minn., B. B. 6. 



LOOK OCT FOR POOR SALT. 

A warning of danger in the use of 
salt for the hardening and preserving 
of Koft com which Is being advocated 
•widely thruout the northwest is sound- 
ed by R. A. Gortner, chief of the divi- 
sion of agricultural biochemistry at 
the Minnesota College of Agriculture. 

Dr. Gortner says that only salt such 
as is sold for feeding stock should be 
used for this preservative treatment 
of soft corn. Cheaper grades of salt 
such as are used mainly for ice cream 
manufacture and refrigeration should 
used. These are likely to con- 
luantities of barium chloride, 
I is highly poisonous. Such salt 
n. .. at a lov/er price than the other, 
but should be carefully avoided. 

The use of salt as a means of sav- 
ing soft corn, Dr. Gortner says, is 
sound. He says that the application 
of salt to wet, soft corn can do no 
harm and ou^ht to do considnrable 
gof)d. The good comes from tlic fact 
thfit the sal' sifts down between the 
k< rnelH next to the cob and then 



HORSES . 

Percheron - Belgian - Shire 

stallions and Mares. 

As a producer of Champions this herd has no superior. 
My f) yr. old mO lb. Black won KIKST and UKAN1> CHAM- 
PIONSHIP stallion over all ngtsa at the liiU Nebraslia, So. 
Dakota and Iowa Intor-Slato Fairs, My customers In Min- 
nesota and adjoining Slates have many of his liall'-brothors 
and sisters from my herd making money and winning prl/.es. 

Men who are careful in their Investments and know that 
the best are cheapest, find this a most d(H>endablo place to 
come to for young stallions to grow Into money, mature 
2UUU and 2200 lb. stallions ready for heavy stand; roglslerod 
tlllles, and young registered mares in foal to Champion 
sirtis. 

Coming here yon have the advantage of large selection; 
singly or by the carload, 
yeo my exhibit at the Chicago International. 

FRED CHANDLER, R. 7, CHARITON, IOWA. 

Below Si. Paul. 



HORSES. 





J, W. i'eierson 



J. W.& F.T.PETERSON 

Grove City, Minn. 

Importers, Breeders, Percheron, Belgian and Sliire Stall- 
ions and Mares. May be found here iu larger numbers than 
on any place In the Northwest. Our guarantee Is the best 
and prict s the lowest, quality considered. Our 50 years ex- 
perience in the same business on the same farm .should be 
worth much to buyers of our slocli. Have 60 Galloway 
bulls for sale. 




LIVE STOCK. 



LIVE STOCK. 



-A.PLIDE2>T Fj?L3E=il^S (inc.) 

One of the greatest herds of Holstein-Frlesians in the world today. The home of 
Beauty Girl Pontlao Segis and Jewel Pontlao Segis, 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST HKIFKBS. 
Rilik in «ftrvipp l^'"Sr Secis Pontine Count, Piebe Laura OUle Homestead King. 

DUII& m iBfUiCB f King- Abbf^kerk Vontlac SegiS. Sir Ormsby Henuerveld Korndyko. 
Write for Service Fees. Bull calves from these sires out of high record cows. Also 
Females for sale. Freedom from tuberculosis guaranteed. Write or call on 

J. M. HACKNEY, Owner, 404 Hackney Building, St. Paul, Minn. 



Hfli .STFIN Rill I S *"<""■ weeks to year old. K.x- 
IIULOItlll OULLiI eel lent breeding. S50 <o S7S. 
Address PINE HILL FARM, BUFFALO LAKE, MINN. 



liquefies, drawing moisture from the 
center of the cob and from the inte- 
rior of the corn kernels, thus facilitat- 
ing a more rapid movement from the 
center to the surface of the ear. More- 
over, the presence of salt prevents the 
growth of molds or bacteria, the most 
of which in corn start next to the 
cob. 

The only danger, in Dr. Gortner's 
opinion, however, is that of obtaining 
cheap grades of salt containing the 
poison barium chloride. 



Good Prices For Pure Bred Sires. — 

The higher the prices of livestock and 
livestock products, the greater be- 
comes the value of the improvement 
brought about by the sire. For in- 
stance, it was found at the N. E. Sub- 
station in Minnesota that the daugh- 
ters from scrub cows and well bred 
dairy sires averaged 50 pounds more 
butter fat per year than their dams. 
When butter fat was 30 cents this 
would amount to $15, but when butter 
fat brings 45 cents this value is $22.50 
or $225 for ten years. This does not 
take into account the larger amount of 
skim milk and the greater value of the 
calves which will at least in a meas- 
ure offset the cost of the larger amount 
of feed required. — N. D. Agricultural 
College. 



"I have seen my first modern battle- 
field and I am quite disillusioned about 
the splendor of war," writes a young' 
soldier on the Battle Line. 

"This is your birthday letter. Next 
week I will be bus.y and no one knows 
how long it will take this letter to 
reach you. You know how much love 
I send you and how I would lilte to be 
with you. Do you remember the birth- 
day three years aso, when we set the 
victrola going' outside your room door? 
Those were my high-pink days when 
very many things seemed possible. I'd 
rather be the person I am now than 
the person I was tlien. Well, as I said, 
.I've seen my first modern battlefield 
and am quite disillusioned about the 
splendor of war. The splendor is all in 
the souls of the men who creep thru 
the squalor like vermin — it's in nothing 
external. There was a chap here the 
other day who deserved the V. C. four 
times over by running back thru the 
II un shell fire to bring news that the 
infantry wanted more artillery sup- 
port. I was observing for my Brigade 
in the forward station at the time. 
How he managed to live through the 
ordeal at the time no one knows. But 
men laugh while they do these things. 
It's fine. What a curious birthdav let- 
ter. I think of all your other birth- 
days; the ones before I mot these 
silent men with the green and yellow 
faces, and the blackened lips which will 
never spf-nk again. What happy times 
we have had as a fainily — whal: happy 
.launts when you took mo with vou In 
IhOBO cnrly days. Yet, for all the 
<lamnabillty of what I now witness, I 
was never quieter In my heart. To 
have surrendered to an imperative self- 
denial brings a noaco which self-sock- 
ing never brought." Send $1.00 today 
and got six books, "True Stories of tho 
Croat War," a one ycar'H subscription 
to Rfvlow of Reviews and three year.s' 
KiibscrlptlonH to Farm, Stofk Sr tlome, 
f'.csldes the first dollar, \(>ti will pay 
$1.00 each month until JC.GO has been 
sent us. 



Oal(woo(i Farm Holstelns 

Junior hord sire, Dntchland Colantha Bmperor, 
sonof Colanl ha Johanna Lad, sire of 107 A. K. O. 
daughters, 13 abova 30 lbs. butter and 2a above 6t)0 
lbs. milk in 7 days. Average of dam and sire's dam 

.97 butter in 7 days. 

Two bulls ready for service and a few bull calves. 
OEO. H. ELWELL, Prop'r. LEW J. SMITH, Mngr. 

Minneapolis, Minn. New nrighloii, Minn. 



CARIBOU GUERNSEYS ^y^^^^^^t^^ 

old bull and First Prize senior bull calf, and junior 
championship at the Minnesota State Fair, 1917. 
Toungbtilis from advanced register cows for sale. 
State Acci edited Tuberculosis Free Herd. Write 
for sales list. 

CARIBOU FARMS 

Farm, Bartlett, D. W. & P. Ky.. 8t. Louis County 

Red Polled Cattle 

Wlihout an equal as profit producters of bolh milk 
and beef. Sales list free. MINNESOTA RED POLLED 
CATTLE BREEDERS ASSN., Red Wing. Minnesota. 

GRANDVIEW FARM 

Offers choice pure bred Poland China gilts (bred 
or open) Shorthorn Bulls, Cows and Heifers. Boui^ 
bon Ked Turkeys, W. Wyandott, 8. C. W. Orpinprton 
Cockerels at bargain prices for the next 60 days. 
Mvery thing guaranteed to please or money re- 
funded. Phone 10 J 13. 

JNO. SIVIALL, - St. Charles, Minn 



AVALON SHORTHORNS 

Choice young stock, both sexes, for sale at all 
times. Inspection invited. 

J.S. BILLINGS & SON 
B. F. D. 3 Fergus I'alls, Blinn. 

fi4 SHnRTHnRNS Wt. 1250 1bs.; so Angus, wt. mo 
gt Onuninunn<» j^s.; 70Herefords, wt. 940 lbs.; 
68 Herefords, wt. 760 lbs.: 85 Shorthorns, wt. 620 
lbs.; 2 loads young cows. If wanting some choice 
native steers, dehorned, good color. Write me 
your wants, harry I. ball, Fairfield, iowa. 



Sheboygan County Holsteins 

Nicely marked high grade Heifer Calves $20 
crated for shipment anywhere. Registered Bull 
Calves $50 and up. Registered Heifer Calves $100 
and up. cedar hill stock farm, Plymouth, wis. 



nitnSnn Hlsh-prade HOLSTEIN, GUKKN- 
uIIDICq SHORTHORN Calves, 

viiwiww (;j.;^t,ed to express at little cost. 
Good offers to make in service bulls. 

F. A. LUHRS, - South St. Paul, IVIInn. 



CRYSTAL VIEW FARM "^^^^^^^ 

bulls from 3 to 10 months old; One Registered 
Guernsey heifer one year old. Gov of the Clime 
and Masher Sequel breeding. Herd tested by live 
stock sanitary board and found free from disease. 
T. C NOKMAN, Lake Crystal, Minnesota 

HOLSTEIN BABY BULLS 

of tho bcstof breedlngand individuality, .-it reason- 
able i)rices. One or two ready for service this 
winter. Call on or writ© 
h. & r. b. qoodhue, - dennison, minn. 



Cnn CAIC 10 l'***!. Polled Bulls from 8 

run OHLC monllis to 15 mouths old. Good 
strong animals raised in norlliiTii Minnesota. 
Call on or write ERNEST FLEMMINO, Bona, Minn. 



CUnRTUnRN^ BULL CALVES, cows and HEIFERS 
Onuninunno Scoim ami red in color. Ad- 

dross A. E. RICKABV, ANOKA. MINN. 

CflD CAI C Six head of Angus heifers. Tear- 
run OHLC ijnga. Best of brooding and 
extra quality. Also Spanish Jack, six years old. 
Guaranteed In every way. 

LONGFIELD STOCK FARM, Humbollll. towa 



horn bullsof servleeablci hk" for sale. UoasoD- 
able prices. M. H. HANSON, Murdoch, Minn. 



PflB '{Al F 'rwo fine Itivg. llolNlrin biills, fourteen 
run OHLC months old. Priced to sell, tlood brcjod- 



Ing. 



EVAN E. WILLIAMS, Loko Cryslal, Minn. 



LAKE SHORE HOLSTEINS One e.ttra line vv(>ll bred 
bull n ady for sorvlcn. (Jiiaranloed loplensoor 
money refunded. E. OPPtlQER, Forost Lako.MInn, 



SWI NE. 

BIG TYPE POLAND CHINAS 

\ nn September plgH. Hired 
by tho $1000 boar K\g 
Price, three times (iriind 
Champion. Weight 1U5Q 
lbs atZM: years old. And 
from 800 pound Sows. 
Pairs and trios. Notrol- 
utod at farmers prices. 61 ribbons won at Minne- 
sota and (Sout h Dakota St ate Fairs and tho National 
Swine Show In 1917. Pedigree furnished. 




W.J.GRAHAM. - Howard Lake, 



Minn. 



BRED DUROC GILTS 

An April gilts sired by l.ong King 18UUI& w bo won 
Isl pri/.o at Minn, and Wis. state fairs 11115 and 
Fourhouso llhistralor 201941 wlunorof tirst In class 
and futurity Minn, state fair lino. These gilts will 
bo bred for Ai)rll and early May farrow to Four- 
house Illustrator and Motlel Wonder 229661, Isl 
prize winner, Minn, slate fair and National futurity 
Umaha 1917, Average weight Dec. 16th. 200 lbs. 
I'rice $75, each recorded and crated for shipment. 
Shipments from Tyler via G. & N. W, and from 
Kuthton via (i. N. Address 
li-OUItHOlISK l AKMS, TYLER. IVIINN. 



Wiest's Poland Chinas 

Smooth, large type with lots of quality. March 
and April gills sired by my champion boar, 8lr Rob- 
ert, Islinclass, Isl In tulurlly and Jr. chump, at 
Minn. State Fair 1915. Gilts bred to W's. Big Bono 
282609, Also fall pigs of both sexes for sale. My 

Eigs have bone, length, wide backs, nicely shaped 
eads and are easy feeders. Bargain prices. 
Write for descriptions and photos. 

WM. WIEST, LeSueur, Minn. 



Real Big Type Duroc Jerseys 

We have a nice lot of Spring Boars and 
Oilts to offer at present. Mostly all of mature 
stock and in a good growthy condition. Also 
have a few very good Dec. Boars that would 
loolt right in any herd. Write for prices. 

HONEBRINK BROS., - Atwater, Minn. 



SMOOTH, EASV FEEDING, LARGE TYPE WITH LOTS 
OF QUALITV. March and April Pigs, sired by 
champion boar Sir Robert 236lia5, first In class, first 
In futurity, and Jr. champion of Minnesota Stale 
Kair in 1915. Some of the pigs are sired by Match- 
less Kxpanslon 257!*'.il. They have bone, length, 
wide backs, nice shaped heads. At bargain prices. 
Write for description and photographs. 
WM. WIEST LE SUEUR, MINN. 



POLAND CHINAS got my 

prices on big, smooth, early maturing pipH ot 
either sex. The kind that will be a credit to any 
herd. Pedigrees furnished. Satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Come or write. 

FORREt^T L. WILLIAMS, Elygian, Minn. 



BIQ TYPE POLANDS 



BBG TYPE POLAND CHINAS 

We have the big bone kind with good size and 
quality March and April pigs for sale. Satlsfao- 
lon guaranteed. Pedigrees furnished. The best 

raised*:' GEO. W. HARTMAH. Rose Creek, Minn. 

Choice March and 
April Boars for 
sale. Sired by Mouws Orange 6th, Smooth Big 
Bone, Chief Prize and Mouws BlacI; Boy. We 
are booking orders for bred Gilts. Pedigrees fur- 

Si^wri^e^^ J- A. DIGNAH & SON, ^^Ti^S!"" 
BIG TYPE CHESTER WHITES 

Sired by King Best 27699, a 1000-pound boar, and 
White Star 39221, a 600-pound yearling. Corres- 
pondence promptly answered. Visitors welcome. 
L. A. HOWE, ST. JAMES, MINNESOTA. 

Improved Chester Whites. 

Stock for sale of the highest of breeding. 
Pedigrees furnished, and safe arrival at destin- 
ation guaranteed. Write 

C. H. MURPHY, Caledonia, Minn. R. 6 

rflD CAIC My 1 Duroc Jersey Boars sired by 
run OHLC Golden Defender and out of chief 
Model Sows. ROV W. JACOBS, WADENA, MINN. 

I artfa Vnrl/chiroc Choice Auril pigs of either sex. 
Large IUrK&lllli;& AIso choice fan pigs. Satis- 
faction guaranteed. W. D. CLOW, St. Vincent, Minn. 

||rn|#o|||BPC Spring pigs of either sex. Pairs 
DCIllVdninCd not related. Besi of breeding. 
KOY B. CLEPPEK, RICE, MINNESOTA. 

mircTrD uiuitp dirs ™b best of 
bncoicn wniic riuo breeding. Writ« 

FRED LUCHSINQER, LAKE ELMO, MINN. 



Good enough to ship to you C.O.D. 
Address J. FISHER & SON, Eastman, Wis. Box S 

MULE FOOT HOGS— Good stock of spring pigs, 
also some fall pigs on hand ; write for bookleU 
CEDAR HILL HOQ FARM, Wlllmar, Minnesota. 



SHEEP. 




SHROPSHIRES ^oVi^l^T^T. 

Bams. 40 Ram Lambs. All from Imp. 
Prize Winners. Now importation just 
arrived. Few choice ewes Rector fam- 
ily. C. O. NICHOLS. Livo Slock Co., 

Slentlon F.s.&H. cresco, iowa 



30GS. 



SCOTCH COLLIES 

Best stock, farm and watch dog. Im* 
ported. Registered. Natural heelers. 
27 years' experience. Training Book, 
82 pages, 50 cents. 

ED. McGRATH, • ST. PETER, MINN 



Plira Rrari AMERICAN FOX HOUNDS-»ullable for 
ruic UICU Coon, Fox, Wolves and Rabbits. Trained 
and nntrained. Also Puppies. Trained dogs sold 
on ten days trial. J. E. adams, herrick, ill. 




pOLLIES that aro workers. Wc also breed Alre- 
*• dales. Slate which von want and send 2c stamp 
for list. W. R. WATSON, Box 1004, Oekland, Iowa. 

COR SALM — Blue Morlo and Knulish Shepherd 
' Pups. Best stock and watch dog on eiu'tb. 

HERMANN BRUESEHOFF, Norwood, Minn. 

When writing to advprtl.sers always 
mention Farm. Stock and Homo 

Tlirre ivlll lt« lo<N of iirople ^vnntinK 
appil Krnin prctiy noon. Ilnvc yon nnyf 
Toll nIxMit i< In tbc Cluaitiflcd coluiniia 
Ot F„ S. A H. 



January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



31 



CLUB ORDERS_FOR SEED CORN. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

Otg- Iters bare at last beea folly 
justified. A detailed snrwyfor seed 
corn has shown a woeful ahoitege and 
a definite uncertainty of its germina- 
tion power. Many localitiBS have prac- 
tically no seed. Others have small 
surplus lots. Those who will need 
seed should at once get togerther in. 
• their respective communities and pool 
or join in ordering and at once get 
busy The Foods Committee, the Ag- 
ricultural Collega and the Crop Im- 
provement Association have been busi- 
ly engaged listing supplies and will be 
glad to refer inquiries to the list of 
names of parties having corn saved 
for seed and suitable to the locality. 
Any one having a surplus not yet re- 
ported should write the Secretary, 
Minnesota Crop Improvement Associa- 
tion, University Farm, St. Paul, and 
give the amount, kind, price and other 
identification such as any one would 
want to know when buying corn for 
seed. Remember— get busy— order in 
bulk. Pool your orders, buy on sample. 

Farmers in Northern Minnesota 
should endeavor to get Minnesota 23, 
Northwestern Dent and Early Flints. 
Some flints can be purchased in the 
East. Don't forget that good seed corn 
is cheap at $5.00 per bushel, but you 
will be lucky if you get just corn at 
from $5.00 to $10.00, but at that the 
seed is cheaper per acre ($1.00 to 
$1..50) than wheat ($2.25 to $2.50). 

Fodder corn seed should be secured 
from the poorer corn and from later 
varieties, thus leaving Minnesota and 
early varieties for ear production. 

C. P. Bull. 



SHEEP PROSPEETS GOOD. 

To Farm. Stock and Home: 

Prospects for the coming year in the 
sheep-breeding line of farming are per- 
haps the brightest in the history of 
the business. We do not feel that this 
is merely a short-time boom, but that 
present conditions are the result of a 
number of circumstances, the war be- 
ing only one of many contributing fac- 
tors. The cutting up and dividing into 
smaller farms of the great Western 
ranges, the coi stant and inevitable 
concentration of population in th 
large cities, high prices for feed an i 
labor, and other causes all contribute 
to create a stable scale of high prices 
for wool and mutton for at least an- 
other year, and undoubtedly thru a 
long period of years. 

Sheep are perhaps the least affected 
of any livestock by labor shortage and 
by high grain prices, as they are light 
grain eaters, and do not require a 
great amount of labor. The demand 
for female breeding stock so far ex- 
ceeds the supply that ewes of quality 
are difficult to obtain at any price, 
tho an occasional auction provides 
a means of procuring limited num- 
bers. We have bought little ewe stock 
the past year, as our rule has been 
to raise our best ewe lambs, using the 
best rams obtainable. 

As to fencing, we find woven wire 
best; a low woven fence, with a barb 
wire or two at the top is very satis- 
factory and not expensive, as it is 
quite permanent. The shape of fields 
is a matter dependent on farm condi- 
tions. A ten-acre field or smaller, or 
a >uccessfon of such fields is prefer- 
able to a larger one, as it gives oppor- 
tunity to change pastures, which is ap- 
preciated by the sheep, and helpful in 
combating worms. 

Hennepin Co., Minn. F. Wilson Pond. 



Protect Machinery. — With the high 
price of farm machinery and the in- 
creasing difficulty of making enough 
iron to meet the needs of the war, im- 
plement manufacturers, railroads and 
other industries, the farmer can do a 
good deal to help by housing his farm 
machinery. If it can not be put under 
cover, at least cover all the bearings 
with oil so that they cannot rust or 
corrode. Adding a few years to the 
life of each farm machine is one way 
to help win the war, and this is one 
way of doing a bit that will cause no 
hardship to any one. — N. D. Agricul- 
tural College, 



— Since Its occupation of northern 
France, Germany has seized about 
2,700,000 French and Belgian cattle. 
By these depredations and by restric- 
tive measures at home, Germany has 
maintained practically all her original 
obare of cattle, according to informa- 
tion reaching the TJ. S. Food Adminis- 
tration from F'rench sources. 

— One way to Increase poultry pro- 
flttctlon is to banish the chicken mites 
from Infested hen roosts. 



Classified Advertising 



Befciiminc with the Statuary 1st t8«ue of 
lUtS the rateN tor ClaMNified Advertisilnir will 
advance to SEVEN CENTS per word per In- 
M^rtion. Initials and niuniiers count an wordt*. 
Ifo advertisenient Inserted for lexs than one 
doUar. CaHh with order In all cases. 



Cominercial or to Exchange, For Sale, 
Wanted to Buy advertising In this column the 
rate is five cents per word each issue. No ad- 
vertisement for leas than SI. 00 each issue. 
Every word, number. Initial (including name 
and address) must be paid for. Cash must 
accompan.v each order. No display type, cuts 
or display lines will be allowed in classified 
cclumn, and copy must reach this office eight 
days in advance of day of publication. 



No advertisements can be taken for 
this column after the 2nd for Issues 
of the 15th, or after the 18th of pre- 
ceding month for issues of the first. 



KODAK FINISHING. 



I BT BXPBRTS finish what your Kodak be^an. Our 
liberal offer good until Feb. 1st. ini8. We finish 
one roll (only) six exposure film any size, furnish 
six select prints for 25c with order. Better pictures 
from each exposure. Fewer failures from each 
roll or money clir"rfnlly refunded. T. V. MoBBAH 
Co.. 62e Nicollet Ave.. Minneapolis. Minn. 



OUR PRICE is only 25c lor developing a6-exposure 
roll film and making sis prints np to Postal size. 
Postal size 40o. Mailed back, prepaid. Cash must 
■nccompany order. Do not send postage stamps. 
MOEN's ABTSTrDIO. Preston, Minn. 



ENLARGE TOUR KODAK pictures 2 to 3 times 
present size. Special introductory price one-half 
cent per square inch, one to customer. Money re- 
funded if not pleaFCd with work. Offer expires Feb. 
1. W18. MoRBAU's Kodak Finishing service, 
626 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 



FILMS and Packs Developed Free. Enlargements 
free. Vo excessive charge for prints. Write. 
"Bliil.'.s," Nortlifleld, Minn. 



FOR SALE. 



FOB SALE— 1000 sets of good second hand harness, 
consisting of heavy team and farm harness. 
Prices $25.00, $2T.£0, S30.0O, S35.0O and $37.50. Five 
hundred second-hand collars $2.50, $3.00, $3.50, $4.00 
and $4.50 each. One thousand good leather halters 
at 50 cents each or $5.50 a dozen. A large stock of 
new harness. Twin Citt Harness Co,, of Mid- 
way, St. Paul, Minn. 



HEAVY NEW Mule skin face case collars, any 
size, $2.75 each, extra heavy farm collars $3.50 ; 
New Pinery collars S6.00 each, heavy lined duck 
storm blankets $6.00 pair, good secondhand leather 
halters 6 for $2.35, 48011 set new and secondhand 
harness your own price. Midwat Harness Co. 
1953 Univerbity Ave., St. Paul, Minn, 



SILOS — B. Z. Built Sectional Silo. Erected in a 
few hours. No carpenter required. Low priced 
and strong. Book bottom prices on lumber, shingles 
and fence post to make np carload. J.F. JACOB- 
son LUMBEU Co., Tacoma. Wash. 



COR SALE— A brand new Ford, just as it came 
' from the factory, tor $160 down payment and 
termo lor balance. Will take work for part pay- 
ment. Address FORD OWNER, 416 So. Sixth Street, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

QUALITY Printing— 260 letterheads, full size: and 
250 65i envelopes for 82.45. Cash with order. 
We pay pr. tage. The New Model, Litchfield, 
Minn. 



SCHOOLS. 



TBLBGRAPHY, both Morse and wireless, alsosta- 
' tion agency taught quickly. Tremendous de- 
mand — much greater than supply — permanent posi- 
tions secured. Big salaries, recently raised. Ideal 
working conditions, short hours, vacations with 
pay. sick and death benefits, etc., prevailing. Great 
opportunities for advancement. Women operators 
also greatly desired by railways and Western 
Union. Ttiilion reasonable; cheap living expenses 
can be earned; oldest and largest scliciol. estab- 
lished 43 years; endorsed by railway. Western 
Union and Marconi telegraph officials. Large illus- 
trated catalogs free. Correspondence courses also. 
Write today; enroll immediately. DODGE'S iNaxi- 
TCTE, LaflinSt., Valparaiso. Indiana. 



AUTOMOBLBSchool—Comiilste instruct ion courses 
in suiuible day and evening classes. Everything 
mechanical and electrical about automobilas. In- 
dividual instructions and unlimited practical repair 
experience. Complete course $50.00 tuition. Wriie 
for booklet, Com mhia Auto Coixege, 410 Sixth 
Ave. Sotith. Minneapolis, M'nn, 



TELEGIiAPH, Morse and Wireless — Positions se- 
' cured for young men and women. Can earn 
board. Free catalog. Ameijican TELEGRAPH 
College, 608 1st Ave. N., Minneapolis. 



VOLNG MEN — Young Women — Learn Telegraphy, 
' Shorthand or Bookkeeping. Pleasant work, big 
salaries, great demand, freo catalogue. Bakry's 
Tklkoiiaph Institi'te, Minneapolis. 



DKCOME AN AUCTIONEER. Term soon. Circular 
" free. SAIU;HNT'8 INTERNATIONAL AUCTION 

School, Sioux City, la. 



SEEDS. 



CUAKAKTKKD Genuine Grimm Alfalfa Seed. 

Most economical and profitable to sow as it 
urodnces plants which do not winterkill like other 
variotics. larger yielfl. higher feeding value. Book- 
let "llow 1 discovered the Grimm Alfalfa" with 
testimonials and seed .sample free. A. B. Lyman, 
Grimm Altai fa Introducer, Alfalfadale Farm. 
Kxeolsior, Minn. 



SBED CORN— Minnesota Ideal for Northern Min- 
nesota and North Dakota-. Write H.M. Hamlin, 
LeSueur, Minn. 



nRDKK early maturing Seed Corn now. llardy 
" Alfalfa and Pure Farm Seeds from BECKMAn's 
seed Farm, Cokato, Minn. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



pLAKX MILLING CO., Minneapolis, want lo buy 
" filly thousand bushels buckwheat. Will pay 



highest price in either car lots or loss. 
Milling Co., 402 Flour Exchange, 



Clarx 



1 PAY THE highest market. Want Poultry, Furs, 
' green hides, pells, veal, rabbits. Get my price 
list. S. L. McKay. 7 3rd St., St. Paul, Minn. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



OALKSMEN Wanted— Owing to conditions brought 
* about by the war we have a few well worked 
territories open and will be pleased to hoar from 
Interested persons. Applicant must bo exempt 
from draft. MCCONNON & COMPANY, Dept. M. 
Winona, Minn. 



U|U PAY $100 monthly salary and furnish rig and 
" {expenses to Introduce guaranteed jMiultry and 
8tx)ck powders. Biglkr Company X 6US, Spring- 
field, 111. 



— Swiss chard Is sometimes grown 
in the greenhouse to advantage. 
Beets may be started under the green- 
house bench if ♦here is light enough 
to prevent their getting spindling. 



EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. 



ATTENTION To Karmcrd— Wecan supply you wlih 
" first-class farm hands. Married couples our 
specialty, Unitiu) Umplovmbnt Co., 106ij. 2iid 
St. Minneapolis. Tel. Nlc. 1117, Auto. 88037. 



CARM Help furnished free of charge to farmers. 
I Phone or address Amekican Labor Aokmcy, 
131 Ist Stree tSo., MinneaiJolls. 



FARM Help furnished freo of charge to farmers. 
Phone or address. National Employment 
Co., 115 1st St. So., Minneapolis, Minn. 



HELP WANTED. 



lUANTBD, Immediately— Men, women, 18 or over. 
" U. 8, Government Positions. Hundreds clerical 
positions obtainable. $'.I0 month. Quick increase. 
Easy work. Write immediately for llsl, posil Ions. 
Franklin Institute, Dept. K209. Rochestor.N.Y. 



U; ANTED — Men, women, 18 or over. U. S. fJovem- 
" ment positions. Hundreds clerical positions 
obtainable. S'M month. Easy work. Write imme- 
diately for list positions. FUANKLIN INSTITUTE, 
Dept. K 209, Rochester, N. Y. 



HOTEL. 



A NICE clean hotel for women, under tho manage- 
ment of Woman's Christian Association; 50c a 
day. No. 122 Hennepin Ave.. Minneapolis, Minn. 
(Ask matron at the railroad stations for directions) 



LUMBER. 



TO HIM who wills, ways are not wanting. He can 
' buy lumber, shingles, etc., direct from the mills 
at Right, price, by sending bill for estimate to 
LAN.siJOWN, Box 909 G, Everett, Wash. 



HIGHEST GRADE lumber and millwork shipped 
direct from mill to those who are going to build. 
Write for prices. Wells, Box lOlOC. Everett, 
Wash. 



I UMBER— Posts— Write us about prices delivered 
^ your station. Send list for estimate. Pay after 
unloading. Kirs Company, Box 1138-U, Tacoma, 
Vyashingion. 



BEES AND HONEY. 



yuHITE Clover Chunk Comb Honey. 10 lb cans 19c 
" per lb; 5 lb cans 20c per lb. This will please 
lovers of honey for there is nothing more delicious. 
M. V. Facby, Preston. Minn. 



WHITE Clover Extracted Honey in BO-lb cans, 
$10.S0; 10-lb. pails, $2; 5-lb. pails, $1.10. Send 
bank draft or Post Office money order. Pietrich 
& Vice, Grace City, K. D, 



POULTRY. 



BARRiED PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 
pARRBD Plymouth Rocks exclusively. Bred from 
" trapnested, specially mated birds wiih laying 
qualities second to none. Choice cockerels. Write 
your wants. J. H. BtiiiR, Box 3S7, Litchfield, Minn. 



BARRED and White Plymouth Rocks, Young stock 
and yearlings. Farm raised with size, color and 
quality. M. McCOUKTNEy, LeSueur Center, I<Iinn. 



I/EGHORNS. 

PHOICK Pure Bred Single Comb While Leghorn 
" cockerels, bred from heavy laying strain, $1,25 
to $1.50 each. A. Bjorgum, Fergus Falls, Minn. 



HIGH CLASS B. C. Brown Leghorn Cockerels. 
Early birds go first, at $1,25 to $2.00. Mrs. C. 
CtTNNiNQHAM. Pipestone, Minn. 



SC. W. LEGHORN Cockerels, the heavy laying 
• strain, $1,25 each, the best $1.50. Geo. W. 
HARTMAN. Rose Creek, Minn. 



SC. B. L. cockerels, matured, 1st prize winners 
• $1.50. April batched $1.00. Remember best 
not toogood. Nort-Hen Farm, Nonhome, Minn. 



BRAHMAS. 

BIG Growthy Light Brahma Cockerels, $2.00 each, 
6 for $9.00. ALii. A. GiLBERTSON, Northwood. 
N. Dak. 



ORPINGTONS. 

PURE BRED Single Comb White Orpington cock- 
erels and pullets, $1.50. Geo. Bailby, Austin, 
Minn. 



SBVEIRAJL VARIETIES. 

BRED TO Lay and Win— Barred Plymouth Rocks, 
Single Comb White Leghorns, Silver Spangled 
Hamburgs. cockerels. Price $2.50. Fred Mitchbll, 
Cedar, Minn^ 



DUFF White Barred Rocks, Light Brahmas, Black 
Langshams, R. C. Brown Leghorns, Houdans, 
Pekin, Fawn, Runner Ducks, Minkel Co., Maple- 
ton, Minn. 



CHOICE Golden Wyandotte, S. C. Brown Leghorn, 
S. C. White Leghorn cockerels at $1.50 each. 
H. T. BUNGER, Luverne. Minn. 



COB SALE— Pure bred Bronze Turkey.s, Toulouse 
' Geese, Pekin Ducks. Extra large well marked. 
C. W. Johnson, Cokato, Minn, 



CATTLE. 



STOCK WANTED— Four young registered Perch- 
eron Mares, in foal : six registered Shorthorn 
Heifers, and thirty high-grade heifers, all bred. 
Also one yearling Shorthorn Bull. Give full infor- 
mation. Address Elgin R. Shepabd, Averrill, 
Minn. 



FIFTY Holstein Cows. Big, young, choice; grades. 
Some fresh. Sixty select two year olds. Tuber- 
culin tested. Registered Holstein and Shorthorn 
bulls. Paul Johnson, South St. Paul. Minn. 



COR SALE- Choice registered Guernsey bull, 3 
' years old, from advance registry on both sides. 
Also one fine registered bull calf 10 mo. old and 
some younger ones. Frank Kobnen, Kasota, 
Minn. 



FOR SALE— Twenty registered Aberdeen Angus 
bulls and heifers from eight to twenty months 
old. P, AbrahamsoN, Lanesboro. Minn. 



COH SALE— Pure bred Holstein bull calves, sired 
' by a son of King of the Pontiacs. Prices are 
$50 lo $100 each. Lkk English, Luverne, Minn. 



3WINE. 



BERKSHIRE— Extra good yearling, weight about 
400 lbs, $65, Two May boars, $27.50 forquicK 
sale. John SUCHY, Parkers Prairie. Minn. 



pHESTBB White pigs for sale. Pairs not related- 
GAiiRiET Harms, Lockhart, Minn. 



HORSES. 



FOR SALE— Extra good pure bred Belgian Stallion 
for cash or would consider one good work team 
and farm equipment for part of pay. PEXEK W, 
ANDERSON, Madison, Minn. ^ 



PATENTS. 



PATENTS Wanted— Write for list of Patent Buy- 
ers and inventions wanted including those 
needed on farms. $1,000,000 in prizes offered for in- 
ventions. Send sketch for free opinion as to paf 
entablllty. Our Four Books sent freoupon request 
Patents advertised Free. We assist inventors to 
sell their inventions. Victor J. Hvans & Co., 
609 Hlnth St„ Wnshlngton, D. C. 



When writing to advertisers always 
ftiBB Fann. Stock and Horn. 



LAND FOR SALE. 



MINNE.SOTA, 

JUST WHAT You Wanu-A good farm at a reason ■ 
' able price, where you will make money. Where 
olover is a weed, 3 to 5 tons per aore. ato 8 bushels 
of seed per acre, oats up t.o W bUKhcis, wheat 25 to 
36 bushels, potatoes np ui 40O bunliels. This is kimxI 
soli, lays well, easily put under eultivalion In 
Hubbard and Cass counileH. Casrt lias won the 
bighosl score on farm products at llie l-il.»!o Fair fur 
the past three years. In lyiBand loir bl^liesi prize 
on com. The country for cattle, h»Ks, grain.clovcr, 
grasses and potatoes. One of these pieces of land 
would make you a good fami. 100 acre Improved 
farm $40 pcracre; 820 unimproved $20 00 ; 200 unim- 
proved, $20; 120 unimproved SIT.JH). Two eighties 
unimproved, 120. I own the above and can make 
terms to suit you. Addre.ss H. O. Millaoo, Little 
Falls, Minnesota. 



on ACRES, horses, cowk, mjtciilnery— Good slx- 
room house, barn, silo, granary, machine shed, 
corn crib, chicken house, go<xl v;oU; place all 
fenced; 50 acres cultivated, 10 acres meadow. 20 
acres timbered pasture. Surface level, pnxtuctive 
soil. Six horses, harness, a eows, 3 head yoi;ng 
8tx)ck, one pig, 30 chickens, manure spreader, potato 
digger, mower, disc, harrow, sulky plow, walking 
plow, 3 cultivators, seeder, wagon, bug'<v. cutler, 
sleigh and small tools. Four miles from good town, 
35 miles from Twin Cities. All goes for $7,200. No 
trades. John W. Norton Co,, 455 Shntiert Bldg., 
St. Paul, Minn. 

IT WILL SURPRISE you to see what a few dollars 
' per acre, and but a small part of that down. It's 
our business to help those looking for homes, will 
do in Aitkin County. Our lllus'rated literature 
and the facts that we will send yon, if you write, 
will open your eyes to what you can do. You need 
not wait. You can act now. Tho sooner the belter. 
Come, or write to me. AitNOLn, Land Agent. Kock 
Island Railway, 124 Wolvin Bldg., Dalnth, Minn. 

COR SALE— 160 acres Clearwater County land at 
' $12peracre. Nino miles from County Scat; SO 
rods from consolidated school. Can cut three hun- 
dred thousand feet of pine and taniraek lumber 
besides a quantity of cordwood and posts. Contains 
some improvements and 16 acres of good hay 
meadow. AUGUST BEBOlitrND, WontoS, Foaston, 
Minn. 



DAIRYING is making our farmers in Saint Louis 
" Countyrich. Choice driry lands along our Line 
to actual buyers, on easy terms. Rich grasses here. 
An unsatisfied market, right, at hand. Our Com- 
pany's lands very cheap and on the easiest possible 
terms. Write for beautiful illuswated literature to 
Arnold, Com'r, D, & 1. B. Ity„ 503 Wolvin Bldg., 
Duluth, Minn. 

DBNTERS— Why not buy your Minnesota farm now 
'* instead of renting? Wo have twenty farms foi 
sale that you can buy on down payment ioUO to 
$11100, balance easy terms. Write for our free farm 
catalogue. TUAUBBltos., Minneapolis, Minn. 



pORN AND CLOVER LANDS in Ottertail, Todd 
** and Wadena Counties. Minn. Good soil. Easy 
terms. Write for list while prices are low. H. W. 
Freeman, Wadena, Minn. 

U/HBRE the Cattle are in Clover." Central Minne- 
" sola Lands. Send postal for free list. Address 
Murray's Land Office, Wadena, Minn. 

WISCONSIN. 

I ANDOLOGY, a magazine giving the facts in re- 
gard to the land situation, Three months' 
subscription free. If for a home or as an invest- 
ment you are thinking of buyin.'j good farm lands, 
simply write me a letter and say. "Mail me 
Landology and all particulars free." Address 
Editor Landology, skidmorb Land Co., 303 
Skidmore Bldg., Marinette, Wis. 

IINABLB TO DO Farm Work, owner oBers splendid 
" 76 acre farm, mile important junction point, 
good buildings including large b.asement barn, hip- 
roofea, silo attached. Drilled well. Over 30 acres 
level field, more cleared, all very good clay and 
sand loam soil. Snap price of $5,500. Send for 
photo. BAKER. D 74, St. Croix Fails, Minn. 

UIILL TRADE livery and feed b.trn m live town. 
" pays good cash rent, for land in Northern Wis- 
consin or Minnesota. Box 80, Sarles, N> D, 

CALIFORKfIA 

* SMALL California farm earns more money with 

less work. Raise the crops^you know about— 
alfalfa, wheat, barley, etc., also oranges, grapes, 
olives and figs. Ideal for dairying, pigs and chick- 
ens. No cold weather, rich soil, low prices, easy 
terms, good roads, schools and churches. Enjoy 
life here. New comers welcome. Write for our 
San Joaquin Valley, also Dairying and Poultry 
Raising Illustrated folders, free. C. L, Sbaghaves, 
Industrial Commissioner A. T. A S. h\ By., 196! 
Railway Exchange, Chicago. 

SOCTHERN LANDS. 
SOUTHERN FARMS are profitable. Get our 11- 
" lustrated lists of good farms in Virginia, North 
Carolina, West Virginia. Maryland and Ohio at $15 
per acre and up, ExceUent little farms in colony, 
of Little Planters.ShenandoahValley at$-'50and up 
complete, on easy teinns. Fine climate; good mar- 
kets; best general farming, fruit, poultry, trucking 
and live stock country on earth. Write for fnll 
information now. F. H. LaBacmb, Agrl. Agt., H. 
& W. Ity,, 213 N. &W. Bldg., Roanoke, Va. 

COR SALE— Four splendid farms in Albemarle 

• County, Virginia, and one in Louisa county. 
Virginia, on account of owner's death. For book- 
let address R. B. CHAFPIN & Co., lao., Richmond, 
Virginia. 

pHEAP FARMS in tho wheat .-vnd live stock belt 
^ of Kansas. Plenty of water, cheap pasture, 
ideal climate, great opportunity for dairy, live 
Slock and general farming. Write NlQUETTE * 
BoswoRTH, Garden City, Kansas. 

FARM WANTED. 

U/OULD Yon SeU Your Farm If Yon Got Your 
" Price? Sell direct— No commissions. Particu- 
lars Free. Charles Renich. G3„'. Woodstock, 111. 

UlANTED— To hear from owner of farm or unim- 
" proved land for sale, O. Hawley, Baldwin, 
Wis, 

NURSERY STOCK. 

DLACK Hills Evergreens— Trees that will grow, 
" Prices are half and over half lower than others, 
charge. Write for circulars and prices. M.J. 
Anderson, Box 462. Rapid City, S. Dak. 



"With Botha's Army In German 
Southwest Africa," one of the "True 
Stories of the Great War," tells of a 
stampede of frightened liorses and the 
camels when scouting on the edge of 
the desert. Deeds of valor ;tnd of hero- 
ism are by no means to be heard of 
only in connection with the western 
front. Send $1.00 today and get six 
books, "True Stories of the Great War," 
a one year's subscription to Heview of 
Reviews nnd three vears" mib.scription 
to Farm, Stock & Home. Besides the 
first dollar, you will pay $1.00 each 
month until $6.50 ha» tteen dent UB. 



— Go over the celery, «ol)bage and 
root crops in the cellar and pick out 
any that are gtartlng to decay. It 
might be well to look at tBe ^ttHas, 
gladioli and caanaa at Art mme ttaie. 



32 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 




CREAM 
SEPARATORS 



■ $yjfV50HIGH GRADE BATH ROOM COMBINATION ^ 

' -^GrealestBmgainEverOfferedi 



Last Call For This Great Cream Separator Sale! 
Tremendous Price Reductions! 

Thi "world's be«t" Cream Separator — Sharpies famous original Tubular "A"I 
is now within your reach at a price so low and conditions so liberal, you cannot possibly' 
refuse Don'l put off buying your Separator another day. The time to act is here, for our limitedj 

.tockisgorngfast BUY ON YOUR OWN TERMS ! ! 

Mail the coupon below for Sharpies Tubular "A" Cream Separator colored illustrated catafog. eaty^ 
term*. 30-daya* fre« trial plan, the double guarantee and our big reduced price ofTers._JLe«n),' 
why P- M Sharpies picked ub (or ihis great public scr\'ice. 

V SALE PRICES SAVE YOU NEARLY half/ 

Better atill, order direct from this advertisement. Shipments direct to you from eipSt centrally 
located dtstribuling warehouses in every seilion of the country. East, West, North. South. Prices arc on board 
cars at various warehouses. This means big freight savings and (luick deliveries. Liberal AUowancm for' yon 
Old Smpantor. 

' Lbs. per hour 

~" ■ 300 lbs. , 
400 Ibs.^' 




Order No. 

CI.— 20 
GL— 30 
,CL— 40 
'GI.— 60 
CL— 90 



Sharpies Size " Lbs. per hour Regular Priced 

.No 2 ■ 300 lbs. , » 55 00 

No 3 , 400 lbs./ " 65.00 

No 4l 600 lbs.' 75.00 

No 6 ' 700 lbs.1 , 90 00 ' 

No 9 . 900 lbs. 110.00 

Special discount of 3% if cash' accompanies order. 



Onr price 

40.00 
46.00 
62.SO 
30.00 



Mfyrtr IS THE TIME TO BUY 
WV" YOUR ROOFING 



Order Today From This Bargain List! 

Quick action on your part is really necessary if you 
wish to get your share of these unheard of savings. So 
don't delay — sit right down and write your order now. 

Every offer below is covered by our satisfaction or money-back guarantee. 
If you require further informaiion befo re ordering, mail the coupon fon 
out Free Ro ofinp, Book. 

LOOK AT THESE SAVINGS P 




Buy This Modern High Grade Bathroom 

Combination, consisting of the following articles illustrated"^ 

above: Bath tub, closet outfit, and lavatory If you are figuring on furnishing youi I 
bathroom you could make no better selection than this offering The bath tubs are j feel [ 
to s>^ feet long, in the rim enameled style, with No. 4'/j Fuller Bath Cock, con- 1 
nected waste and overflow and nickel-plated supply pipes. The lavatory is in ■ | 
handsome deep apron style, high grade white enameled iron of the best quality f 
Complete with '"hot" and "cold" china index faucets, nickel-plated pipe connected! 
•o the floor. The Closet Outfit has a high grade golden oak lank and seat with| 
syphon action closet bowl. 
No, & 6L 103 Complete as described above, jJBathroom Outfit^4^^«^^^^9.5o| 
Individual Items: 

Sath. Tub^.. > . , . . ^5 . 50 Closet Outfit. .". .$18.50 LavatorjYiiiBaaBiiliiJsl 
Other outfits up to $150.00 " ' 

\Vrite tor our Complete Plumbing Supply Catalog. 



Ajai high grade rubberi surfaced Roofing; put up 108 sq. ft. to the 

toll Complete with nails and cement. Lot No. GL302, 3 ply, 
roll Jl 27, 2 ply, roll tl 17: 1 ply, roll , 

Rawhide Stone Faced Gold Midal Roofing, guaranteed IS years. Roll 

contain 108 »q ft., nails and cement included. Lot No. GL,TO3. 



$1.07 



$2.20 



I Our famous Rawhide Rubber Roofing, 3 ply, guaranteed for 12 years; 

la high grade covering. Rolls contain 108 sq (t., nails and cement included. 
Lot No GL304 . 3 ply, roll $150; 2 ply, roll $140, *l on 

II ply. roll $1.Z0 

10.000 Rolls of Estra Heavy high grade Roofing; Red or Gray Slats 

Co.ited, Rock Faced, Brown Pebble Coat, Double Sanded, Mineral or Mical 
Surfaced. Lot No. CL30S. roll 108 sq. ft. with nails and 
(Cement , 



''28 gauge, painted, 2 1-2 In. corrugated overhauled siding theatsi S 1-2' ft. long' 

(tot No, CL306. 100M».(t ^ 

. 2S gauge, painted, 2 1-2 In. corrugated ovsrhaulsd roofing shaaU. Lot No.' 

CL307, 100 H). It 1..J... 

. 24 gauge, Eitra Heavy, painted, 2 1-2 In. corrugated ovarhauled aheeU for 

pooling barns, jiranarict. etc Lot No. GL308, 100 sq. ft 



$1.90 
$2.50 
$3.00 
$3.50 





mm Corn Sheller Now for $ 

THE HARRIS No. 4. 

,AI1 Complete 
, As Pictured 

biggest~and best opportunity 
you wiil ever have to own "The^ 
'World's Best" Com Sheller, and save 
almost half. Most simple, durable ^end 
economical sheller on the market. Big 
capacity with little power. Shells hard or soft, 
com, irregular sizes, smallest to largest ears, greea' 
or dry — won't crack the kernels. Clean shelled com: 
always . insures you against elevator dockage. Pays for. 
itself with^the money you will saye in one season.__ Order; 
o^L-goq., 

Repair parts can AL WA YS be obtained 



MAIL THIS COUPON TO-nfflf 



'I'he real long service engines. Sizes from 
15^H. P to 15 H. P. Order ^90 AH 

Larger sizes proportionately low. 



Electric Light Plant 

Complet^ 



Rumely-Kalk Uutht. complete with Wil 
lard rubber jar storage bat^c'ics, 75 
Light, 30 Volt plant. Or 
der No CL902 . 



$197.50 



Robinson Hay gailer 

Size . 
I4al8 ins7 




Best made. Biggest cajMCity, 'Built "13 
run from either large tractor or small gas en- 
.ginc. Order No. GL903, ^OAfk f\i\i 
hand feed, size 14 in.xIS in... ^£t\}\i.\i\J 
Other sizes in proportion 



For FREE Catalogs! 



K r«u do not want lo uiw diu CMipon a Poitmt, 
Card requatt will brin| /oil •njdl tiwH V«''*-> 
iHARRIS BROTHERS CO., Dept. GL-IO. Chicago, llllitoto/. 

Mark an X m ihc vjuare below (o show which books you want. They art FREE and senC postpal^^- 



u 

o 



Building Material and 
Supplies 

Roofing. Siding and 
Callings, 

Harris Home Book of 
flans. Bam., . 



o 



Sharpie* Crcaro. SeparfltfH- 
Ek>ok and Sale ParttcuUni 

□ Engines. Machincryj Implr- 
tnenti, BlackirnHh buppho 

nWirc and l-encing 
Cat^lotC 
|— ^ Pip^ fitt'ihd^ and 



'Prato-Up'" Portable 
HoQMs and Caraitn 



□ 

□ Plumbifu and Heatinil'! 
Book .* 

□ P«tni6 — Varmshe*'. 
and Supplies 
Furniture — Rug» anip. 



n 



I'liuHC Kurnbthlnjfs 



H.F.D. Vox ,\<j 



Mixed Nails 




1>ut up in lOO lb 
Ikegs. New polmhcd 
nails, 3d Io40d. Order 
No GL904. 



Iron Pipe 



1-inch 



7c 



Per Foot 



Good Iron Pipe, in random 
lengths, complete with coup- 
Imgft. All sixes. Order No. 
GL005, I ipch, per ». 

(oot /c 

Order No, GL900. 1 K-inch 
per fool 9c 



Fence Posts 

JYonV 35c 
Tubular Iron 
, Fence Posts; 
^ pointed drive; 
2-in. diameter; 
^ from 48 in. to 
^rjnl 84 in. long. 
I Fur 48 in. posts 
order No 
CL907. with 
clamps com- 
plete 3Sc 

Varger posts propor- 
tionately low 



Hog Troughs 



4 F«et Long $1,15 

Strong, durable trough's, 
for hogs and (.ittlc, heavy 
galvanized material, painted 
black, braced with steel cross 
bar; easily cleaned. For 
troughs 4 long, 15 wide, 0 in. 
deep, order No. * « % c 
GL908, each... #t*ID 
6 for $6.00 



.Mixed Paint 




$-1 67 ^ 



otbMtfonnuU. 36 colorsi 
cbooMlrom. Order 



Psli 



Lot CLOOO. per ksU< 

For Beit Bsm Pslnt. Of^ 
LoiOLtlO.pergsUoD^I QQ 



HARRIS BROTHERS CO. 



3Bth and Iron Streets 4 

CHICAGO. ILL. , 



The Northwest's Fo remost Farw Paper 



Established 1884. 
. XXXIV. No, 2, 



NOTICE TO READERS. 

Wh^n yon Onish rradioe this ma^* 
niinp place a onp-eent stamp on thi» 
noliee, hnnd sniue to any poittal em- 
ploye, and it vi\\\ be placed in the 
hands of our soldiers and sailors at 
the front. So irrnjtpinQ — no nildfess 
A.S.RIT.LESOS, Fu^tni<r^ter iientt al 



Minneapolis, Minnesota 



January IS, 1918 






34 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



Come to the 

Northwest's First Great 

TRACTOR 

SHOW 

Overland Bldg., University Ave., Twin Cities 

FEBRUARY 2nd TO 9th 



THE Northwest's first great Tractor Show 
will be held February 2nd to 9th in the new 
Overland Building on University Avenue, 
Twin Cities. It will be a part of the tremendous 
Twin City Automobile, Tractor, Truck and In- 
dustrial Exposition. 

The Twin Cities are the heart of the tractor 
industry, and tractors are doing a great work 
in helping farmers help win the war. They 
are helping raise more food for greater armies. 

This year, Northwestern farmers need more 
tractors than ever before. It is essential that 
you have a good chance to pick your tractor. 
This great Tractor Show is being held that you 
may be able to see all tractors together and 
judge them side by side. 

Northwestern Industrial Exhibit 

In order to win the war, America must con- 
serve as much human power as possible. The 
boys are being drafted. The women folks can- 
not do the chores alone. Machinery must be 
substituted for labor wherever practical. 

Northwestern manufacturers are making 
hundreds of labor saving machines. Milking 
machines, cream separators, churns, washing 
machines, vacuum cleaners, electric light and 
power plants to run them — these and hundreds 
of other improvements will be exhibited at this 
Show. 

Minneapolis Automobile Trade Ass'n. 

707 Andrus Building MINNEAPOLIS 



A Great Truck Show 

A large part of the farm produce of the Northwest 
will be transported by trucks this year. The Govern- 
ment is planning to use 30,000 trucks to carry supplies 
across the Continent. This will help to relieve railroad 
congestion. 

In order to get our products to market, the truck 
and the automobile will have to play a prominent part. 
The leading truck manufacturers will exhibit the new 
models designed for 1918 at this Show. This is the 
place to pick the truck for your farm. 

The Eleventh Annual Automobile Show 

We must get around more quickly this year so we 
can do more work. The automobile is more essential 
now than ever before. 

There will not be as many automobiles available in 
1918, yet we must have many new ones. It is esti- 
mated that 40% of the people who order cars will be 
unable to get them. The leading cars will be on Exhibit 
at this Show. 

Make Up A Party And Come 

You cannot afford to miss this great Industrial Show. Of all 
the visits you have ever made to the Twin Cities, you will find 
the one you make to the Industrial Show the most interesting 
and profitable. 

The St. Paul Winter Carnival has been postponed and both 
cities are concentrating all efforts on this great "Industrial 
Conservation" Exposition. The United States Food Administra- 
tion will have an exhibit here. 

Make up a party and come. Ample hotel accommodations 
will be provided and everyone will be made to feel at home. 
Bring your banker and some of your best and closest friends 
— the men who realize the problems you must face this year and 
are in a position to help you solve them. 

Your help is being drafted. Machinery is the only answer. 
You can't afford to wait till Spring. Factories will be oversold 
before that time. You must make your plans nov/. 

Make 1918 the biggest year your farm has ever known. 
Come and make your arrangements now. 



St. Paul Automobile 

710 Germania Life Building 



Lss'n. 



ST. PAUL 




Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. MINNEAPOLIS. MINNESOTA. JANUARY 15. 1918. Terms] If ^t."x> 



Prepared Excressly for Farm. Stock and Homb. 

Chopped Feed — Mess 741. 

— Powerize the farm ! 

—The "donter" is always arguing the right-of-way 
with Old Man Trouble. 

— Nineteen-eighteen looks like a good year for 
buckwheat an' sorghum. 

— Make things as comfortable as possible for the 
coming of the early litters. 

— Forewarned is not always forearmed. For an 
example consult Uncle Sam. 

— No, Ephriam, "social solidarity" is not always 
the same thing as bone-beadedness. 

— Help the new county agent. He needs it, and 
the county and the country needs him. 

— The silo is a guarantee against frosted com and 
the necessity to sell off unfinished stock. 

— Co-operation never becomes fully effective until 
it gets deeper than a man's pocket-book. 

— ^Ttying to grow the more tender varieties of the 
plum in the Northwest is plum foolishness. 

— Garden seeds are "source" and growing "scurcer". 
Pretty good plan to try growing one's own 1919 sup- 
ply. 

—A price-fixing board without a farmer on it is 
about as apt to be right as a watch without a regu- 
lator. 

— How about fjupplies of paris green and other 
spraying materials ? Has the local dealer enough on 
hand? 

— ha\r profits to the grower is the only basis on 
which the world can expect to get or will get its daily 
bread. 

— The error in the Potsdam idea of world domina- 
tion is that it has left God out of the reckoning — and 
He objects. 

— The tractor must assume the heavier part of the 
world's farm-labor burden, else part of the world will 
go hungry. 

— About the worst thing so far discovered about the 
single tax is that it would make a whole lot of bolshe- 
viki acres go to work. 

— Ice is best when from twelve to sixteen inches in 
thickness, atW .'(liould be cut before any danger of its 
honeycombing develops. 

— It's high time for the consumer to get hep to the 
fact that a farmer who can't make ends meet soon 
comes to the quitting end. 

— "Economy" means the full and energetic use of 
all our powers, and it should never for a moment be 
forgotten that going without means wa.ste. 

— Tlie milking machine transforms a disagreeable 
job into one the boys like, thus solving the labor 
question two ways — by lessening it, and by making it 
more agreeable. 

—Report neighborhood shortages of machinery, of 
livestock to your nearest Marketing Committeeman, 
or to the Btalrt Marketing Chairman, 412-416 Sixth 
Street South, Minneapolis. 

— Wanted: Information as to the present wherea- 
bouts of the goiitleman who recently arose in the 
Reichstag and gave it as his opinion that the Me 
party in the "Me und Gotl" partnership ought to re- 
sign. 

— At a recent conference with some old-time farmer 
cronif:3 it was decided that "hollow-horn" and "wolf- 
in-thft-tail" were two of the ancient maladies no long- 
er with UB (fince the advent of the clover stack and 
ensilage. 

—The boy who learns how to use his head alone is 
not fc'lueate<]; the boy who learns how to use only his 
hands id not educated. The boy who can use bis 
bea^l to direct hm bands is educated, no matter what 
hin FH'.hoolin^. 



— Those who attempt to stir up the class prejudice 
of the city consumer because the farmer expects to 
sell his produce at a price that will enable him to stay 
in business have let slip a boomerang — as they will 
presently discover. 

— A scientific wheat grade that lets neither seller 
nor buyer know what they are doing may be good 
for the technical sharp who gets the job of grading 
the grain, but it is bad for everybody else, and must 
be thrown aside as impractical. 

— Power farming should apply to the home, the 
out-buildings, the fields alike. Every present acre, 
building, tool, machine is made more efficient by the 
addition of every form of power that saves man and 
animal labor and that speeds up, eases up and 
simplifies production. 

— ^The answer to the puzzle question of December 15 
issue will be given in the next issue. Meanwhile, 
here's another: What,one thing would, if it were 
brought about, do the most to make farming a busi- 
ness that would attract men and women to it as they 
are now attracted to business in the cities? A five 
years' subscription for the best answer made prior to 
February 15. 



Viewing the Potato Situation. 

"O S. & H. is not given to predicting prices, nor 
> to the issuing of alarmist statements, but it 
feels that the present outlook of the potato market 
calls for a frank statement of the situation. 

The subscriber will recall that last year the potato 
prices in the Northwest were inordinately high. This 
was due to the fact that instead of being an exporting 
area we were importing. The machinery of distribution 
was not planned to work that way. Communities that 
had never shipped in a carload of potatoes in their 
history, suddenly found themselves running short 
and went out into the market to secure supplies. The 
result was a near panic in prices and a boosting of 
these prices to a point never before reached in the 
local potato market. 

Put in another way. areas that ordinarily bought 
potatoes, such as the East and South, found them- 
selves compelled to share with the Northwest their 
own limited stocks. This was very fortunate for the 
few who had to sell, but it brougiit unfortunate re- 
sults in its train. Among these were the tendency on 
the part of the consuming public to skimp along on 
potatoes and use more largely other foods that would 
take their place. The result was that the seed used 
for planting this spring cost the farmer somewhere 
from |20 to $80 an acre, adding enormously to the 
risk which he assumed in planting any considerable 
acreage. 

A third result, one which nobody can cneasure but 
it has been very great, was to induce the planting of 
small patches of potatoes in,city and town back lots, 
thereby_cutting down the amount which tlie Ordinary 
buying public found itself necessary to buy from the 
general run of supplies. 

Now, what has happened is this: Leaving these 
back-lot gardens out of the reckoning, the nation at 
large has produced many millions of bushels more 
potatoes this year than it ordinarily requires. Coup- 
led with this excess production there is the decreased 
consumption already mentioned, oflketting that there 
is a possible loss due to frost and other wasteage of 
some 20 to 30 million bushels, leaving the excess 
balance at a possible maximum of between 70 and 100 
million bushels. 

What is going to be done with this excess and what 
effect will it have on the prices of the remainder of 
ilie crop? The fall movement of the crop took place 



at prices which were stimulated the country over by 
the high prices for other foods, and by the feeling 
that they were low in comparison to prices ruling 
just before the new crop came on the market. Octo- 
ber prices paid the farmer here in the Northwest at 
points that had well established markets, ranged on 
the average around 99 cents. Potatoes so bought cost 
the dealer an average of about 23 cents to move into 
the Twin Cities, Chicago, St. Louis, or Kansas City. 

A comparison of these prices with the wholesale 
prices obtained at those points show that the dealers 
moved this early purchased crop on a profit margin 
of around five cents per bushel, and the price paid by 
the consumer was about 30 per cent over the price re- 
ceived by the wholesaler, or in the i neighborhood of 
$1.50 to $1.6U. Early frosts found the warehouse.s of 
the dealers fairly well loaded up with early purchased 
stock and brought on the market a flood of frosted 
stuff. This situation was not local, but affected the 
entire potato producing area of the United States east 
of the Rockies. Every market had more or less 
frosted stock on hand, and because of its perishable 
character it pushed its way in ahead of the stock 
already in storage, and from the middle of October to 
the first of the year was moving as rapidly as it could 
be consumed. 

Meanwhile the dealers, appreciating the fact of a 
large excess in production, began to worry about 
their holdings, quit buying, and moved the stock 
they had as fast as they could in the face of a declin- 
ing market. The cold weather and shortage of cars 
shut down shipments, and the potato reserves of the 
country are now largely in the hands of local dealers 
and of the growers. What will the probable trend of 
the market be? To F., S. & H. it looks as tho the 
excess must either be consumed within the next four 
months, or that it will drag the spring market down 
to a level that means serious loss to many a man who 
has produced in the hope and expectation of high 
prices. 

What we need in this country right now is a potato 
consuming slogan the equivalent of the "Buy a Bale 
of Cotton" movement that swept the South a few 
years ago. The man who starts it and can put it 
across will make himself famous. 



The Buckwheat Outlook. — There is a shortage of 
buckwheat flour in the United State, owing to the 
small acreage— 845,000— sown to this crop. This 
couples with an increased demand for the flours other 
than that of wheat. 

In bygone years buckwheat figured much more 
largely than at present in the food ration of the 
American family. In the day of the local flour mill 
each farmer grew a little buckwheat, and one day in 
the week was usually set aside for the grinding of 
feeds and coarse flours. Since we have commercial- 
ized farming and centralized the milling industry this 
pioneer practice has fallen into disuse. 

[t might be well, and profitable also, for us, espec- 
ially those living on sandy soils and reasonably near 
the terminal markets, to go back to the practice of 
buckwheat growing. 

The Twin City market calls for a large and increas- 
ing amount to cover local northwestern needs. To 
the farmer with suitable soil there is pretty sure to 
be a steady market and a fair price. 



— The farmer is la manufacturer, and as Buch he ia 
entitled to enough for his products to pay a reason- 
able return on his investment, plus a fair wage, plus 
an adequate "overhead" to cover the essential risks 
of the business. Less than this is not justice, and 
anything lens than this will not fill up the empty food 
cellars of the world. 



36 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



IS YOUR GASOLINE ENGINE EFFICIENT. 

Gasoline engines are coming into 
more extensive use on the farm every 
year. They are a very handy and 
economical engine, especially for in- 
termittent service. No time is wast- 
ed generating steam. The gasoline 
engine is always ready in the same 
way that the automobile is always 
ready. One doesn't have to "hitch 
up" before he can go anywhere. 

Further, the prevailing type of gaso- 
line engine is the hit-and-miss type 
which explodes rather irregularly. We 
can always tell a hit-and-miss type 
of engine a mile off by merely listen- 
ing to its exhaust. 

Has it ever occurred to you, now, 
that you can judge the efficiency of 
one of these engines very closely by 
simply counting the number of explo- 
sions made per minute? You can, 
and it is a handy thing to know about, 
especially if you are anxious to save 
gasoline and increase tlie power of 
the engine as much as possible. 

This Is the Way to Do It. 

Count the number of explosions 
your engine makes per minute when 
it isn't pulling any load at all. Sub- 
tract that number from the mimber 
made when the engine is pulling a 
full load. Now divide the difference 
by the number of explosions per min- 
ute when the engine is pulling a full 
load and the quotient is the "me- 
chanical efficiency." 

For example, let us assume that 
your engine explodes 113 times when 
pulling a full load and 24 times per 
minute when pulling no load at all 
— with the main drive belt thrown off 
or the main clutch thrown out. Sub- 
tracting 24 from 113 we get 89. Di- 
viding 89 by 113 we now ftnd the me- 
chanical efficiency to be 78.7 per cent. 
In other words, your engine lacks 21.3 
per cent of being a perfectly friction- 
less engine. A frictionless engine, 
you see, would run along forever with- 
out stopping, without reducing in 
speed in the slightest, and without 
the assistance of a single explosion 
when running at "no load." Of course, 
there is no such thing as a friction- 
less engine. Steam engines often have 
an efficiency as high as 90 per cent 
or a trifle more, but gasoline engines 
are a bit less efficient. The average 
efficiency of the gasoline engine may 
be somewhere around 80 per cent. 

Get Best Possible Efficiency. 

Now, if you will read the above rule 
over again you will appreciate the 
importance of reducing the number 
of explosions per minute when run- 




There is no purer 
or more healthful 
food for children 
than 

GrapeNuts 

Its natural sweet- 
ness appeases the 
childs appetite for 
added sugar, and 
thcquanityof milk 
or cream needed 
is about half that 
required for the 
ordinary cereal. 

GRAPE NUTS IS AN 
ECONOMICAL FOOD 



ning at "no load" to the very mini- 
mum. Thus you can easily figure that 
by reducing the number of explosions 
at "no load" to 11 there will be 102 
"useful explosions" and the mechani- 
cal efficiency will be a bit over 90 
per cent. Such an efficiency would be 
rather difficult of attainment in gaso- 
line engines, but it has been reached 
and there is no reason why it cannot 
be done again. 

In other words, the "mechanical ef- 
ficiency" of a gasoline ensine is the 
"useful explosions divided by the total 
number of explosions per minute." 
That is about as simple a way as it 
can be put. 

At the same time it is well to bear 
in mind that when you reduce the 
internal friction in an engine and 
thereby reduce the number of useless 
explosions you are simultaneously in- 
creasing the power of the engine. That 
is an easy thing to prove directly 
from the above figures. For instance, 
in the first example we had 89 use- 
ful explosions. If the horsepower of 
the engine were, say 25 horsepower, it 
is plain that each explosion takes care 
of 25 divided by 89, or 0.281 horse- 
power. Therefore when we have 102 
useful explosions the capacity of the 
engine would increase to 0.281 multi- 
I)lied by 102, about 28.7 horsepower. 
You would therefore be getting an 
extra 3.7 horsepower without the con- 
sumption of one cent's worth more of 
gasoline per year. 

Oil Increases Horsepower. 

Whether your engine is larger or 
smaller than this makes no differ- 
ence; the same rules apply. And as 
for the method of improving the en- 
gine so that it will explode less fre- 
quently at no load, I doubt if it is nec- 
essary to say anything about that 
here. Suffice it to say that there is 
nothing better than a good lubricant 
and plenty of it, to make an engine go 
more easily. The piston should be 
"easy-fitting," yet it should* be as leak- 
tight as possible. Use a good make 
of the new leak-tight piston rings, if 
necessary, to bring up compression to 
its maximum. Keep the bearings well 
oiled. Keep the shafting well aligned 
and oiled. And if your engine is a 
belt drive engine see that the belt 
isn't too tight. A belt that is too 
tight is a great power eater as you 
can easily prove to your own satisfac- 
tion by counting the explosions with 
the belt in place and with the belt 
thrown off. That in itself is a worthy 
test to make. 

So, in a nutshell, reduce the num- 
ber of explosions when running "emp- 
ty" to the very minimum. You will 
save gasoline and pull the same load, 
or you will pull a greater load on 
the same amount of gasoline. Be- 
sides, by always keeping an engine 
in good condition it is bound to last 
longer than if allowed to follow its 
own natural course. 



Winter Care of Tires. — If an auto- 
mobile is used occasionally during the 
winter, it will not be necessary to re- 
move the tires, but they should be 
partially deflated, according to the de- 
partment of agricultural engineering of 
the ■ University of Nebraska. The 
wheel should be supported by jacks. 

Tires should not be left standing on 
greasy or wet floors. Grease is injuri- 
ous to the rubber and moisture to the 
fabric. 

If the. car is stored for the winter, 
it should be jacked up and the tires 
removed. If there are any cuts in the 
rubber they should be repaired in or- 
der that moisture may not enter the 
fabric. 

During the winter, after the casings 
have been wrapped in paper or bur- 
lap to keep them as dry as possible 
and to protect them from the sun- 
light, they should be placed in a dry 
room with a temperature ranging be- 
tween 40 and 65 degrees. Inner tubes 
should be removed and either be de- 
flated or rolled loosely with a sli'!;ht 
air pressure left in them. The tubes 
should then be given the same care as 
the casings. 



— Now is the time to study the spray 
question. Spraying is serious busi- 
ness and the spraying campaign should 
be well worked out in advance. Know 
first what insects or diseases you are 
going to combat, then get the best ma- 
terials to meet them and learn when 
and how best to apply them. 



— Potatoes should be kept in a tem- 
perature of about 38 degrees. If the 
air is dry, cover with sand. They 
should also be kept from light, which 
will turn them green. Keep all sprouts 
off. 




F you could eliminate tKe time 
and expense of replacing 
broken spark plu^s, worn out 
inag,netos and worthless coils, you 
would accomplisK a remarkable saving in the cost of 
your farm power. 

Those trips to the city to ^et new batteries ri^ht in 
the midst of the harvest season, those biting winter 
mornings when your engine refuses to start — all those 
petty annoyances so common to the average feas engine 
mean the loss of valuable time and an added expense 
of upkeep. 

Every troublesome device, every complicated 
part — carburetor, mixing valve, mafeneto, timer 
and spark plu^ — has been swept aside in the 
manufacture of the new 

(unconditionally guaranteed) 
The usual maze of mechanism is lacking and the opera- 
tion is so simple as to be easily understood by the most 
unskilled workman. 

The engine is specially constmcted to burn kerosene 
or fuel oil, which is introduced directly into the cylinder 
by a patented spraying device and ignited by the hifeh 
temperature generated by compression. It will start 
readily at 10 decrees below zero and run without atten- 
tion as lon^ as there is a supply of fuel. 

Exceptional fuel economy is another feature of this 
quality engine. Operating on kerosene and low grade 
fuel oils, it effects a saving of four-fifths of the fuel cost 
—-sufficient recommendation in itself to win an enviable 
position in the farm engine world. 

Tear out this page, write your name and address on 
the margin and mail to us for catalog and fully de- 
scriptive literature. 

DEALERS: Responsible dealers are invited to write 
for full information as to exclitsive territory. 

Evinrude Motor Co., ^•^t^lti}^s. 

Also Mfrs. of the Evinrude Detachable Rowboat and Canoe Motor 



Turn Kerosene into Power 

OGUL kerosene en- 
gines will be bought 
for many thousands of farms 
this year because so many 
farm power users finally 
realize that lasting engine satis- 
faction comes only with perfect 
kerosene engine design, best 
materials, long manufacturing 
experience, and prompt, jde- 
pendable repair service. 

Take a few profitable minutes to 
glance over this diagram of the pat- 
ented mixer which enables Mogul 
engines to operate successfully on 
kerosene, and which can be found on 
no other engine. To start engine, 
place the dampers as indicated by A 
and D. Open the gasoline valve, E, 
which will supply gasoline from the 
small bowl, F, used only for starting. 
After the engine is started, place the 
dampers in the positions indicated by 
Open the valve, G, and the engine will run on 
When the engine is warmed up, "upply a little 





® 



B and C. 

kerosene, wucu mo ^^j,*^v. ..- j-^', -'■iv-' 

water by opening valve, H, which is needed for the success- 
ful using of kerosene by large engines. (No water is used on 
the smaller size engines.) , • r 
The simplicity and effectiveness of this Mogul mixer are ot 
tremendous importance because kerosene is the great economy 
engine fuel nowadays, cutting power cost in half. Kerosene 
economy, coupled with the known value of International 
Harvester machine construction, makes the Mogul the right 
power for all-around use on any farm. 
Send for our catalogue and study Mogul 
details, then see the Mogul engine dealer. 
Mogul engines are of all styles, ranging 
in size from 1 to SO-h. p. Write the 
address below for catalogue. , 

International Harvester Company of America 

(locorporated) » , . 

CHICAGO V USA 

Champion Deerins McCormick Milwaukee 





When writing to advertisers do not forget to niontion Farin, 
Stock and Home. It will do you and the advertiser good. 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



37 



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II 


II 


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II 




H 






11 


II'MI 


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l,lhl 








RAYNTITE-The Top that Stays New 



MAIL THIS COUPON 



101 



1 Rayntite Top Material | 


Industrial Dynamites 


1 Motor Fabrikoid 




Blasting Powder 




Craftsman Fabrikoid 




Farm Explosives 


1 Truck Spcl. t abrikoid | 


Hunting 


j MarineSpcl. (U.S.Std.)| 


Trapshooting 


1 Fabrikoid Sheeting | 


Anesthesia Ether 


1 Fairfield Rubber Cloth 




Leather Solutions 


1 Sanitary Wall Finish 


Soluble Cotton 


1 Town & Country Paint 1 


Metal Lacquers 


1 Vitrolac Stain Finish | 


Wood Lacquers 


Flowkote Enamel | 


Mantel Dips 


1 Liquid Light for Mills 


Bronzing Liquids 


1 Antoxide Iron Paint j 


Pyroxylin Solvents 


1 Auto Enamel | 


1 Refined Fusel Oil 




Py-ra-lin Toilet Goods | 


1 Commercial Acids 


1 Challenge Collars | 


Alums 




1 Novelty Sheeting j 


1 Saltpetre 


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Pigment Bases 


j Py-ra-lin Pipe Bits | 


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A grey, dingy, faded top will make 
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a new top — a top that stays new. 




Name 



Address 
City 



State 



!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuimii\iiiiii 





never fades. It is water, grease, stain and 
dust proof— and as cleanable as glass. When 
soiled by travel, plain water will restore its 
beauty. It is guaranteed not to leak, crack 
nor peel for one year, but built to last the life 
of your car. 

Any good top maker can re-top your car 
with Rayntite. 

Check Rayntite in the coupon and send for 
samples, booklet — and Hst of cars on which 
Rayntite is furnished as regular equipment. 

Du Pont Fabrikoid Company 

World's Largest Makers of Leather Substitutes 

Wilmington, Delaware 

Works at Newburgh, N. Y., and Fairfield, Conn. 

CanaUian OIHce and F'actory, New Toronto 



Visit the Du Pont Products Store, 
1105 Boardwalk, Atlantic City, N. J. 




The Du Pont American Industries are: 

E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware - Explosives 

Du Pont Chemical Works, Equitable Bldg., New York, 

Pyroxylin and Coal Tar Chemicals 

Du Pont Fabrikoid Company, Wilmington, Delaware - Leather Substitutes 

The Arlington Works, 725 Broadway, New York 

Ivory Pyralin and Cleanable Collars 

Harrisons Works, Philadelphia, Pa. - Paints, Pigments, Acids and Chemicals 

Du Pont Dye Works, Equitable Bldg., New York - - - Dyes and Dye Bases 



„,/f//""""'"""""""'"f„„ 




38 



FABM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1d18. 



Farm, Stock and Home^ 

Founded by SYDNEY M. and HORATIO B. OWEN. 



ISSUED THE 1st AND 15th OF EACH MONTH. 



FARM. STOCK «l HOME PUBLISHING CO., 
—Publishers.— 
412-414-416 Sixth Street South, 
Minneapolis, ... Minnesota 



(Unibrbd at the Postofpicb at Minndapolis 

as swcond-class mattku.) 

HAKRT N. OWKN, - - - _ PUBLISHKB 
lUlOH J. IIIICIIKS, - - - - KlJITOR 

MauyIj. Big BLOW, - Associate Kuitob 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES: 
Ignited Stales auci Possessions, 7S cents a 

year in ndvnnce. 
Minneapolis, Canada and Forei^, $1.00 

per year in aavauce. 

Diseontlnulngr or ChanKingr Advertisements. 

' — Owing to the fact that forms begin going to 
press on the 18th for issues of tlie first of the 
month, and the 3rd for Issues of the 15th. we 
shall not be responsible for failure to omit, 
discontinue or cliange an advertisement un- 
less ordered to do so twelve (12) daya in ad- 
vance of date of paper. 

NEW YORK OFFICE: 1 Madison Ave* 
nue, A. H. Bllllngslea In charge. 

CHICAGO OFFICE: 1119 Advertising 
Building, J. C. Bllllngslea In charge. 

ST. LOUIS OFFICE: Third National 
Bank BIdg., A. O. McKlnney In charge. 



Minneapolis, Minn., January i5. 



CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE. 

Kditorial Comment. 

The Price- Fixing- Buzz Saw -ID 

'i"he Automobile a Tiusiness Asset -10 

The Commodity Theory Applied 40 

(Jovernment Control a .Step Forward. ... 40 

Farmers' and Homemakcrs' Week 40 

Ijivestoek Breeders' Meeting 40-41 

The Grain Grades Fight Goes On 41 

Farm l*ower. 

Ts Tour Gasoline Engine Efficient? ."iG 

Winter Care of Tires ."tfi 

Motor Truck Faim Ser\ice i42-4.1 

More Tractors — ii:ore Food il-H 

True Tractor Tales ■lj-4G-fi-t 

tivestook. 

The 1917 International 44-fiO 

Patriotic Steers 48 

'I'he Outlook for Pork 4Si-49 

Champion Steer' at International ..49-1)0 

International Side Lights . 50 

Fitting Cattle for the Sale Ring i^O 

The Hog .Situation as Farmers See lt..51-!j2 

s. St. Paul Stock Market 66 

Stock Notes 60 

Dairy Department. 
Cost of Production on a .Specialized Dairy 

Farm r>.3 

Contiumers of Milk, Short-Sighted' ^3t54 

Milk Prices '4 

Keep Better Cows and Hang On 54-5^ 

Whole Milk Market Xot Alluring ."iS 

Women as Cream Testers 55 

The Farm. 

Dry Rot in Stored Potatoes 55 

Legume, a Grain SubsUtute 57 

Poultry Department. 

The Poultry House 56-57 

Producing Strong. Fertile Eggs 57 

Our Home Council. 

Why Xot Censor Periodicals? 58 

How I Made My Crop 5S 

Training Little Children 58-59 

How Farm Women Can Make Money. . . CO 
Adapting Ourselves to War Times. ... 60-lil 

Skimmed Milk In Cooking CI 

From One of the Shutins ijl-iVZ 

When Mv Dream Comes True 62 

How I Will Use My $300 62 

Contributed Recipes 62-63 

liCjfal Department. 

Liability of Hotelkeeper 65 

Seed Wlieat Warranted to Sprout 65 

■Tudgment . 65 

Contract 65 

Stock. Farmers' Creamery' 65 

Keeping Tile in Repair 65 

Short Talks. 

Xew Reader 66 

Grafting Wax 66 

Frosted Potatoes 66 

Flax After Flax Doubtful 66 

Canada Thistle 66 

pruning Plum Trees 66 

Subscription. Collection of ■. . 66 

Submarine — Sinking Ability 66 

Full Milk Cheese 66 

Ice — Does It "Freeze Dry?" C6 

Veterinary, 

Iniured Shoulder 67 

Ailing Fowl 67 

Ailing Mare 67 

Ailing flhickcns 67 

.\iling Colt 67 

Worms 67 

Jlisi'ellaneous. 

Chopped Feed. Mes.'; 741 35 

Viewing the Potato Situation 35 

The Buckwheat Outlook 35 

Making fSood Thru F., S. & H 47 

.Veighborhood Welfare C!) 

What Others Arc Doing 70 



Farmer Must Pay Income Tax. — 

Kvery unmarried person with an in- 
come of over $1,000 a year and every 
married person with an income of over 
$2,000 must pay an income tax. Thia 
of course applies to the farmer as 
well as the business man. Failure to 
report to the Collector of Internal 
Revenue in your district before March 
I, 1918, Is a violation of the law. Nat- 
urally many farmers, who have never 
kept books, will have to do some 
pretty close figuring to explain .iiist 
where they stand. Everything must 
be accouiitetd for. Living expenses 
and interest received from investments 
<-annot be dedufled from the total. 
Neither can a farmer allow a salary 
to himself and expect that to be de- 
rliicted. Taxes, cost of re))airs, but 
Tiot improvements, and actual expenses 
connected with the farm may be de- 
ducted, but that does not Include per- 
;,')nal expenses. 



I The Signboard 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ i^^^^^^^^fr^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
Machinery Outlook. 

Possible buyers of machinery during 
191S should look well to the placing 
of their orders as soon as possible. 
The prospect is that the demands upon 
the American steel industries will be 
such that deliveries of steel for ordi- 
nary manufacturing purposes will at 
best be delayed and uncertain. The 
equipment of many of the factories 
will be needed, in part, for the manu- 
facture of certain lines of munitions. 
Without particularizing at this time, 
it is only fair warning to point out 
that the custom of the trade in the 
past has been to look upon present 
sales as an index to future business 
and when present orders are brisk to 
n'.ake additional orders for raw mate- 
rials ou that basis. Now with raw 
materials at a premium and liable to 
diversion at any time for the use of 
the Federal government, the govern- 
ment does not consider prospective or- 
ders but rather those actually in hand. 
It follows that if a binder is needed 
next September the best time to order 
that binder is now, delivery to take 
place as soon as the dealer can se- 
cure shipment. The same rule ap- 
plies to all other lines of equipment, 
especially including fencing and silos. 

Nineteen-nineteen, unless the war 
stops in the meantime, is apt to see 
some difTiculty in securing farm equip- 
ment. A careful survey of personal 
and neighborhood needs should be 
made in the meantime, reported to the 
Counts' Marketing Committees, and 
thru them .to the State Marketing Com- 
mittee, which thru the Public Safety 
Commission will report direct to the 
general government. The best pos- 
sible safeguard against personal short- 
age, however, is an order placed 
months ahead if need be in the hands 
of the local dealer. 

Twine Prospects. 

The twine situation is reported as 
rather serious. The continued trouble 
in :Mexico, the difficulty of getting fibre 
from Africa and Madagascar as well 
as from the Philippines, has created 
a shortage of the sisal supply that has 
forced the price up close to 20 cents 
a pound for raw material; this means 
a price close to a quarter of a dollar 
a pound for sisal this year. 

The twine plants in the counti-y are 
running full blast and there is no 
immediate prospect of an actual short- 
age in 1918, nevertheless, it is a wise 
bird who finds his nest before night- 
fall and orders for twine placed thru 
the local dealer or with the twine de- 
partment of the state prison are in line 
with good sound business. 

Northwestern Catalog Again. 

The NorthAvestern Catalog Company 
advertises in a Minneapolis daily pa- 
per with a cut of their new plant, 
which is to be a rdamuioth six-story 
building "affording the company unsur- 
passed shipping facilities." The facts 
are that its officers purchased a block 
of ground and agreed to erect and com- 
plete on said property before .July 1, 
1919, a concrete building of not less 
than 1.50,000 cubic feet. This is very 
different from the pictured building. 
A building 150 feet long, 10 feet wide 
and 10 feet high would have I.jO.OOO 
cubic feet. The company advertises 
for salesmen in the folloAviiig words: 

"We want only hi.^h grade, reliable 
men who are not satisfied with less 
than $100 a week net. Previous sell- 
ing experience, while desirable, is not 
essential. Every new salesman is 
trained in the field under the direc- 
tion of our successful men." For some 
time salesmen were allowed 40 i)er 
cent, or $10 for each $25 share sold. 
It is said the com))any is now capi- 
talized for ten million dollars, and that 
the salesmen working in Minnesota 
are allowed twenty \w.r cent, and there- 
fore will only get two million dollars 
for their share, when the ten million 
stock is sold. Farm, Stock & Home 
li!is tried to find some reason why 
a farmer should pay to this company 
from $2ri to $100 for a catalog and 
c(!rtillcat<\s of stock, when they can 
g(!t better, bigger and more reliable 
catalogs free for the asking; but has 
failed to find one solitary reason. Our 
refidei's have been told this In former 
issues. 



aiimiiiMiniiiiiMiiiiiMiiiiiiniriiiiiiiwiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiirmiiimiiainmHmiiiiiiiis 





iKverjf Tractor and Plow 



A size for every sise 
tana. 




Aveiy "Yellow Kid" 
Thresher 



Seizes. 



A size for every size 
nm. 



Besides cultivatinsr, you can also do 
many other ki;ids of work with this ma- 
chine. You can get a plantinar attach- 
ment and plant your crops. You can 
use it for pulling: a hay rake, binder, 
harrow, drill and other machines. It is 
equipped with a belt pulley for feed 
STindiris:, sawing, pumping, grain elevat- 
ing, etc. 

Averyize All Your Farm Work 

The most efiicteut and economical farm 
power combination you can use today is 



Think of Planting 
Cultivating 
witBi Motor Power 

THE Avery Motor Planter Culti- 
vator makes it possible now for 
you to plant and cultivate a corn, 
bean or other crop planted in rows 
without horses or mules. 

With this machine one man can 
handle a hundred acres alone — more 
than double what one man ordinarily 
handles with animal power. 

The Avery Motor Cultivator is a two-row 

machine. You operate the gangs like a 
horse cultivator and simply guide with a 
steering wheel instead of lines. It handles 
easily and turns short at the ends so that 
you can go back on the next two rows. 
It has a low speed for use the first time 
over and faster speeds for later plowings. 

an Avery Tractor in the size you need 
for doing your plowing and other heavy 
traction and belt work, and an Avery 
Two-Row Motor Cuiyvator for yourcnl- 
tivating and other light work. Yon can 
also get en Avery Plow and an Avery 
Thresher in any one of eight sizes to fit 
the size tractor you buy. 
Write for new 1918 free catalog of Avery 
Motor Farming. Threshing and Road 
Making Machinery and ask for special 
information about the machinery yoa 
are particularly interested in. 



AVERY COMPANY, 7204 Iowa St., Peoria, III. 

Branch Houses and Distributors Covering Every State 
in the Union and More than Sixty Foreign Countries 




•.-•< ■ <<; ' '■^il£a"7*^^'"i*^ There's a size Avery Tractor for every 
f^M^r'^il^^l&Jf jl^^'"' farm and every kind of work 



nimiiiiiiiniiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiniiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiimiiiiHimiiiiiiiiiitiuniiniiimiiuiiiiin; 



Fanners Say It Costs Less to 
Operate the PLOW MaN"30" 



The real test of a tractor is the 
cost to keep it up. All around econ- 
omy means smooth operation and 
sound, solid construction — also saves 
the farmer money on every acre he 
works. 

Wherever Plow Man is used 
farmers vouch for its power, easy 
operation, successful use of kerosene 



and a very low repair expense. 

The big increase in Plow Man 
sales is due to iliis proven record of 
economy and efficiency. Dealers 
have alread5' spoken for nearly twice 
our output of last year l«;cause of 
their heavy repeat sales. Be snro 
to look over the Plow Man "30" 
at the 



Northwest Automobile and Tractor Show 
Minneapolis, Feb. 2 to 9 

See for yoin-.self the improvements and .advantages 
of our famous 

ALL STANDARD 
CONSTRUCTION 

Increased output enables us to 
till 11 few more Spring orders for 
those who act soon. Write for 
free booklet today. 

Interstate Tractor Co. 

2539 E. 4tii St., WATERLOCIOWA 




When writinK to advertisers aiwayBooentlon Farm. Ktocli and Home. 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



39 







t4'26H,P, J8-35H.P. 30-60 H. P. 

A Size OilPull for Your Size farm. 



lleieitiS'&e same gwaianteed 
(hlFoill in a smaller size '14-28 



That's the first thing you want to know — 
that the 14-28 is 100% Rumely OilPull. And 
that is just what it is — a smaller edition of the 
famous oil burning, oil cooled, OilPull tractor. 
The guaranteed efficient and economical per- 
formance on kerosene and lower grade fuel 
oils — the automatic regulation of speed to 
every change in load — oil cooling system- 



strength of construction and long life — ease of 
handling and simplicity of operation — ability 
to handle all your drawbar and beltjobs — every 
good feature that the name OilPull stands 
for is built into this new, light weight, big 
power 14-28. It answers the plea of farmers 
in all parts of the United States and Canada — 
"Give us the same OilPull in a smaller size." 



— as to fuel 

Like every OilPull tractor the 14-28 
is guaranteed in writing to success- 
fully operate on kerosene, distillates 
and other low grade oils at all loads, 
under all conditions, at any altitude, 
in any temperature. It burns the 
fuel that is cheapest in your lo- 
cality. And it gets all the power out 
of every gallon — no waste — full motor 
efficiency every minute — no matter 
what kind of v/ork it is doing. And 
our written guarantee makes it 
certain — with no time limit whatever. 



— as to 



ign 



The 14-28 is light weight — only 
8700 lbs. Lighter than six good 
horses, it has the pulling power or 
twelve. The motor is two-cylinder, 
horizontal, valve-in-head, designed 
especially for oil fuel and built in our 
own shops. Frame and wheel con- 
struction is the strongest that can be 
built — transmission is completely 
enclosed and running in oil — has Hyatt 
bearings — is oil cooled — special igni- 
tion system for burning oil — positive 
lubrication and all parts easy of access. 



— as to capacity 

We guarantee the 14-28 to pull up 
to and including 5 fourteen inch plows 
—on the belt it will handle a 24 to 28 
inch cylinder separator, fully equip- 
ped. It is made equally efficient on 
draw-bar or belt by a patented shifting 
device — the greatest basic improve- 
ment made in tractor construction. 
Read about it on page 28 of the 14-28 
catalog. Then there is the low 
platform, full control from the 
driver's seat, air starter and short 
turning radius — a real one-man outfit. 



ADVANCE-RUMELY THRESHER COMPANY 

LA PORTE {Incorporated) INDIANA 

Ask our nearest Branch for the special 14-28 catalog 



Aberdeen, S. Dak. 
Fargo, N. Dak. 



Billings, Mont. 
Madison, Wise. 



Des Moines, Iowa 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



ADVANCE-RUMELY 



"mm" 




:founded by Sydney m . and horatio r.owen. iaa4^ 



The Price Fixing Buzz Saw. 

THE experiment of price fixing is working out 
just about as was expected by politjcal econo- 
mists. Arbitrary price fi>dng never has provea 
an efficient remedy for economic ills in the history 
of the world. Just why it s'liould have been adopt- 
ed at this time, when the industrial world is more 
complex than ever before, and is turned upside 
down by war conditions, is probably explained by 
the fact that men's m:nds are so disturbed by the 
present abnormal conditions that they do not think 
along the same economic lines they followed prior 
to August, 1914. 

The wheat price was fixed thru sympathy for the 
struggling masses of wage earners. 

Well and good, but after this price wac fixed then 
out came the order for wheatless days, and the num- 
ber of such days may be increased before another 
harvest. In fact, we kept down the price of flour 
artificially, then to prevent consumption of this com- 
paratively cheap flour the people are asked not to 
buy it! If the laws of supply and demand had beeo 
allowed full operation wheat today would probably 
be selling between three and four dollars a bushel. 
Wheatless days would have come automatically and 
wheat would have been conserved to feed our Al- 
lies, thru slackening of the demand. 

No one would have starved because of the high 
price of wheat. Wheat flour is not necessary for 
the maintenance of health or life, as many old coun- 
try readers know from their childhood experience. 
Therefore the farmer has as usual been handed the 
bag to hold. His income was cut down in order 
that the rest of the country should have white 
bread. Then the food administration itself cuts 
down the consumption of wheat. Is this a joke or 
a tragedy? It may be urged that the cost of the war 
would be greatly increased by forcing (he govern- 
ments to buy wheat on the supply and demand 
basis. In as much as cost never is and cannot be 
counted in war; and the difference in the cost of 
wheat bot at the arbitrary price and that purchased 
under normal supply and demand conditions would 
in comparison to the war's cost, be about the same 
as the cost of matches compared with his cigars to 
a smoker. 

How about the two-dollar price for 1918? Is not 
that good insurance for the farmer for next year's 
crop? 

That is the theory, but the chances are it will 
not work out. With winter wheat going into the 
winter with a condition below a ten-year average; 
with much of the spring wheat area freezing up 
abnormally dry the chances of a 1918 wheat crop 
equal to that of 1917 are ho more than even. 

So that it is quite probable that two dollars for 
1918 wheat will be as much below the real value 
of the grain as the 1917 prices are. 

It is certainly exasperating to see the law of 
supply and demand set aside by governmental ac- 
tion just when the farmer stood to profit by it. 

In the lean years between 1892 and 1900 the 
farmer was complacently told that his low prices 
were caused by the operation of supply and demand. 
No one except a few wild-eyed cranks and so-called 
enemies of society ever suggested setting aside the 
law for the benefit of the farmer! Of course not. 
The farmers' business is to feed the world. That's 
the greatest honor there is. Why should he ex- 
pect profit? The idea! But the farmer is waking 
up. He is going to try and get his profits from now 
on. He has worked for glory and honor long 
enough. 

The Automobile a Business Asset. 

THERE has been some agitation for a govern- 
ment order to cut down the manufacture of 
pleasure cars on the plea that such cars are 
not essential to carrying on the war. That such a 
suggestion could be seriously made shows a lack on 
the part of the suggestors as to the true value of 
the automobile. To a certain extent the manufac- 
turers are responsible for this state of mind. Their 
advertising and especially the selling talk of the 
agents has unduly emphasized the pleasure side of 
the automobile. The possible value of the automo- 
bile to the farmer has been overlooked. Had this 
Bide of the situation been presented as it should 
have been thru the years that are gone, it is fair 
to say that more farms would now be provided with 
automobiles than now possess them. 

The money-making value of the automobile to 
farmers has been emphasized again and again in 
F., S. & H. Old subscribers will remember that 
years a;^o it preached the dollars and cents value 
of the aut/omobile at a time when the m-inufacturcr 
had not yet awakened' to the possibilities of the 



Editor 




farmer market. There is a possibility that because 
of the lack of understanding of the essential busi- 
ness value to the farmer of his automobile that the 
60-called pleasure car may be put on the list of non- 
essentials a-^d necessary cars and supplies be cur- 
tailed or withheld. 

Those having this matter of priority class in 
charge should remember that the term "pleasure 
car" may fit the case of a man locked up in his 
office all day who buys a car with which to get out 
Into the open country in the evening. He takes 
the family and goes without any particular objective 
except the fresh air and ihe sightseeing, but when 
the farmer buys the same make of car he buys it 
for quite other and more definite reasons. The car 
brings his farm closer to town, it connects him 
with other competing trading points and widens 
out his opportunity to buy and sell advantageously. 
It is" a distinct commercial advantage to the farmer 
just as to any other man to meet and talk over with 
men in his own line of business the matters that 
are of common interest. The car is a genuine bring- 
er of new ideas and a distributor of common ways 
of thinking and ways of doing thruout a much 
widened neighborhood. 

The man who has run a car long enough to appre- 
ciate its service value would not in any instance of 
which F., S. & H. knows, go back to exactly the 
conditions with which he was familiar and content 
before the car came in as an adjunct to his busi- 
ness. The farmer's automobile gives pleasure but 
it is not a pleasure car, it creates business tho it is 
not a commercial vehicle. It establishes between 
himself and his town a closer bond of business and 
social unity than ever existed before. It is a 
strengthener of the bonds of good fellowship, and 
co-operation and business understanding. 

It is distinctly up to the farmer to protect his own 
interests in this matter by preparing himself for 
possible adverse action in this direction. Con- 
sider the facts above given and those with which 
you are acquainted and in the light of your own 
knowledge as to the dollars and cents value to you 
of the automobile, write F., S. & H. just what it 
would mean to you to have this service curtailed at 
this time. Such letters will constitute, in the hands 
of F., S. & H., the strongest possible argument 
against the curtailment of the automobile supply to 
the farmers of the Northwest. 

The Commodity Theory Applied. 

THE attitude of the Postmaster General toward 
the distribution of printed matter, as expressed 
in his annual report, is somewhat interesting 
to publisher and reader alike. Mr. Burleson evi- 
dently subscribes to the proposition that the longer 
the haul the heavier the freight charge and that 
this being true the obvious thing is to make a re- 
classification of second class postage on the basis 
of length of haul. 

Mr. Burleson is grappling twentieth century pi-ob- 
lems with eighteenth century logic. Exactly the 
same principles regarding postal charges were ap- 
plied in Washington's day and for a considerable 
time thereafter. They would work today if the 
country were only small enough, but thot, which 
is the essential thing carried by the newspapers 
and magazines, is not a tangible commodity. It 
must be handled on a different basis, and early in 
the past century this essential fact was recognized. 

It was then seen that to distribute information 
as widely as possible was the best possible safe- 
guard for democracy. The effect of tlie result of 
the law now passed will be when it goes into effect 
to build up one group of magazines, say at New 
York, another at Cincinnati, another at Chicago, 
another group possibly in the Twin Cities, still 
another at Kansas City, and others at various points 
westward and southward thru the remainder of 
the country. These ma~azines will serve local ter- 
ritory, cater to local interest, be and remain local 
in their vision. They will tear down that unity of 
thot which nearly a century of uninterrupted and in- 
creasing distribution of thot has made possible. 

The tendency of the press will be toward section- 
alism and away from that broad understanding 
which is essential to our unity and to our greatness. 
It is unthinkable that Mr. Burleson's commodity 
view of magazines can prevail. It is unfortunate 
that assent to this view has been given by con- 
gress. There is still time in the present session to 
undo the injustice to the reader that is about to be 
perpetrated, for remember that it is the reader and 
not the magazine that ultimately suffers. The 
magazine can readjust itself to the changed condi- 
tions. It can, if it can live no other way, become 
sectional and short-visioned, narrow in its editorial 
outlook, socially and industrially selfish in the char- 
acter of its teachings. This result can bo and the 



magazines of the nation still live, tho on a very 
different basis than at present, but the man who is 
going to be hurt and seriously hurt by this proposed 
commodity rate on magazines is the reader, the citi- 
zen himself in whose behalf the law is supposedly 
made. He is going to be denied those broad av- 
enues of information down which he has hitherto 
walked and viewed the world, and all because of a 
mistaken idea on the part of our Postmaster Gener- 
al that the primary object of the postofflce depart- 
ment is to pay expenses. The primary object of 
that department is to distribute information as 
widely, as thoroly, as possible, and any attempt in 
anyway whatsoever to curtail that wide and thoro 
distribution is an attack upon the intelligence of the 
citizen — is an initial step toward sectionalism and 
disunion. 

Government Control a Step Forward. 

THE federalization of the railroads is a perfectly 
logical step, proper in war time, and possibly 
worthy of continuation when peace returns. 
As servants of the public the railroads have 
proved themselves inefficient, largely because the 
primary object of each separate railway manage- 
ment has been not to give freight and passenger 
service, but instead to guarantee dividends to its 
particular group of stockholders. This priority of 
dividends to service has wrecked the public confi- 
dence in railroad eflficiency. In the nature of things 
such a condition aould not longer continue. The 
railroads cannot be of equal earning power. Some 
essential links in the system may even be money- 
losers. Admitting that public service comes first 
and that private capital cannot carry on a losing 
business the logical thing is for the public to pool 
the roads and their earnings. 

This is exactly what has taken place. And the 
immediate result is apparent in a bettering of the 
freight situation, the cutting out of needless trains, 
and the elimination of wasteful special car service. 
Count another long step toward the social reorgan- 
ization the war is bringing about. 

Farmers' and Homemakers' Week. 

THE shortage of labor of the farms was reflected 
by a slight falling off in the attendance at the 
Minnesota farmers' short course the first week 
in January. But the excellence of the course and 
the interest taken in all lines of study presented 
made up for all other lack. It was essentially a 
training camp for a full regiment of war workers in 
Ikitchen and field, and the note of loyalty to the 
state and nation will sound stronger than ever on 
their return to their home communities. The detail 
reTiorts must go over to the Feb. 1 issue, in which 
further items cf general interest relative to this 
conference will be found. 

Live Stock Breeders' P<^eeting. 

THE Minnesota Livestock Breeders' meeting, 
held at University Farm, January 3, in connec- 
tion with Farmers' and Home-Makers' Week, 
was one of the most successful in the history of the 
organization. W. A. McKerrow, secretary, an- 
nounces it one of the best of the many livestock 
meetings he has attended. 

Every feature of the program was outstanding in 
interest from the address of Marion L. Burton, pres- 
ident of the University, and the response by L. B. 
Potter, president of the association, to the closing 
feature, which was a dinner Fridaj' evening at which 
the prize lamb carcass sold by auction Thursday 
afternoon for the benefit of the Red Cross, for a 
total of $349, was served. 

Three speakers from outside the state were pres- 
ent. These were Duncan Marshall, Minister of 
Agriculture, Alberta, Canada; A. J. Glover, editor 
of Hoard's Dairyman, and F. R. Marshall, of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. G. 
These men had many practical su"gcstions to offer, 
tho the address of Duncan Marshall, which aroused 
his hearers to a fine enthusiasm, dealt more largely 
with problems of agricultural education and the 
war. 

At the business meeting two changes in the con- 
stitution were made. The first of tl:ese limits the 
membership of the board of directors to one mem- 
ber from each congressional district, cutting off the 
provision for a member from each of the auxiliary 
organizations. The increasing number of the aux- 
iliary organizations under the old rule was making 
the board of directors too large ani'. unwieldy. A. 
second amendment to the constitutioii requires that 
each affiliated organization shall submit copy of its 
annual report to the secretary of tho livestock 



40 





HARRY N.OWEN, Publisher'. HUGH d. HUGHES. iS-rf/zfor 



Comment 



If ni^^---^ 




breeders' associaticn not less than ten days in ad- 
vance of the parent association's annual meeting. 

Much interest was manifested In the reports of 
the secretary, W. A. McKerrow, and of the treas- 
urer, G. W. Glotfelter. The latter shows a balance 
In the treasury of a little less than five thousand 
dollars, which will he used in carrying on the work 
of the organization with a number of important new 
projects thru the coming year. 

The association passed a resolution protesting 
against the eSort now being made in Minneapolis 
to prosecute the Twin City Milk Producers' associa- 
tion. The resolutions are as follows: 

"VThereas, it has been the declared legislative policy 
of this state for the past fifteen years to encourage 
the formation of co-operative farmers' associations 
. and corporations to improve farm conditions, and 
enable farmers to more economically and success- 
fuUv market their nroclucts; and 

Whereas, pursuant to such declared policy, the 
State Agricultural College has properly and wisely 
advised and aided the farmers of this state in the 
formation of such associations and corporations; and 

W hereas, the dairy industry of this state is most 
vital in the asriculture of this state as well as to 
the food supply of the state and nation: 

Now therefore, be it resolved. That this body or 
two thousand farmers assembled at the State Agri- 
cultural CoUese for this .innual farmers' week meet- 
ing, do most earnestlv protest against the effort now 
being made in the City of Minneapolis to prosecute 
the Twin City Milk Producers' Association, a farm- 
ers' dairy co-operative organization, for its efforts 
Jo more economically and successfully market the 
milk produced by its members: and be it further 

Resolved, That for ourselves, and in behalf of the 
farmers of this state, we express our earnest belief 
that such action is unjustifiable, against the best in- 
terests of agriculture in this state, and contrary to 
the declared public policy of this state in relation to 
farmers' associations, as well as the encouragement 
and advice repeatedly given to us by the representa- 
tives of the Agricultural College and schools of this 
state, in their laudable efforts to improve farm con- 
ditions, and develop dairying and agriculture in this 
state. We exiiress our alarm as to the damaging 
results such action may have on the dairy and agri- 
cultural interests Of this state a-id deprecate the 
tendency of such action to align city against country, 
at a time when there should be tlie utmost co-opera- 

Be it further resolved. That said Twin City Milk 
Producers' Association and numerous other Farmer 
Co-operative Associations and corporations having 
been formed and operated, under the belief that such 
associations and corporations are not only author- 
ized, but that it is the policy of this state to en- 
courage such action in order to aid the farme»-s in 
their efforts to increase production, and successfully 
market their products, and if it shall develop that 
such co-operative efforts are unlawful, then the laws 
should be so amended that this declared public policy 
can be carried out, and all farmers acting thru such 
associations he protected from prosecutio-n. 

Resolved, That we respectfully urge upon Congress 
the passage of an act requiring the registration of 
all dogs under such regulations and requirements as 
will show ownership and identification, and furnish 
as much protection as possible to live stock, and espe- 
cially to the sheep industry of this country; and we 
further endorse tha efforts now being made by and 
thru the various sheep and live stock associations to 
secure such federal legislation, and especially the 
sending of Mr. George McKerrow to Washington as 
the representative of the eheep industry to urge 
such le^jislatif-n. 

Resolved, That we endorse and encourage the eco- 
nomical use of grains and by-products therefrom in 
feeding live stock, but we especially urge the liberal 
use of such grains and by-products for young and 
growing animals. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: Pres- 
ident, W. S. Moscrip, Lake Elmo; first vice-presi- 
dent, Thomas Cashraan, Owatonna; second vice- 
president, H'lgh J. Hughes, Minneapolis; secretary, 
W. A. McKerrow, University Farm; treasurer, 
George W. Glotfelter, Waterville. The Board of 
Directors are: Finley MoMartin, Claremont; L. E. 
Potter, Springfield; Charles Crandall, Randolph; M. 
D. Munn, St. Paul; C. E. Wilson, Minneapolis; Les- 
lie Smith, St. Cloud; F. E. Millard, Canby; George 
P. Grout, Duluth; E. C. Schroeder, Moorhead; C. P. 
Johnson, North Branch. 

The Grain Grades Fight Goes On! 

THE grain grades hearings at Minneapolis, Fargo 
and Bisrnarck indicate very clearly to the on- 
looker that the farmer knows exactly what 
has hit him, and just exactly how It affects his 
pocket-book. 

At the preliminary conference called at Fargo by 
F., S. & FL there were present some fifty farmers, 
who took up, point by point, the questions which 
Mr. Brand had prepared in pamphlet form relative 
to proposed changes in the grades. The inclina- 
tion shown by Mr. Brand at the Minneapolis heSar- 
ing to insist upon his own set program was antici- 
pated and the answers to the questions were type- 
written and presented at the morning session to a 
gathering of about 600 farmers, and adopted by 
them a« representing their own views based upon 
practical exjjerience. Mr. Brand, rather reluctantly 
it seernfid to F., S. & H., finally admitted these an- 
Bwers into Ibo record of the day's proceedings. 

Mr. Hagcn, Commlssionei- of Agriculture for 



North Dakota, had meanwhile arranged for a hear- 
ing at Bismarck and, by unusual effort, secured the 
attendance of some 300 farmers from the slope 
country. The Bismarck hearing was a repetition of 
the two preceding conferences, and again the farm- 
ers presented exactly the same general answers to 
Mr. Brand's questions which they had made at Min- 
neapolis and Fargo. 

That the reader may himself weigh the grain 
growers' position fairly and at leisure and, so in- 
formed, be in a position to enter more effectively 
into the fight being waged by F., S. & H. in behalf 
of the farmers as against the injustice of the pres- 
ent grain grading system, the full list of resolutions 
adopted at Fargo as the answer to Mr. Brand's ques- 
tions is herewith given: 

1. That test weights of Durum be same as spring 
grades 

2. That the Red Spring Humpback subclass in 
Class 1 be eliminated. 

3. That the definition of wheat be so changed as 
to read 10 per cent mixture instead of the present 

6 per cent and that the term employed in designating 
a mixture in excess of 10 per cent be "sample wheat." 

4. That the present designation of wheat under 
the term "Mixed Wheat" be called "Sample Wheat." 

5. That the definition for smutty wheat remain 
as it is. 

6. That the grades for treated wheat shall remain 
as they are in the regulations. Sec. 23. 

7. That the weights affixed to the several grades 
be as follows: No. 1, 57 pounds; No. 2, 54 pounds; 
No. 3, 51 pounds. Wheat of lower than 51 pounds 
to be classified as Sample Wheat. 

8. That the moisture test as an element in the 
fixing of the grades should be eliminated; but that 
if such elimination is not deemed possible under the 
requirements of Federal inspection, that such mois- 
ture content be fixed at not less than 15 per cent for 
all grades. 

9. That grade No. 1 shall contain not more than 
4 per centum of wheat of other classes, which 4 per 
centum of wheat of other classes sliall not contain 
more than 2 per centum of common white, white club ■ 
or common red durum, either singly or combination. 
That the percentage of mixture for grade No. 2 shall 
be ten and four respectively, and for No. 3, 15 and 5 
per cent. 

10. That No. 1 wheat may carry 5 per cent of 
damaged kernels; No. 2 wheat 10 per cent; No. 3 
wheat, 15 per cent. Anything over 15 per cent to 
go into "Sample Wheat." 

11. That No. 1 wheat may carry no per cent of 
heat damaged kernels, No. 2 wheat .5 per cent; No. 3 
wheat 1 per cent; and that more than 1 per cent goes 
into Sample Wheat. 

12. That the total amounts of the inseparables al- 
lowed i« the various grades be figured as follows: 
No. 1 may carry 3 per cent; No. 2, 5 per cent; No. 3, 

7 per cent. A percentage of inseparables greater 
than 7 per cent shall carry the wheat over into Sam- 
ple Wheat. 

13. That the percentage of kinghead, corn cockle, 
vetch, darnel, wild rose, either single or combined, 
as follows: No. 1 wheat may carry .5 per cent. No. 2 
wheat 1 per cent. No. 3 wheat 3 per cent. A per- 
centage of these inseparables greater than 3 per 
cent carries the wheat into Sample Wheat. 

14. Tliat garlic and wild onions no longer present 
nor apparent should not be considered 

15. That smut dockage be expressed in terms of 
.5 per centum. 

As to the rules and regulations the following 
changes were recommended: 

1. As recommended. 

2. That No. 1 shall stand as it is. That No. 2 
shall be changed to incorporate the following as its 
sense and meaning, "That the Inspector shall at the 
instance of the owner issue an 'out' inspection." 

3. That No. 3 be changed affirmatively. 

4. That No. 4— the charges for inspections — be 
lowered 50 per cent. 

5. No action taken pending further information. 
Recommendations. — A. That the sub-class dark 

northern spring shall be changed from 85 per cent 
to 65 per cent, consisting of dark, hard and vitreous 
kernels. 

B. That the sub-class northern spring shall con- 
sist of less than 65 per cent of dark, hard and vitre- 
ous kernels. 

C. The inspector shall note on the inspection 
ticket what grade the v/heat is, and shov/ why wheat 
grading No. 2, No. 3 and Sample Wheat carries that 
designation, together with a notation as to the grade 
the whetit would carry if in proper condition. 

The present indications are that this fight is go- 
ing to be to the finish. The injustice of a grain 
grading system that does not allow either the buyer 
or the seller to intelligently know what he is buy- 
ing or selling, and that forces each to employ 
technical experts to determine grades which are 
not even technically correct, is self-evident. 

The moisture content discrimination, for example, 
is a bold-faced robbery of the farmer. The Rail- 
road and Warehouse Commission of Minnesota have 
shown conclusively, as has also Dr. Ladd, of North 
Dakota, that Northwestern grain carrying 15 per 
cent moisture is perfectly safe for storage purposes. 
It also came out at the Fargo hearing on the testi- 
mony of Mr. Saunderson, miller at the Agricultural 
(Jollege experimental mill, that it is the practice of 
the milling trade to bring wheat up to the 15 per 
cent moisture content before milling in order that 
better milling results may be obtained. These two 
facts being true, it necessarily follows that to 
knock off on the grade on account of moisture con- 
tent of 15 per cent is to filch money out of the farm- 
er's pocket. Mr. Brand, If correctly reported in 



the newspapers, has made two statements either 
of which will bear some measure of thot. The 
first is to the effect that the receipts of grain at 
the terminal markets would indicate that if the 
farmers have not received proper grades for their 
wheat then that wheat has been bought by the 
elevator men at a grade lower than its actual qual- 
ity, and is being re-shipped by them at the higher 
grade. What is the experience of the hundreds of 
farmers' elevators thruout the Northwest? If this 
is true, their co-operative dividends for the season 
should be exorbitantly large, or we are forced to 
the conclusion that the suggestion is made that the 
elevator men employed by the farmers are salting 
down this money for themselves. In one case (Mr. 
Brand being correctly quoted), the farmers' ele- 
vator managers are charged with discriminatory 
buyin?, and in the other with downright misappro- 
priation of funds. 

Were the desire present to do either of these 
things, they could not get away with it under the 
old grading system. Is a system that allows its 
directing head to suggest that such things may be 
done a good system to continue working under? 
The newspapers again represent Mr. Brand as sug- 
gesting that the hearings thus far have indicated 
the need on th« part of the fai-mer of a better ac- 
quaintance with the present grades. Mr. Brand 
is herewith informed that their acquaintance with 
the present grades is quite sufficient, that what they 
want is a substitution for these grades of a grading 
system that Is simple and practical and efficient. 
As F., S. & H. pointed out above, the present grades 
are not even technically correct; but, granted that 
they were, technical accuracy is not all there is to 
the grain grading system — simplicity is the prime 
essential in order that during the rush of the mar- 
keting season the grain which t'ne farmer sells may 
be sold on its merits in a way satisfactory to him- 
self and to whatever buyer takes it over. The con- 
vincing proof of the unsatisfactory character of the 
present grain grading system is to be found in the 
fact that neither the farmer nor the buyer is satis- 
fied, and F., S. & H. desires to remind Mr. Brand 
of this further that this dissatisfaction has not been 
stirred up by any agency outside of the farmers or 
buyers themselves. It was a bitter, silent, un- 
voiced protest until F., S. & H. took up the cudgel 
which it does not propose to lay down until %he 
present grain grading law is repealed. 

If you think as thousands of other farmers in 
the Northwest do about this matter, you will help 
F., S. & H. and its friends in their fight for justice 
to the grain grower by signing the appended peti- 
tion and by getting just as many signatures to it in 
addition to your own, as you can secure. The strug- 
gle for the repeal of the grain grading law is on. 
Every bit of ammunition you can furnish F., S. & 
H. in the fight will be put to the best possible use. 

Mr. Jacobson, of the Minnesota Railroad & Ware- 
house Commission, the members of the North Da- 
kota Railroad & Warehouse Commission, represent- 
ative farmers from the Northwest, our representa- 
tives in Congress, including all the representatives 
from the three states of North and South Dakota 
and Wisconsin are making this fight in your be- 
half. At best, it will be a hard struggle. The in- 
trenched power of those who have control of the 
Federal grain grading law is something not easily 
overcome. Remember that they can put up a 
plausible appeal; remember that Congress has only 
a few men who understand what the farmer wants 
and what he is entitled to. Remember that your 
help in this fight may be the very help needed to 
bring the victory that all are seeking. Remember 
that unless this victory comes, we shall be forced 
in 1918 to submit to the same discriminations and 
losses that have been effective ever since the pres- 
ent grain grades act became operative. Be sure 
to fill out the petition and to return it with the 
entire list of signatures at once. 



II. N. Owen, Chairman, 

412-416 Sixth St. So., Minneapolis, Minn. 

T approve tlie resolutions passed by the farmers 
in conference at Minneapolis and Fargo relative to 
changes in the present wheat grades and authorize 
you to attach this coupon to a petition to the De- 
partment of Agriculture demanding, in the name of 
fair dealing to all concernefl, the modification of the 
existing grading system to meet the ordinary busi- 
ness r(M]uiiements of wheat growing and marketing. 



Signed . . . . 
Town . . . 

1!. n. 



42 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



Motor Truck Farm Service 

By Hugh J. Hughes 

Distribution of produce and supplies is one of the biggest prob- 
lems of today. Here the auto truck is seen as an essential link be- 
tween the railroads and the farm — between producer and consumer 



TRANSPORTATION and power! 
These are the two greatest needs 
of the present day; the two 
things that keep us from fully ex- 
panding our energies as a people, 
that prevent us from accomplishing 
the results on which we have set our 
eyes as a nation and as individuals. 

Ordinarily we thin-k of transporta- 
tion as a railroad problem, but I am 
thinking of it in a broader sense as 
taking in all the material of exchange 
between the producer and the ulti- 
mate consumer. We woke up recently 
to the fact that a great nation with- 
out ships is in pretty much the same 
fix as a wood chopper without arms — 
then in order to reach our markets 
and get rid of our surplus we had to 
have our own boats in which to load 
and ship our wheat and meat and other 
food supplies. We are at present en- 
gaged in the stupendous task of creat- 
ing a mercantile marine sufficient for 
our needs in the face of a submarine 
destruction of tonnage that is running 
into the millions. There is no reason 
to doubt but that we shall finish the 
job — at about the same time that we 
finish Kaiserism — and one of the 
marked results of the present war 
will be an American mercantile fleet 
sailing the seas of the world. 

We are trying government control 
of our railroads. If it succeeds in war 
time there is more than a chance that 
it will be adopted as a national policy 
after the conclusion of peace. But 
this, in the real sense of the word, 
does not increase our transportation 
facilities, as the main thing that 
change of ownership brings about is 
a transfer of profits from the indi- 
vidual to the state. Such government 
control as we now have may — ought 



to — mcrease the efficiency of our cars, 
give us better service, do away with 
worn-out trade practices that prevent 
proper loading and that cause unnec- 
essary waste of time. 

Where the Auto Truck Comes In. 

One of the things most strongly 
urged by the railroads at the present 
time is that the short haul be eliminat- 
ed. By the short haul is meant the 
loading and unloading of a car for a 
running distance of anywhere from 5 
to 25 miles. Agreed that this is a 
very wasteful use of railroad equip- 
ment, what is the answer? The an- 
swer is: the motorization of the roads 
and the farms. If the railroads, be- 
cause of unusual war conditions, can- 
not afford to load up a car for a ten- 



mile haul, how is the farmer going to 
get his coal for winter and how shall 
he market his livestock, or in what 
way shall he replace this short haul 
privilege when it is withdrawn? 

There is just one answer and that 
Is, by the use of the motor truck. 
Tremendous advances in the quality 
of our roads have taken place in the 
past few years. A very large percent- 
age of them will stand up fairly well 
under heavy motor traffic. We have 
built bridges and culverts with the 
needs of the heavy traction engine in 
mind and they take care of motor 
travel without difficulty. The network 
of country roads spreading out over 
the Northwest, combined with a preva- 
lence of good weather during the 
major portion of the season, makes 



the beginning of motor truck service 
thru the country as possible as It Is 
under the circumstances desirable, 
and as a substitute for the railroad 
short haul the motor truck is both 
efficient and economical. It Is this 
that in the face of the present day 
situation is calling the motor truck 
into service. 

Eliminate the Wasteful "Cross Haul." 

Today I received a letter informing 
me that a certain man in North Dakota 
had 5,000 tons of hay for sale and the 
intending buyer of this hay lives not 
far from the Twin Cities. Yesterday 
a man from North Dakota came into 
this office while on his way from North 
Dakota to southern Minnesota in order 
to buy hay needed not 25 miles from 
the point where the first man was 
soiling. Broadly considered this was a 
sheer waste of time and equipment 
and calls for a serious re-adjustment 
of our local supply and demand. Sup- 
ply and demand always follow the 
lines of least resistance, and these 
lines up to the present are in the di- 
rection of the railroads to the termi- 
nals and back again. 

Under the pressure of war necessity 
we are today studying how we can 
substitute for this wasteful process 
of the long haul back and forth, a 
local study of our needs and the bal- 
ancing up of requirements so that the 
freight traffic out of and into a com- 
munity will be actual excess produc- 
tion and actual wants that can only 
be met by outside supply. This situ- 
ation again calls for the motor truck 
as a means of bringing about the ends 
we are seeking. If the railroads are 
to be supplemented by a new net-work 
[Vontlnued on page 43.] 




More Tractors —More Food 



By John Bromley, 



A FORECAST of the tractor situ- 
ation has to take into account 
many things outside of the local 
or even the national situation. The 
first of these is the world shortage of 
food and the certainty that this short- 
age will surely continue as long as 
the war lasts and perhaps for a good 
many years thereafter. 

It is a fact worth remembering that 
following nearly every great war has 
come famine and disease. If the pres- 
ent struggle is not to end in that 
fashion, it must be because we take 
preventative measures in due time and 
provide against disease and hunger. 
Now the facts are that Germany, Aus- 
tria, France and, if the war goes on 
much longer, other European countries 
as well, must cut down their live 
stock supplies to a dangerously low 
point. 

The horse power to till the soil due 
to the wastage of the battlefields and 
to lack of attention to breeding is 
falling off to a marked degree. A sub- 
stitute of grain and root crops for 
livestock calls for an increased use 
of farm power and th© form of farm 
power heretofore general and avail- 
able, namely, horseflesh is not suffi- 
cient for the increased demands of 
the job. As tho some providence 
greater than man's prevision had been 
at work on the task, we have been 
developing for the past twenty years 
a new form of power that does not 
push aside but rather supplements the 
horse. We have been trying it out in 
many ways and wc are somewhat pre- 
pared to say what its possibilities are. 

Where Our Troubles Have Been. 

The earlier troubles of the tractor 
are troubles now recognized to be 
due first to design and second to lack 
of understanding as to operation. I 
am saying what everyone knows and 
few are ready to admit, that when tho 



binder came into the field it was far 
more universally criticised than, is the 
tractor of the present day. Every ma- 
chinery house had experts who did 
nothing during the cutting season but 
go about rethreading needles and 
scraping paint off from new working 
parts, oiling up the machine and oc- 
casionally tightening a bolt or mak- 
ing a readjustment. All this seems 
rather simple and foolish now, but 
at the time it was a very serious 
proposition. In other words, men do 
not come instinctively to a knowledge 
of how to use machinery. They have 
to learn how and the man who never 
ran a tractor will have troubles just 
as surely as the man who first rode a 
binder had to learn the kinks of the 
game. How quickly he will learn 
depends largely on the man, but of 
this we may make sure, that his 12- or 
15-year-old boy will pick up the idea 
of operating it as quick if not quicker 
than the father, and will never know 
when he grows to manhood that there 
was a time when he didn't know how 
to run a tractor. Just as surely as the 
man of today would feel ashamed of 
himself if he didn't know how to ad- 
just the tension and make minor re- 
pairs on his binder, just so the trac- 



tor farmer of 1920 or 1925 is going to 
instinctively know by long experience 
and full understanding what his trac- 
tor is capable of doing and the one 
biggest cause of tractor difficulties will 
then be done away with. 

Improvements Being Made. 

In the matter of design the tractor 
manufacturers are gradually getting 
together. They are working out cer-- 
tain fundamentals and are arriving at 
the common understanding which is 
incorporated in those tractors which 
will be ultimately successful. To cite 
one case out of many, the question 
of pull is largely determined by the 
amount of surface which the tractor 
wheel places on the ground at any 
given moment. Now whether a manu- 
facturer is making the wheel or drum 
or crawl type, he works with that 
basic fact in mind and he is getting 
results all out of proportion to the 
earlier tractive efforts of machines 
that were built without a clear ap- 
preciation of this essential starting 
point. Whether the tractor is going 
to adapt itself to the machinery " al- 
ready built, or whether machinery is 
going to be built to fit it is another 
question that is gradually working out 




A iKiiiery of Amerlc. 



II 1 1 1, li :u hii ; . h< h Hill our h;LMJ<' 

(ur a gi-uaier liarvest ia idib. 



liiio II' 1 1 .Uy jjn'iiai liig 



and in a very common sense way, too. 
Machinery is being built for the trac- 
tor because it is coming to be recog- 
nized that the tractor is here to stay 
and that such machinery as it hauls 
must be built to its requirements. 

This means str6nger plow beams, 
deeper plowing, wider cut of furrows, 
wider reach of drills and other ma- 
chinery, making, in other words, for 
increased man power wherever pos- 
sible. 

Meeting the Labor Shortage. 

Again the world situation points to 
a serious shortage after the war of 
efficient farm labor. The rebuilding 
of Europe, possibly the reconstruction 
of many of our own essential indus- 
tries should the war continue for a 
long time, as, for example, the rail- 
road beds of the railways, is going to 
drain the western world of a large 
part of its available supplies of day 
and month labor. The great problem 
facing the American farmer is how 
to make his own time count for more 
-'-how to handle more acres with the 
same help — and the tractor steps in 
and says, "I am ready, I can take a 
steady pace from early morn until 
late at night, and all night long if 
need be, and not grow tired. So long 
as you feed me oil and gasoline I 
will do all that I was built to do; 
work me as hard as you please, I 
am always ready for more." 

Tractor Tillage Advantages. 

So in every case the farmer gains 
by the use of the tractor: he can till 
his soil more deeply and he can widen 
out the acres that he is farming. Ia 
other words, both in the standpoint of 
crop yield, bigger acreage and of total 
acres the man with the tractor cornea 
out ahead as against tho man who 
does not use it. He is substituting 
[Continued on jx^t/c 04. | 



January tS, 1916. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



48 



MOTOR TBDCK FARM SERVICE. 

[Co»Unu€d frm ixige 42.] 

of transportation caring for the local 
distribution, the burden of this work 
must fall upon the motor vehicle. 
Any other form of transportation is 
too cumbersome, slow and inefficient, 
but the motor truck can fit into this 
situation and meet all local demands 
with no more trouble than iu ordinary 
times attends the ordinary shipment 
of produce via the railroads. With 
this new system of interchange it will 
no longer seem obligatory for a man 
having a carload of hay aI Ada to ship 
it to Minneapolis, while perhaps at 
Halstad there is another man buying 
from the same dealer iu Minneapolis 
the same Identical car of hay. 
The Work of Re-Distribution Already 
Begun. 

We are building up in Minnesota 
thru the Marketing Committee of the 
State a great bureau of informational 
service. The County Marketing Com- 
mittees are able to tell within a reason- 
able limit what the needs of different 
sections of different counties are, and 
one of the main objects of the local 
committee work during the past year 
has been to try and balance up these 
needs locally just as far as possible. 
Those who have been eng^'ged in this 
work have appreciated the fact that 
the matter of inter-community trans- 
portation is one of the biggest and 
most necessary obstacles to overcome. 
With such a sinialion, willi the i^resent 
demand, with every reason, both pub- 
lic and private, for the abandonment 
of a wasteful system of exchange and 
•waste of effort and capital, the com.ing 
of the motor truck for general road 
service seems to F., S. & H. a cer- 
tainty. It is not a question of whether 
it will come, it is only a question of 
When it will come. It is not a ques- 
tion of whether it will come in the far 
distant future, it is a question of how 
soon the service can be installed. 
Along what line shall the new trans- 
portation system develop? 

What History Suggests May Happen. 

One might venture to say that it 
will follow in ;^eneral the trend of 
railroad development — first a great 
many individuals trying out the busi- 
ness for private profit, these individ- 
ual businesses later merging into reg- 
ular systems of transportation. Such 
was the case with the early stage 
lines, so the railroads were developed, 
so the interurban sy.stems have 
grown, and, as history has a way of 
repeating itself, this is likely to be the 
way the motor truck service of the 
country districts is going to eventually 
work out. All this has apparently 
more to do with the community at 
large than with the farm as a unit, 
but it should not be forcrotten that it 
is the farm that is paying the cost of 
transportation. Put your finger down 
on a piece of land in southern Minne- 
sota and the owner will tell you it is 
worth %)2') an acre. A similar piece 
of land, no better and no worse as far 
as the eye can see, is worth $75 in the 
Red River Valley and $oO per acre a 
hundred miles West of there. What 
causes this difference in price? A 
number of things, any one of which 
mifiiht take a considerable time to dis- 
cuss, but very lar-jely the controlling 
factor in the price of land is the dis- 
tance, in time rather than in miles, 
from a satisfactory and complete local 
market. 

The Auto Truck Day Is Here. 
Just to the extent that the farm and 
the community itself is 3elf-s;i3taining 
is this matter of a market lessened as 
a value fixing factor, and the greater 
the community ability to take care of 
itself the hi.s;her the value of the land. 
So far from considering that the motor 
truck proposition is still a long v/ays 
off from the farm, F., S. & H. looks 
upon its coming for tho purpose- of 
handling intf!r community traffic a 
factor of tremendous present import- 
ance and value to every farmer in the 
Northv/est. It will tend to stren<?t!'.en 
prices and stobilize buruness, it will 
bring the loc;)'. nei"?hborhoods closer 
together, if, v/Jli make the farm more 
nearly and mare completely a part of 
that nel'/hborl ood of which the ne;ir- 
by town is tho trading center. I am 
not forgeftirifc the part that the auto 
truck )s bound fo play on the individual 
farm. Thot phase of tho situation is 
much clos'^r n\. Ivind than we ima";ine. 
The period r.) v.qiUng for good roads 
is about over, jn many communities 
the roads arc already here. It has 
now becorrif. •;. f;!ie.?tion in these com- 
munltiftK w^,f t: or not the individual 
farm can a.tord a mofor truck to 
handle itn bu.Hinf.afj, and that 1« a ques- 
tion which munt ba answered by the 



ONE MAN CAN FARM 
MORE LAND m'd the 




MOLINE 

UNIVERSAL TRACTOR 



J Cultivating 




TWO MILLION MEN v/iH be gone 
from the farms because of the war 
> — strong, skilled, willing workers, 
only a small part of whom can be replaced 
by older men, boys and women. Yet pro- 
duction of food must be increased. There is 
cnlyone way— equip the men left on the farms 
SO they can do more work than ever before. 

With the MoUne-Universal — the original 
two-wheel tractor — One Alan can farm 
tr.ore land than was ever before possible, 
because— 

One Man has power at his command 
equal to five horses, capable of doing the 
work of seven horses owing to its greater 
speed and endurance. This power is 
always available for any farm work. 

One Men operates the Moline-Universal 
Tractor from the seat of the implement to 
which it is attached, where he must sit in 
order to do good work. 

One Men can start in the spring and go 
from one operation to another — ^plowing, 
harrowing, planting, cultivating, mov/ing, 
harvesting grain or com, spreading manure, 
filling the silo, cutting wood, etc., doing all 
farm work from one year's end to another, 
independently of horses or hired help. 

All these one-man operations with the 
Moline-Universal are possible because it is 



mounted on two wheels, all its weight is 
traction weights it is powerful — pulls two 
14-inch bottoms easily — ^yet it is light so 

Address Department 

MOLINE PLOW COMPANY, Moline, 



that it does not pack the soil. The Mo- 
line-Universal attaches direct to the im- 
plement, making one compact unit. 

One woman or boy operates the Moline- 
Universal as easily as a man. Miss Ruth 
Harding of Albion, N. Y., a proud owner of 
a Moline-Universal, writes: "I have never 
called a man from bis work to assist me 
with the tractor in any way." 

Thousands of Moline-Universal Tractors 
are now at work under every conceivable 
condition in all parts of the United States 
and in Canada, Englasai, France, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, Russia, Italy, Spain, 
Mexico, Peru, Argentine, Brazil, Cuba, 
Gautemala, South Africa, Australia. Where- 
ever a Moline-Universal Tractor is sold 
there is immediately a big d^nand for more. 

The demand for Moline-Universal Trac- 
tors has far exceeded our expectations. 
We built an enormous factory which is 
devoted entirely to making Moline-Uni- 
versal Tractors and tiiree times have 
erected large additions to cope with the 
enormous demand. We now have the 
largest tractor factory in the world. 

Moline sales and service branches cove: 
the country. No purchaser is ever more 
than a few hours away from Moline service. 

The Moline-Universal will solve your 
help and power problems. It is ready fcr 
you now. Write us today for free booklet 
giving full description of the Moline-Uni- 
versal and name of nearest Moline dealer, 
55 



moiB 



individual farmer in a business-like 
way. The tendency of the present-day 
farm toward increased production of 
supplies that are moving to market at 
all times of the year, coupled with the 
high prices of labor, makes the matter 
of time spent on roads going to and 
from market a very important thing to 
consider. 

Co-Operative Motor Truck Service. 

Undoubtedly the motor truck is 
going to come to the large farms first. 
i;i:t there is another use to v/hich it 
will be put and that is in the handling 
of neishborhood s.ipplie.s both coming 
and going. Already we have motor 
tnicka in the Northwest doing a year- 
round" business hauling products from 
the farms and supplies back to them 
and this movement either co-opera- 
tively or as a private business enter- 
pri.'^e supnorted by tho community 
shows that the motor truck service is 
bound to go on in increased volume 
and extant as time goes on. It seems 
tlierefore, that for three pu"ri)oses— as 
a aubatitute for the railroad car in 
short distr-nces between towns, as an 
a- cnt for the re-distribution of supplies 
within a reasonable local radius, and 
an a direct carrying agency between 
the farm and the local market center 
fbe motor truck is bound to take a 
Inrcie place just as soon as we can 
nfh'uBt ourselves to the new conditions 
that are already facing us. 



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44 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



The 1917 International 



A glimpse at the "Big Show" and 
at the Northwest's offerings 

By Paul D. Hammett 



INTERNATIONALS have come and 
Internationals have gone — sixteen 
of them in all— but at no one of 
them has as much history been 
written as at the International of 1917. 
From the call for the first class to the 
exit of the last animal in the judging 
more class and show ring quality was 
displayed in the great amphitheater at 
Chicago than at any other show in the 
United States and perhaps the world. 

The Northwest played an important 
part in the 1917 International. All 
thru the judging exhibitors from 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and 
South Dakota, Montana, in fact all of 
the north and northwest brought their 
entries into the ring and in many, 
many cases left the ring with the 
coveted ribbon attached. 

The International live stock show 
was to the food forces of the nation 
what the sixteen great cantonments 
which have been established thru 
out the country for the training of , 
the young men of the nation for their 
fighting against the autocracy of 
Europe, are to the military forces. 
The government, while not officially 
recognizing the International as such, 
semi-officially designated the premier 
live stock show of the world, as the 
National Food Training Camp. 

From start to finish of the show the 
men who have in their hands the feed- 
ing of this country and the countries 
with which it is allied in the great 
struggle, to a very great extent, never 
lost sight of the fact that the Inter- 
national was their training camp. 

Even to notebooks in which facts 
and figures later to be used in the 
great work of producing sufficient 
food for a fighting nation, the Inter- 
national resembled a higher course in 
technical training. Men who have 
kept hundreds of beef animals on their 
farms for decades came to the Inter- 
national with open minds. They 
wanted to learn just what the maxi- 
mum attainment was. They wanted 
to see just what the others in their 
field of endeavor had found it pos- 
sible to do with the raw material with 
which they were working. 

Men who have been "cropping," 
their land to the exclusion of live 
stock for years enough to put their 
land in a poorly productive state came 
to the International with their minds 
made up to put a few cattle, hogs and 
perhaps sheep on their farms, and in- 
crease this stock as the years come, 
to the point where they can point to 
the herd and drove and flock on their 
broad acres and say, "I am doing my 
patriotic 'bit.' " 

From a purely live stock standpoint 
the show was a show of wonders. It 
never has been excelled in the opinion 
of men who have made it their busi- 
ness to visit all of the Internationals 
and have been fortunate enough to 
have had an opportunity to take in 
soiie of the great shows of other 
countries. The show has been grow- 
ing in quantity and quality since the 
first exposition in 1900 and this year's 
show was no exception to the general 
rule. More than 5,000 animals came 
before the eyes and under the hands 
of the judges during the eight days 
of the show and these animals .were 
the premier food animals and the 
premier equine flesh of the country. 

In the distribution of prizes the 
North and the Northwest shared liber- 
ally. The Northwest has been moving 
to the fore for the past few years and 
the work of improving herds never 
was better demonstrated than at the 
International this year. Real bovine 
blood is taking the place of scrub 
stock and prices paid on the markets 
for stock from the Northwest during 
the past year found justification in 
the stock from this district shown at 
the show. 

Wonderful Showing of Shorthorns. 

One of the sensations of the entire 
show this year and certainly for the 
lireed, was the showing of the Short- 
horn cattle. Such a galaxy of red, 
white and roan kings and queens never 
fiiiS graced the tan bark at this or 
;iny otlior exposition. 

When the class of aged bulls was 
t ailed- ten head of superbly fitted ani- 



mals of the most approved type and 
character faced the judge. It was a 
battle royal from the start and pre- 
sented Judge W. A. Dryden, of Brook- 
lyn, Ont., with one of the knottiest 
problems of his long and extensive ca- 
reer as a Shorthorn critic. Fully as 
much may be said of all of the other 
classes. 

In the most spirited contest of the 
ring, Maxwalton Commander, a mag- 
nificent roan bull, shown by the enter- 
prising breeder of the Southland, W. 
A. Gillispie & Son, of Muskogee, Okla., 
beaded the class and was made senior 
champion, and a short time later 
marched forth to victory in the battle 
for the grand championship. In this 
latter contest his competitor was the 
rich, coated and deep-meated senior 



youngster was sold recently to B. F. 
Hales, of Oak Park, 111., for the record 
price of $17,000 and made a good ac- 
count of himself in the class of 31 
outstanding specimens. 

Another one of the greatest ©vents 
of the show was the class of aged 
Shorthorn cows. In this ring of 
handsome matrons there was an even 
dozen of as fine big breedy cows as 
was ever seen together in any show 
ring. Each was accompanied by a 
lusty calf as evidence of prolificacy, 
and presented a sight which alone was 
worth a trip to the big show. Mr. 
Dryden called in his consulting judge, 
Robert Miller, of Stouffville, Ontario, 
frequently and their awards met with 
popular approval. B. F. Hale, of Prai- 
rie View, 111., won first in this class 




Miss £ditU Curtis judging au Angus champion. 



bull calf, Sunrise, shown by S. G. Elia- 
son, of Montevideo, Minn. 

Maxwalton Commander made his 
first big show of the year at the In- 
ternational, but he was at this show 
last year and stood well at the head 
of his class. He is a roan of wonder- 
ful quality and came out to his place 
in the ring or moved before the judge 
like a true champion and a sire of 
courage and prepotency. He is just 
past four years old and his sire is the 
celebrated champion of champions, 
Avondale, dam Imported Roan Lady 
36th. 

The junior champion. Sunrise is by 
the Bull Cornerstone, dam Simplicity 
5th. In the senior bull calves, which 
furnished the junior champion, second 
place went to the entry of Anoka 
Farms, of Waukesha, Wis. This 



with his beautiful big cow, Maxwalton 
Queen. 

Speaking of the Shorthorn show, one 
of the big followers of this breed said 
to a representative of Farm, Stock & 

Home: 

"I have seen more good cattle in this 
ring than in any other. Breeders are 
showing the results of earlier expe- 
riences which demonstrates the value 
of these exhibitions from an educa- 
tional standpoint. The high character 
of the show also reflects the pros- 
perity of the breed and the faith which 
breeders have in it, whic"h is increas- 
ing each year. Then there is a de- 
mand among land owners who have 
not been in the habit of keeping cat- 
tle. They are beginning to see the 
wisdom of putting in a little stock to 
increase and maintain the fertility of 




the soil and in addition are answering 
the call of their country for increased 
meat production." 

Herefords in the Lime Light. 

Another brilliant chapter of achieve- 
ment was written into the history of 
that renewed breed of farm and plain 
—the Hereford— at the International 
this year. This year's show unques- 
tionable represented the supreme ef- 
fort of the exponents of the white 
faces to put that breed into the lime 
light. 

In the long lines of young bulls there 
was class never before brot out by 
the breed in a show ring. The pheno- 
menal quality of the show, as well as 
the numbers, was the subject for com- 
ment wherever two or more lovers 
of the red cattle met. "Uncle Tom," 
Clark, who has acted as superinten- 
dent of this division since the first 
International, and whose knowledge of 
the breed surpasses that of most men, 
declared that the show excelled all 
previous ones here or anywhere else. 

"It is the greatest show the herd 
has ever made," said Uncle Tom, "I 
have been at the English Royal and 
the Bath and West of England shows, 
and followed the progress of t^e 
breed closely for a lifetime, and what 
I say is my candid opinion, and it is 
shared with all others with whom I 
have talked." 

When Mr. Clark was questioned as 
to a possible reason for such wide 
patronage of the Hereford contest by 
exhibitors, he said, "It simply means, 
to my opinion, that folks have come 
to the place where they must come out 
with the good ones or it won't pay. 
And they have prepared for this by 
getting good bulls, better bulls than 
they have been used to getting. 

"The breeders also are using better 
cows. I also notice there is not so 
much overfitting as in the past. There 
were some highly fitted animals at the 
show this year, but they stood up well 
on their legs, showing that fitters are 
coming to understand their art." 

Hereford Bull Sold for $31,000. 

In the selection of Ardmore for the 
champion bull of the breed, the judge 
was borne out well the following day 
when this supreme animal sold for the 
world's record price of $31,000. Ard- 
more is by Bonnie Lad 20th and is a 
very low-set, thick-meated fellow over 
all parts, very typical of the blood 
lines which he represents. He is a 
dark cherry in color, and barring a 
little lack of bulliness around the head 
is almost faultless. Many pronounced 
him the best bull ever seen at the 
show. The bull was shown by W. L. 
Yost, of Kansas City, Mo. 

Aberdeen Angus Contest Close. 

The Aberdeen-Angus put on one of 
the strongest quality shows of the 
breed. It was a contest thruout be- 
tween the best matched herds of the 
country; herds that have been in the 
fight all fall at the big state fairs and 
have come thru with banners flying. 
It indeed was hard going for anything 
but a thoroly fitted and trained ani- 
mal. The popular livestock critic and 
breeder. Dr. H. M. Brown, of Hills- 
boro, Ohio, was assigned the task of 
placing the contestants. 

While the aged bull class did not 
come up to former years In numbers, 
the superb quality of the animals and 
the closeness of the decisions were 
compensations. The choice of Broadus 
Norwood 3rd, shown by A. S. Cecil and 
Sons of Muncie, Ind., for first place 
was well deserved. This splendid sire 
has demonstrated on more than one 
occasion this fall, his right to stand 
at the head of the line. This animal 
later won the grand championship. 

Aged cows came out strong in num- 
bers and proved a star attraction of 
the contest. The first prize went to a 
Cecil entry, Millsdale Pride 3rd, a 
three-year-old. 

Breeding Shorthorns. 

In the breeding Shorthorn show E. 
G. Thompson & Sons of Hurley, S. t) , 
won second on Ford Sultan in the class 
[Continued on i>n(jc CO.] • 



'Merry Monarch," Grand Champtoa Shorihora Steer. 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCJtC AND HOME. 



46 



ill lil Ml ill itl ill ifc ill I^ T l it lit ^If 

True Tractor Tales 



BY FARM, STOCK & HOMK SUBSCRIBERS 



Farming the Farm Below. 

To Farm. Stock and Home: 

I am doing grain farming only, but 
in two of three years I expect to start 
raising live stock whicli will consist 
of hogs and cattle. I am farming a 
half-section of my father's farm with 
my tractor and six head of horses. 
The soil is what is known as brovvn 
silt loam with no stones or boulders 
to bother the plow or other imple- 
ments in the working of it. Our soil 
plows harder here than the average 
soil does in Minnesota for I saw a 
tractor pulling four fourteen-inch bot- 
toms in other localities with ease; 
while here the same make of tractor 
had a load with the same number of 
bottoms plowing the same depth. 

Corn and oats are the principal 
crops raised with once in a while 
some wheat, or clover which is left 



to furnish power for the corn planter. 
With this outfit I can get over a little 
better than sixty acres per day, and 
for doing it I use about fifteen gallons 
of gasoline and one gallon of lubricat- 
ing oil. 

I hitch two eight-foot binders behind 
my tractor and cut my grain with it. 
By doing this way I can wait until the 
grain is ripe and still get it cut before 
it begins to break down or fall out or 
waste very much. As summer before 
last was a rather hot one here many 
farmers killed horses in cutting oats, 
but my tractor went ahead just the 
same without stopping for the heat 
and even working twenty-four hours 
per day if necessary. 

If we cared to, two or three farmers 
could go together and buy a small 
separator and do our own threshing. 

When it comes time to do fall plow- 




increasing farm efQciency in Minnesota. 



standing for a year or two and used 
as pasture or meadow. 

I do almost everything with my trac- 
tor. In the spring I use it to pull two 
eight-foot disk harrows and sixteen 
feet of common harrow behind the 
disks. I use this outfit to put in the 
oats and to prepare the corn ground 
for planting. 

In fact, all I use the tiorses for in 
the putting in of the crop is to sow 
the oats with an endgate seeder and 




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ing I put a three-bottom fourteen-ineh 
tractor gang behind my tractor and 
average one acre per hour in plowing, 
using one to two gallons of gasoline 
and one-half pint of lubricating oil per 
acre, depending on the condition and 
depth of plowing. 

Many farmers figure on the tractor 
only to do their heaviest work, such 
as plowing and putting in oats and 
other small grain. I think that the 
day is not far distant when the tractor 
will be a necessity to do the plowing 
with because we have to make our 
soil produce more than it is producing 
at present. Our farm advisers tell us 
that we have in the past been farming 
just this six-inch farm on the top of 
the ground and it is beginning to be 
pretty badly worn, but that there is 
another farm six inches deeper down 
in the ground. Here is where the 
tractor does its part for it is only 
with mechanical power that we can 
get to this second farm. 

After I get my fall plowing finished 
I begin to think about husking corn 
and I also use the tractor to do this. 
I put a husker and picker behind it 
and three men with this outfit will 
pick five to eight hundred bushels per 
day. 

I also use my tractor to do the most 
of the hauling of my grain to market 
lor I can take 280 bushels of corn or 
wheat to the elevator at one trip. Due 
to the tractor being light in weight 
and having no vibration I can use it 
to pull the wagons thru the elevator 
and over the scales. I have a small 
corn sheller and do my own shelling 
with my tractor. 

Elza N. Pick. 
McLean county, N. Dak. 

Increases Farm Efficiency. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I haven't used my tractor for as 
many different things as many farm- 
ers do. I am farming 480 acres, of 
which 350 acres are in small grains 
and the rest in pasture, hay, corn and 
building places. The soil is a black 
loam with a little sand in it and has 
a clay subsoil. I raise about 250 acres 
wheat, 75 acres barley, 25 acres oats 
and 30 acres corn. I have only 13 
head of cattle and 17 head of hogs. 

I have used the tractor, which is 
of medium size, mostly for plowing 
so far and find that It pays well be- 
cause that Is the hardest job in this 
part of the country and a person gets 
it done ho much earlier that it puts the 
soil in better shape for a good crop 
the next Reason. 1 also used the trac- 
tor for discing and harrowing last 




Smooth Power 

T is impossible to jerk the load behind a 
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transmission the power takes hold i 
with a steady, irresistible grip like the J 
power of a locomotive. You start the 
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the drawbar or on the belt. No terrific 
strains on machinery. You get the full power 
of the heavy duty, four cylinder engine, but 
melted to a steady, flexible flow. Easy control 
— seven speeds forward and sevsn reverse 
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Model "D" 9-16 

vrfth Rock Island No. 9 plow 
attached. Your hands operate 
the tractor V7hile ytfur foot 
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Automatic power li£t. Gets 
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»1 



The feal All-Purpose Tractor 



2. 3 and 4 

"CTX" 
Bottoms. 



Sums Kerosene or Gasoline 

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"There's no other tractor like the Heider." says 
one owner. "She's as good as she looks and then 
some." Standard four wheel construction — four 
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Specially designed manifold. Burns either kerosene 
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Heider construction Is backed by Its own expe 
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4 



Uso Rock Island Tractor Plows 

and get good plowir.^i no matter 
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row wheel lift, extra high clearance. 
"CTX" bottoms turn the soil clear 
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Btopping moisture. 



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84 Second Avenue Rock Island, III. 



WrReforCata 



Growing Season 



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You can work the land two to three weeks earlier, thereby greatly 
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Underdralnage carries off all surplus water and pre- 
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require warmth to germinate. A cold, water-soaked 
8oil kills the seed or retards germination. Drained land is much 
warmer, assists germination and promotes rapid growth of the 
plant. Plants must brcatlie in order tolive. Soil relieved of 
surplus water becomes porous, permitting the sun's rays to penet 
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HI5N JACK FROST has made grazing a 
thing the past; when snow lies (li-ei>— 
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order dimcounis and Agoncy Offer. 



Learn 
••rly- 



UNADILLA SILO CO., Box 23, DesMoines. la., or Unadilla. N. Y. 



46 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1018. 



sprinp: but the ground was so soft 
that it didn't pay very well. So I don't 
think I'll try it this year unless I 
should be rushed with the work on ac- 
count of a late spring. Tho only belt 
work I have used it for so far is to 
saw wood, but that wasn't even work 
for it. 

I don't believe that it would pay 
to use the tractor for light belt work, 
as pumping water and other light 
work around the farm, when one can 
buy a light gas engine cheaply, that 
will do that Avork far more economi- 
cally. I would use it for grinding feed 
if I hadn't had a small grinding outfit 
before I bought the tractor. 




Home of Albert E. Larsou 

I am going to use the tractor to run 
a small threshing machine next fall 
and I believe that I can save consid- 
erable on my thresh bill and get along 
better with the labor problem, which 
is a serious one in this part of the 
country in threshing time. 

I am sure that the small or medium 
tractor would be greatly instrumental 
in increasing the farm efficiency on 
stock farms. On a farm of this kind 
it could be used to great advantage 
in filling silos, shredding and shelling 
corn, grinding feed, threshing grain, 
and plowing. It could also be used 
for other field work and hauling if 
one thought it profitable or was rushed 
with the work. 

Albert ii. Larson. 
Ransom County, N. D. 

Thinks Tractor Decreases Number of 
Horses. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

We have about 300 acres sowed to 
timothy and clover. The timothy and 
clover seed is mixed in certain propor- 
tions and sowed with the grain in the 
spring, preferably on summer fallow 
to give the clover a good start. As it 
is not high enough in the fall it is 
not damaged by liarvesting the grain. 
The next year the timothy is cut for 
seed. The third year both are cut for 
hay just after the timothy has blos- 
somed and in the fall when the clover 
has blossomed the second time it is 
cut for seed. Last year is the first 
year that we have cut any clover for 
seed, but it turned out very satisfac- 
tory. 

The object of the clover is to put 
nitrogen back into the soil as it is one 
of the best leguminous plants, while 
the timothy is chiefly for seed and 
hay. The fourth year the sod is 
plowed up and serves as new land for 
grain crops. 

We threshed both the clover and 
timothy with our separator and it did 
a very satisfactory job. We do not 
find it necessary to have a huller. 

We have our own threshing rig, con- 
sisting of 22 h. p. gas tractor and a 
24-inch separator. 

The tractor sure fills the bill for 
power, both at the draw bar and belt. 
In plowing it is steady and does not 
need a rest at every end and especial- 
ly hot days v/hen it is too hot for 
horses the tractor never fails as the 
hotter the weather the better it works. 
Besides plowing to a greater depth 
than can be done with horses it works 
longer hours and at all hours. 

We have had no trouble at all, only 
in a couple of instances, one was get- 
ting too close to a mud hole and the 
other was feeding too much water 
with the kerosene, which are not 
faults of the tractor. 

In all the work' done- by the tractor 
we have found that the work could be 
done better and more economical than 
with horses, licsifics having it done on 
time and also decreasing the number 
of horses needed on the farm. 

In threBhing it is very handy and, 
to say the least, is the only power, as 
it is easy to start even on a cold morn- 
ing and requires hardly any attention 
while running, excejit kerosene, oil 
and water. Because of this, one per- 
on easily runa both ends and hua 



time to spare, but, of course, this time 
is not necessarily wasted but is put 
in looking over the machine, as "a 
stitch in time saves nine." 

JosKPu Miller. 
Nelson county. North Dakota. 

Building a Diversified Farm. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I purchased a new 30-60 tractor and 
worked same for four years. This ma- 
chine paid for itself and besides in- 
creased my herd of cattle from three 
head to nearly 100 head at the same 
time. I farm 200 acres on a half-sec- 
tion farm; I also rent a half-section 
for grazing purposes, raise mostly all 
oats and speltz and feed it to stock on 
the farm. Have now 90 head of cattle 
of which 50 will rais© calves this 
spring. They are mostly all Short- 
horns, reds and roans. I purchased a 
Shorthorn roan bull (pedigreed) a 
year ago and intend to breed up a 
roan her^. I milk about 15 and let 
the calves run with the rest of the 
cows. Keep about 30 hogs, Duroc 
Jerseys, for our own meat and some 
to sell. Have 25 head of horses, of 
which 14 head are work horses, the 
rest of them colts. I do all the work 
at home with horses, using the tractor 
for custom work entirely, breaking 
sod thru the breaking season up to 
June 15, — some for cash and some for 
the crop of flax which I get for break- 
ing the land. Would contract a piece 
to summer fallbw and then thresh the 
entire fall. 

That way I kept the tractor work- 
ing from spring till after the ground 
froze up. And it made some profit 
every day it worked. This is a record 
of the tractor in four years: 

Plowing old land and harrowing, 
1,600 acres. 

Breaking sod and packing, 2,250 
acres. 

Hauling a 36x62 separator, 163 days. 
Total repair bill on tractor, of $56.80. 

Grs RosEMORE. 
Stutsman county, N. Dak. 

Small Tractor and Gas Engines. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I have been using my small tractor 
for plowing and discing corn stalks 
and pulling a two-bottom gang for 
plowing and a 7-foot double action disc 
for discing. Our farm contain 542 
acres, of which 310 acres are under 
cultivation and the balance is pasture 
and meadow. I find it more economi- 
cal to use a 4 h. p. engine for belt 
work about the farm, such as grind- 
ing feed, shelling corn, and running 
the portable elevator. We use a 1 h. p. 
engine for washing and pumping water 
and cleaning our seed grain. 

I think it more economical to oper- 
ate a kerosene burning engine than a 
gasoline engine owing to the differ- 
ence in the price of fuel, 

I am sorry I cannot send you any 
pictures of my tractor but I haven't 
any just now. Perhaps I can send you 
some later. 

Wm. H. ICrtjeger. 
Jerauld county, S. Dak. 

Litres a Large Tractor. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I operated a steam engine for 20 
years and when gas came out, I 
said, "Can't be done, there is nothing 
will come up to steam." In 1914 we 
threshed late, had 450 acres to plow^ 
Knew it could not be done with horses, 
so I began to look around for a gas 
tractoi". I finally hot one and started 
to plow and found it took, about two 
and three-<iuarters gallon of kerosene 
to an acre and paid 9",^o cents a gal- 
lon. We finished plowing, too, that 
fall. In spring don't try to take in 
field at all as it won't do for our soil, 
so 1915 threshing came. I sold tho 
steam and went to threshing with gas. 
but with cold chills running up my 
back, but after it ran about a half day 
I began to see I was licked. Used the 
same separator 40-04, and could u.se 
just as many teams and pitchers as 
we could when we had 32 h. p. steam. 
Don't have to haul coal, no water, just 
a team and man. My son doesn't 
have to get up at 3 in the morning to 
fire up. Goes out while boys get out 
the teams, cranks it up and goes till 
noon a good many times without 
stopping. The boy walks around it 
once in a while, keeps it oiled and 
that's all there is to do. In 1915 we 
plowed 350 acres again after thresh- 
ing. It was nice plowing and we got 
down to 2V^ gallons kerosene to an 
acre at 9 cents per gallon. This last 
fall we plowed about 600 acres alter 
threshing; plowed hard and took about 
three gallons to aero at 9.2 cents per 
gallon. It also takes about two gal- 
(C'onCiiiitoX oil jmyc C4. J 



^iiiilHiiiiiiiiiniiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiinimiiiiiHiiiiiin 



"iixiiii iiiMiiiiiiiii iiiMiiiiiiiiit MiiiHiiiiHimiMiHmimiMMnnnMnHmuimMiiiiiuinui 




Whr-r-r 



Whr-r-r-r-r 



W hr-r^-r-r-r 



Spare your batteries 

How winter starting is often made easier 
by a lower-cold-test oil 



You pre.<!s on your starter 
button in summer. Whr-r-r 
The engine is under way. 

But \yinter comes. Whr-r-r! 
Whr-r-r-r-r-! VVhr-r-r-r-r-r — . 
Now starting is difficult. 
Why.? 

True, the engine is colder. And 
gasoline vaporizes less readily. 
Starting is helped if you prime the 
cylinders, flood the carburetor or 
heat the intake manifold. 

But there is one factor in over- 
coming this trouble that many car 
owners overlook. This is — cor- 
rect lubrication. The lubricating 
requirements of your car may de- 
mand a different grade of oil in 
winter. 

Winter lubrica- 
tion requires special 
study. There are 
many factors to 
reckon with. The 
type of feed system 
is one. The size of 
the oil drillings is 



Mobiloils 



A grade for each type of mtltr 



another. Exposed oil piping is a 
possible third. Other factors also 
enter in. 

All these facts are carefully 
considered by the Vacuum Oil 
Company engineers in making up 
the Chart of Recommendations. 

Of the 1917 cars, 112 require 
a different grade of oi) to meet 
winter conditions. 

The correct winter oil is listed for 
each make of car in our Contplete 
Chart of Automobile Recommenda- 
tions shown in part below. 

Where no change 5s indicated you 
may he sure that the grade of Gargoyle 
Mobiloils specified is correct for both 
summer and winter. Where a change 
is recommended, it is wise to follow the 
Chart's advice. 

Write for new 56 -page booklet 
containing complete 
discussion of your 
lubrication problems, 
list of troubles with 
remedies and complete 
Charts of Recommend- 
ations for Automobiles, 
Motorcycles, T.^actors 
and Motor-boat En- 
gines. 



CORRECT AUTOMOBILE LUBRICATION 

Explanation: The four grades of Qargoyle Mobiloils, for gasoline engine 
lubrication, purified to remove free carbon, are: 



Gargoyle Mobiloil "A" 
Gargoyle Mobiloil "B" 



Gargoyle Mobiloil "E" 
Gargoyle Mobiloil "Arctic" 



In the Chart below, the letter opposite the car indicates the grade of Gargoyle 
Mobiloils that should be used. For example, "A" means Gargoyle Mobiloil 
"A," "Arc" means Gargoyle Mobiloil "Arctic," etc. The recommendations 
coverall models of both pleasure and commercial vehicles unless otherwise noted. 

This Chart is compiled by the Vacuum Oil Company's Board of Engineers 
and represents our professional advice on Correct Automobile Lubrication. 



Abbott-Detral 

■■ <«C)d) 

Alltn 

" (Mal.3j.j4-35). 
Apperv>n 

• («eyl) 

'Auburn (4 cyD 

.„ ' X6cifi,,. 

Briitoe 

- ' (Seyl) 

Buick.„ 

Cid^llac 

„ • (8c>!) 

C«se 

ClMlmer, . . j .... 

• (Mod. «-40). 

• (Mod. 6-jo). 

Chandler Six 

Chevrolet 

Cole „ . . 

• (Scyl) 

Dart 

■ (Mod-C) 

Dctroitcr 

• (Sol). ..... 

Dodse 

Don 

Empire (4 crU 

" (6c/l) 

Federal 

Ford 

rnmUiti 

IGrant,...,.- : 

Hayne, 

" (ucyl) 

Hudfon 

" (Super Si<) ... 
.Hupmobili 

I I.H C. («lr) 

!l H C.(Tvaier)(2cycl«: 

II HC.(wal«r)(4cycle) 

1 Interstate .. 

Jeflery 

■ (6cyU 

" Com'l 

i;inj 

■■ rstyl) 

" Cowl 

Kiuel Kai 

^J". . " Com'I 

, f ' (Mod 48) 



Kitael Kar.(licYlL.l 

.Lexington 

Locomobile 

McFarlao.^.^ ^ 

Marmofl . . 

M ajtweH 

MitcheH : 

Mitchell ilcyl) 

Moline 

" Knlrht...;.. 
Moi 



Aec, 



■A 
Ar&i 



At«. 
E 
Arc) 



Arc, 

Arc, 



Arc 
.Arc Alt, 



(4cyl) 

„ - (6eyl) 

National , . 

tllcyl) ... 

Oaklant! 

■ («cyl) 

Oldemobile 

: " (8cyi) 

Overland ...... 

(Packard 

• ("cyl) 

^ * Com'l 

raise 

" (6-4*) 

• (6-36S38) 

rathlinder 

, ■ (.jcyl).... 

fPeerlea 

I " (Sol)...:... 

'Pierce Arr^w. 

) " • Coml... 

Premier 

Uejal 

, ■ (8cyl) 

Reo 

SUion 

Stearns-Knight 

- - (8 Cyl) 

St^pbena 

Studtbaktr 

Stuii i« 

iVelic (4cyl)..* 

I " (*cyl) 

Weitcott 

ivj-it V-^- 
rWiIIy$feighr...:.", 

! WillyiSiJl 

WintOB 



4fC Arc 
X'Arc 



Arc. 
Hre. Ate. 
A Arc 



B 

Arc Arc. Kri 



Arc arc. ^c 



Art. Arc* = 



lie. ArcJ 
A ftrcj 
A Arcj 



Arc. Alt. Arc. Arc Arc Arc* . = 



fVfC 



Are. Arc/ 
A Ak- 



fk AkS 



A lArc/ 



YOUR TRACTOR 

also may tie lubricated efficiently with Gargoyle Mobiloil.s. On request « i- 
will mail you a separate Chart specifying the correct grade for each make ami 
model of tractor. 

VACUUM OIL COMPANY, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 



Specialitti in the manufacture of high-grade lubricant* for 
every clatt of machinery. Obtainable everywhere in the world 



Domattic 
Branchm*: 



Hoslcn 
Detroit 



lviiiiSB<! CUvt Kun. 
New York 



Philadelphia 
Chic>(o 



Minneapolis 
lr>4i»>*|x>ll> 



riiMbvflh 
l»e» I 



•nintiiiiiiiiiniiiitiititiiiiiHitnitiiiiitimniiMiiiiiiMnnMininitniMiiiniiiininmmiiMMMiMiiiiiiiriitMiiiiMiiHriiiiiiiiirMiriMMiiMrtHMiriiiiiiiHrniiil^ 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM. STOCK AND HOME. 



47 



"Making Good" Thru F., S. & H. | 

Second Prize Pioneer Storj', by Dorothea Shrtock. & 



Second Prize Winner in the F., S. 
£sf H, "Pioneer Stories" contest. How 
a girl and his favorite farm papet 
carried a prairie fanner to success. 

HIS father was a cabinetmaker in 
Indiana. The boy attended school 
from the time he was old enough 
until he was able to work for himself 
— not a very complete education, as 
that was at fourteen. From tliat 
time he worked in a bakery, fac- 
tory, for fifty cents per day, and on 
the farm for seventeen dollars a 
month in winter and ten in summer. 
The farm he liked best, and deter- 
mined to own one of his own some 
day. His only hope was to obey the 
injunction, "Young man, go west." Ac- 
cordingly, on his twenty-first birthday, 
December 20, 18S1, he reached Da- 
kota, not North or South Dakota, but 
just big, broad, Dakota Territory, part 
of the Great American Desert. His 
only capital was determination, good 
sense, and a hammer. But, as there 
were several claim shacks to be built 
he managed to convert some of this 
into dollars. With the money earned 
in this way he filed on a claim; and, 
because he had nothing else with 
which to build, he erected a sod shack. 
Advent of "The Nicest Girl." 
With the spring came many new 
families and in one was "the nicest 
girl." with dark eyes and black curls. 
He had known many girls "back East," 
good dancers, too, and he loved to 
dance, but the nicest girl was different. 
She did not dance, but she could sing, 
and in a few months had sung his 
heart away. She could cook, milk 
cows, drive horses or oxen. When she 
said, "Yes," his capital, determination, 
went far above par. 

Their first home was a 10x13 shack. 
Her father was in comfortablet cir- 
cumstances, but the nicest girl insist- 
ed that they would rise together. If 
they began at the bottom they would 
not be obliged to come down. Of 
course, they were poor, but she had a 
team of colts, he had two cows and a 
team of oxen purchased with money 
earned at twenty dollars a month. For 
fuel they burned the long slough grass, 
or cow chips. When he went to town, 
he drove thirty to forty-five miles with 
the team or oxen. 

Enter "The Nicest Baby" and Farm, 
Stock & Home. 
A year had passed and now the 
nicest baby lived there, too, for a son 
and heir had come to bless the home. 
While the young mother v/as still too 
weak to do much but read, a sample 
copy of the Farm, Stock and Home 
fell into her hands. It was eagerly 
read by both the young father and 
mother. Every department, from 
Chopped Feed to the Advertisements, 
seemed to be just what they needed, 
for the young husband really knew 
very little about running a farm for 
himself, being a city boy. 

The Home Council was exactly what 
the mother needed to teil her how to 
care for the new life which had been 
entrusted to them. It told her how to 
raise poultry, make garden, can fruit 
and a thousand things she had not 
needed before. But this number was 
only a sample copy, and the Septem- 
ber number, and where could they se- 
cure the fifty cents with which to sub- 
scribe? Their groceries v/ere obtained 
in trade for butter and eggs, but in 
those days it was hard to get even 
two cents in cash, with which to mail 
a letter. But, Oh joy, with October 
came another sample copy. Another 
came in November. In December, 
when Christmas came, the wife's pres- 
ent to her husband was a subscription 
to "Farm, Stock and Home." She felt 
a trifle selfish, for it would mean as 
much to her as to him, but she knew 
it was what he wanted most. 

All was going nicely when in 1888 
came the Big Blizzard from which old- 
timers date all events. Things hap- 
pened before or after the Big Bliz- 
zard. Every thins seemed lost. Some 
of the little herd of cattle had per- 
ished and things looked discouraging. 
But still as the "Farm, Stock and 
Home" made its monthly visit. It 
brought comfort and encouragement. 
Getting Started In Pure-Bred Stock, 
As the y</'.vr, passed, the "Farm 
'-'.tock and l!.;n:?;" continued to pay its 
t -ular visit. This friend recomrnend- 
■ pure blooi) stock and In time the 
rm was ku'jwn for mWc^ around for 
' ;h incoino. "I'arm, Stock and Home" 



its fine Poland China hogs, which 
usually brought a good price at pri- 
vate sale. It also told the value of 
a few good milch cows; accordingly, 
a separator was obtained and the 
cream checks began to yield a regular 
told how to conserve moisture, and as 
South Dakota, as it had now become, 
is sometimes dry, this was important. 
My hero became one of the best farm- 
ers in the country. Pure-bred Barred 
Plymouth Rocks also replaced the 
scrubby mongrels. 

About three miles from the farm a 
beautiful little village had grown 'up 
at the foot of the hills and is now wa- 
tered by natural springs. 

Money No Longer Hard to Get. 
"Farm, Stock and Home" is still a 



welcome visitor at Spring Valley 
Farm, but it is no longer hard to ob- 
tain money to pay the subscription. 
This farm, which my hero now owns, 
consists of a half section of fertile 
Jerauld county land. The farm has a 
splendid set of fine buildings, beauti- 
ful trees and driveways. It is well 
stocked and instead of driving oxen 
my hero now drives a Buick. He has 
an interest in the Farmers' Bank, the 
Farmers' Elevator and buys Liberty 
Bonds. The Farmers' Union, of which 
he is secretary, helps him sell his 
grain and buy his coal and fruit. 

An Ideal Farm Home. 

The two youngest of the eight chil- 
dren are high school girls, who drive 
to town three miles away, the county 
seat. A new high school, which is to 
be the best equipped in the state, is 
being constructed for their use. When 
the supper dishes are done and study 
time comes, they do their studying by 
acetylene gas with which the house is 
lighted. Some of the older children 



have left the Old Homestead to be- 
come teachers or home makers. But 
my hero still lives on the same old 
place with the Nicest Girl, and the 
homestead is now an Eden of trees, 
vines and flowers, to which we still 
love to return when duty permits us, 
for my hero is — my father, and the 
"Nicest Girl" is also the "Nicest 
Mother." 



Winter Wheat and Rye Area Larger. 
— C. P. Bull, associate agronomist ia 
charge of co-operative seed production 
and distribution, Minnesota College of 
Agriculture, estimates the increase in 
acreage planted to rye in Minnesota 
this fall of ten per cent; and he says 
there is probably an increase of 8,ClO 
to 10,000 acres in winter wheat. Plans 
are being laid for as large an increase 
as possible in the spring grains and 
extra efforts will be put forth to con- 
serve livestock and, all classes of ma- 
terial during 1918. 



Champion of Mighty Yields 

for Over 30 Years! 

"PACH year, for over 30 years, mighty yields have been 

grown on Hayes-planted fields. In 1917 the same record was 
repeated on thousands of acres. No other planter in the world can 
duplicate this record! Because no other planter in the world can 
duplicate "human hand" care and accuracy of the Hayes. 

Each hill you plant by ordinary methods has seven chances of be- 
coming a "bare spot"— a "waste" spot ! These are : 

(1) Seed planted too deep! (2) Seed planted too shallow! (3) Hills 
missed by the drop! (4) Hills left uncovered. (5) Seed killed in the 
hopper. (6) Hills washed out. (7) Uneven planting in wet places. 

One little "bare spot" in every 20 hills planted means a dead loss 
of one acre out of every 20 planted! Two out of 40! SK OUT OF 
120! For big yields you must overcome all seven causes of "bare spots." Over 
200,000 com growers, prominent agricultural colleges and big cahning companies 
in the Com Belt can tell you it is done, year after year, by the famous 



Four-wheel PLANTER 



Plants to Exact Depth! MaYli 

depth of planting TO THB FRACXiON OF 
AN INCH. Runners set back between the 
wheels WITHIN TEN INCHES OF THB 
COVERING POINT! Shoe rides every hump 
and hollow with the wheelsl Every kerne) ia 
planted the exaetdepfh on level or most un- 
even ground. ••BARE SPOTS" caused by 
uneveD plantiDg are prevented. 




Hayes Drop "Never Fails'* 



Perfect Checking ^Wlill 



Covers Like Human Hands-el?t'h 

over corn LIKE SKILLFUL HANDS, packs 
it FIRMLY on sides. leaving loose ridge on 
top so tender shoots can easily break through. 
Hayes ridge holds more moisture and presents 
30 per cent more surface to sun. Firmly 
packed Bides prevent washouts on hilly places. 

Never 

misses 

a hilll Simple, practical, durable, few parts. 
Nothing hidden. No clutch to viiss and cause 
trouble. Handles any size or shajpe kcrnelt 
Will not grind or crack the corn I 

ows 

_ ghter 

than the way you drive. That's how 
uccurately the Hayes Four- Wheel 
checks regardless of team speed. You 
can't tell a "walk-planted" from a 
"trot-plnnted" section in the same 
Hayes field. 

Works ia Wet Places ^i%fou 

can get into tho fieUl days earlier. Never 
cIoj?3— even in vpct, sticky soil— never picks 
up seed. Wheels automatically clean them- 
selveai always present a clean, bright eorface. 

A Lifetime of Service fo^^wtt^ ¥illf. 

era have been in use for 30, 25 and IS years — ifilli 
practicrUy no expense for repairs. One Hayes 
wser reports COc repairs in 20 yearst Another had 
Dsed his Hayes for 20 consecutive eeasona with a 
repair expense of only 70 cents. 

Get Our Big Planter Book 

The most vital book on planting ever 
written. Explains facts about loss due 
to "bare spots" that will astonish 
you. Pictures and proves the 
superiority of theHayesFour- Wheel 
System — gives experiences of prom- 
inent corn growers that will as- 
tound you. Write for the book. 
There's no cost. Then see the 
Hayes on your dealer's floor. 

HAYES PUMP & PLANTER CO., Dept.ir Galva, lU. 



43 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



LIVE STOCK DEPARTMENT 



BY D. A. GAUMNITZ. 



PATRIOTIC STEERS. 

BY PAUL D. HAMMETT. 

"I have purchased a Liberty Bond 
for myself and each momber of my 
family. I have subscribed to the Red 
Cross and the Y. M. C. A., and now I 
am forcing my live stock to be patrio- 
tic in their feed demands. I observe 
the wheatless days myself and so I 
see no reason why my steers should 
not do their bit' in saving all avail- 
a" e feed for the nations which are 
soi-oly in need of it." 

The above is the statement of a Min- 
nesota feeder at one of the principal 
markets recently. 

"My steers are patriotic because 
they have made good gains, at the 
time the government is making an 
urgent appeal for more meat and they 
did this without tasting corn. They 
never had hay and never were on 
pasture," he continued. 

"Some months ago I read an article 
In one of the farm magazines which 
advocated the making of steers for 
the markets with the use of as little 
grain as possible, so that this grain 
might be saved for human consump- 
tion. At that time I had prepared to 
buy a drove of cattle for a 60-day feed 
and it occurred to me that then was 
the time to be patriotic in my live 
stock feeding as well as in my other 
activities. 

"The steers seemed to enter into 
the spirit of the experiment in patri- 
otic feeding and made better than 150 
pounds each or two and one-half 
pounds daily gain. 

■'In these war times it is the man 
who feeds the smallest amount of the 
hish-price feeds and the greatest 
amount of substitutes and still puts 
on the gains, who is doing the most 
for himself and his country. He is 
mixing business with patriotism 
neither to the detriment of his busi- 
ness or the belittling of his patriotism. 

"We can conserve our gain to an 
enormous extent by feeding as little 
corn as possible and using oats, bar- 
ley, rye, and roughages, coupled with 
cottonseed or oil meal. By conserv- 
ing our grain we are doing a great 
service for our country and at the 
same time making money for our- 
selves." 

Feede.'"s Realize That Situation Is 
Serious. 

This feeder, who has willingly told 
his plan of making beef at the lowest 
possible cost, is aware of the serious 
conditions which confront the live 
stock men of this country. Many, in 
fact thousands, went out of the live 
slock game when corn rose to un- 
precedented levels, in the belief that 
finished animals could not possibly 
sell at high enough prices to let them 
out with a margin of profit. This 
year much of the corn was hit by 
frost and the silos are getting millions 
of bushels of corn that otherv/ise 
would have gone to the elevators. 
Silage is going to make up the big 
bulk of the feeding rations in the mid- 
dle v.'Gst this year. This feeder is 
cognizant of the fact that it is the 
duty of each farmer to save as much 
of the grain as possible, lie reasoned 
it out for himself that meat was food 
true enough, but what was the use of 
feeding $2.00 corn to animals to make 



Through 
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RAUMIZDO STOVE CO.,Mfn. 
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GUARANTEE Government prices on 
A . * D V? It and iron do not al- 

Aealnst Reduction ,^^4 contracts which the 
IN PRICES milU had before price* 
r a\M\^ai.i9 „ere fixed by the rov- 
cmment. As these contracts are <.t much hiuher 
prices, and will take the output of the larf^cr mills 
(or many months we do not sec any possibility (or 
lower prices on stoves and furnaces than those we 
now quote. But if by any chance should we be 
;il>lc to reduce our prices before July 1st, 1918, 
we guarantee to refund you the difference lietween 
(l>e new price and the price you pay. Write today. 
Kn'amazoo Slove Co., Mfrs., Kalamazoo, Mich 



food v,'hon they would make nearly if 
not fully as good gains on 60-cent 
oats, and oil meal, cottonseed, gluten 
and other feeds, costing about two 
cents a pound. 

Wastes Tl-iat Could Be Utilized. 

Experts, who take pleasure in delv- 
ing into facts and figures, much too 
intricate for the layman, have esti- 
mated that American farmers an- 
nually waste $100,000,000 worth of 
feeds. This waste is not first hand, 
but it is the by-products that can be 
turned into money. Stover, straw, 
weeds, meadow aftermath and the like 
can be turned into meat, with but 
little cost. It may be that when this 
country has been in the war as long 
as has En:T,land, which we are praying 
an all-wise Providence may forbid, 
American farmers will come to the 
realization that every particle of avail- 
able food must be used to produce 
meat. 

England has been slaughtering her 
herds and flocks since the start of the 
war for the simple reason that she 
considered land which formerly had 
grown feeds for live stock, too valu- 
able for this purpose now. 

In the South today, and this has been 
true for years and years, millions of 
tons of cottonseed are wasted an- 
nually. The seeds are used as fer- 
tilizer, whereas if they were fed to 
stock in the form of meal, together 
with grass and hay, they would make 
good beef and at the same time the 
manure would have had the fertiliz- 
ing value of the seed in the first place. 

In the United States the straw pro- 
duction is approximately 120,000,000 
tons. About one-third of this is 
plowed under, burned or sold away 
from the farms, the remaining two- 
thirds being used for bedding and 
feeding live stock. If this straw which 
is burned or turned under, were fed, 
or used for bedding, it would have a 
greater fertilizing value. ^ 

The corn stover production is 245,- 
253,000 tons. Of this about 81 per 
cent is fed to live stock, the remain- 
ing 19 per cent being burned, plowed 
under or sold away from the farm. 
All fertilizing value is lost with the 
stover that is not fed to stock and 
the manure given back to the soil. 
Corn stalks may be shredded to good 
advantage, or may be ensiled and fed 
economically. 

As I have talked to successful farm- 
ers recently I have found that prac- 
tically all of them are coming to use 
all material that in years gone by 
has gone to waste. This is an age 
of specialization and this is true in no 
greater degree any place than on the 
farm. Land has increased in value 
and this has taken taxes along with 
it. Help is more expensive. Farm 
machinery is more expensive and con- 
sequently, the farmer who does not 
watch every possible point is not the 
successful farmer of his neighborhood 
or district. 

Continuing, this Minnesota live 
stock feeder, who is one of the lead- 
ers in food conservation in his dis- 
trict and the whole of the corn belt 
as well said: 

"When I bought the steers, which 
did so well on the patriotic feeding 
experiment, they averaged 1,130 
pounds and cost $9.75 and they had 
some 'fill' when I bought them. The 
ration fed them averaged 20 pounds 
of gluten, 5 pounds of oil meal and 
one-third of a bushel of oats, with all 
of the oats straw they would eat. 

"The cattle sold for $13.25 at the 
end of 60 days and averaged 1,288 
pounds. The gluten cost $612, oats 
$200, oil meal $138, and the straw 
about $5, making a total of $955. With 
my marketing and freight bill the 
total cost was around $1,000. Figur- 
ing about 5 per cent of the feed bill 
to pork, the transaction will net me 
more than $400. Rather a nice pay 
for two month's work." 




THE OUTLOOK FOR PORK. 

To Farm, .Stock and Home: 

The situation at present iooks to me 
to be somewhat difficult owing largely 
to the shortage of food. Cor.i is scarce 
and mill feeds are at a premium. 

Most farmers in my vicinity came 
thru this last disastrous soa.son with 
only a half crop of corn or less. In 
fact, much corn in shock is bein-r fed 
to cattle, the presumption being that 
It is not worth husking. I, however, 
tried to diHpose ot all my softer com 



Cutting Two Blades 
Where One Was Cut Before 

THE E-B (Standard) Mower cuts a swath any width up to eight feet wide. It's 
the criminal successful 8 ft. cut mower. Also made in 4^2, 5, 6 and 7 
ft. sizes. Practically saves half of your mowing cost by cutting twice as much 
grass in the same time. As easy on the horses as cultivating corn. Compensating 
lever and spring carries the cutter bar on| i ■ . 



icvci auu sprins carries tne cutter oar onr" 
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draft and weifxht on horses' necks — 
lengthens life of machine. 
"The success of the 8 ft., the most difficult 
size to build, insures excellence in the 
smaller sizes. 

Since 1852, the date of the founding of 
this company, the Standard Mower now 
known as the E-B has been the true 
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machine construction. 

Whenever you need anythinsr la farm Machinery, 
look for it under the E-B tracJemf.rk. It shows the 
way to better, more profitable fr.rmingr. Ask your 
dealer for E-B Implement Company goods wliea 
ynu visit bis store or mention the machine in 
which you are interested and we will mail facts. 
Also field views and sii"frcs(lons for use as 
prepared by the E-B Asrricultural Extension Dept. 

Emerson-Brantingham Implement Co. , Inc. 

Good Farm Machinery Established 1852 < 

ROCKFORD. ILUNOIS 



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Prosperity 

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F.-B (limersu.i) L.-CiccPlowa 

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IV GALLOWAY'S 

NEW IDEA for 1918 

—a Demonstrataon Plan 

My New 1918 Demonstration Plan will 
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engine it means big money in your pocket 

to be the first from your locality to write and learn how 
this great new demonstration plan enables you to 

PartSy or Entirely Pay for Your Engine 

Someone in your locality is going to be shrewd enough, think quickly enough 

to grab up this big money-saving opportunity the moment he reads this announcement. This 
offer i3 limited— I can make it to bat one in a locality. If you don't want to misa makmgr thia 
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new money-saving Demonstration Flan. 

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In my New 1918 Book I tell you why— I give 
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American farmers millions of dollars. It 
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BUY HOW — Pay After Kent Harvoct 

By ordering: direct from meyou not only save 
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WRITE for 1918 
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and Details of 
Demonstration Plan 

Don't buy any engine until you 
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^ WWI- GALLOWAY COMPANY 

^ 1 1 Galloway station WATKHLOO. IOWA 




CreaLin CreaLin CreaLin 

Yotir ( Mns and clii-i k n"! iirn«>d n\. onco. 
Write fiT (jiKituMoiiH 11 'id l:l^'S. 
MINNESOTA MILK «■ BUTTER COMPANY, 
2S30 NIcollsl Avonuo, MInnealpols, Minn 

IMentlou thla paper 1 



■\VlM.lAMSON & MKUCMIANT, (Jils. F. 



Williamson aud Fr.nnk D. Merchant), patent 
attoni«\ H and sollcUorH; main offloo, 929 931 
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January 13, 1318. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



49 



before winter set in again, reserving 
the harder corn for winter use. The 
hogs seemed to thrive on tlie soft 
corn provided they were allowed their 
fill of it. In fact, they put on as good 
gains as in normal years. 

But right here I wish to emphasize 
a great and important essential in hog 
production, viz.: No profit can bje 
made with sci-uhby, thriftless, runty 
hogs. 

The first thing to do to secure the 
right kind of hogs is to have a hardy, 
growthy, vigorous registered sire at 
the head of the herd. I say registered 
because registered hogs have a uni- 
form line of improved hogs behind 
them. Here is where most farmers 
fall down. They buy a boar because 
he is cheap, not looking for the quality 
in a hog which could bring dollars to 
his pockets. They thus become a pro- 
ducer of piggy pigs. 

Tlie second thing to do is to see 
that the gilts you select for brood 
sows are the right sort, the biggest 
thriftiest ones in the lot. Do not re- 
tain the small ones simply because 
they do not command the market pork 
price of the others. 

The third point is to provide as 
early farrowing pens as possible and 
to see that the young pigs have south 
side pens to exercise in. Ground oats 
and middlings are fine for young pigs. 

As early as possible I like to have 
the young pigs roam in clover fields 
with a shelled corn ration to keep 
them in good vigorous condition — 
some use tankage. The larger the 
plot the greater the chances of bone 
development. My hogs have a nat- 
ural v^allow in a creek which runs 
thru the lot. 

When the com fields ripen sufli- 
ciently the hogs are given access to 
it in the customary fashion until the 
time comes to select the breeding gilts. 
We plan to dispose of our market 
hogs the first part of January when 
our hogs of March and April farrow 
weigh from 300 to 350 pounds. 

I have recently built a hog house, 
30x50 feet, providing 15 individual 
pens 8x10 feet. I believe that with 
clean, well-lighted, sanitary quarters 
two 01^ perhaps three more pigs may 
be raised in each litter. One spring 
litter is all we demand of each sow 
altho we at times raise fall litters. 

I have selected the Duroc-Jersey 



breed as the kind best typifying my 
wants in the hog line. Naturally, 
hardy with a strong back and legs, I 
find them most adapted to general 
farm conditions. One must always, 
however, select the most select, the 
most improved strains with the point 
in mind of producing the most hog 
with the least money. 

We are keeping thru this winter fif- 
teen registered brood sows of the best 
improved type and breeding and have 
mated them to a boar which stands 
for our ideal in the hog line. They 
will be fed a warm slop v/ith shorts 
and a little bran added, also corn 
enough to keep them in good growing 
condition. 

Even for the novice there is noth- 
ing disnuieting in the future outlook 
with a pork price set at thirteen times 
the cash corn price for a bushel of 
corn for each hundred-weight of hog. 

Bennett I. Meljn. 

Goodhue County, Minn. 



CHAMPION STEER AT THE INTERNATIONAL 

BY PAUL D. HAMMETT. 

This year's grand champion steer 
was shown by the Purdue University 
of Lafayette, Ind., and this superb 
animal was the popular choice of the 
rail birds. 

Merry Monarch, the champion, was 
a pure-bred Shorthorn, was two years 
old and the first pure-bred animal to 
win the premier honors of the beef 
show at the International. Capt. T. E. 
Robson of Canada made the award 
and his decision was met with wave 
after wave of handclapping and cheers 
of approbation. 

The 1917 grand champion was a 
beauty both from the butchers' and 
breeders' standpoint. It won easily 
in the Shorthorn class in which it was 
shown. In the show for champion 
Shorthorns the judge eliminated the 
two-year-old and put the purple on the 
yearling. This youngster also was 
from Purdue University, which school 
furnished all the first prize bullocks 
of the breed. It was a splendid v*iu- 
ning and never has been equalled. 
The first five prize steers all were 
sired by the same bull, Lavander 
Sultan, a grandson of the famous 
Whitehall Sultan. 

In the grade and cross-bred steers 



there was good, strong competition 
all the way. Capt. Robson, wlio acted 
as judge here found in a tidy grade 
Hereford calf, shown by W. L. Yost 
of Kansas City, Mo., his choice for the 
grand championship. By many tho 
Yost steer was thought to have cham- 
pionship claims over all steers but 
Capt. Robson found him somewhat 
lac'King in depth and smoothness of 
covering when he went into competi- 
tion with the two-year-old Shorthorn. 

In the contest by ages the Yost steer 
managed to get to the top and in so 
doing he beat the Shorthorn calf of 
Purdue. With this change in the sit- 
uation. Shorthorn men became some- 
what alarmed but thoy still had one 
card to play in the two-year-old cham- 
pion, which, in the meantime, had won 
out in a close contest with the splen- 
did pure-bred Hereford from Kansas 
Agricultural College, which was made 
reserve. 

When the final test came Capt. Rob- 
son went over the wonderful line and 
it was then, after careful handling 
and balancing of points, that he made 
his decision which settled the cham- 
pionship for 1917. 

"The grand champion steer, is a 
marvelous fellow," said Capt. Robson 
to a representative of FARM, STOCK 
& HOME, immediately after making 
his decision. "He is a wonder for 
depth and smoothness of covering 
and is in the pink of condition. He 
also moves and acts like a champion 
and but rarely do we find a steer so 
trim in his lines and so free of waste. 
While he did not carry, perhaps, the 
thickness over the shoulder of some 
of the other steers, notably his stall- 
mate, he was very uniform and re- 
markably true over the rump and 
loin." 

"Merry Monarch, a Secret by La- 
vander Sultan, weighed 1,610 pounds 
in the show ring. He was dropped in 
pasture in the summer of 1915 and ran 
^7ith his dam until the snow came," 
said Dean Skinner of Purdue, in speak- 
ing of the champion. "He never had 
an extra nurse cow and never was 
pampered at any time. The first win- 
ter found him in a big stall with his 
stallmate, munching clover hay, corn 
silage and receiving a light ration of 
cracked corn, ground oats and a little 
oil meal. 

"The following summer he continued 



m. 



Enables 1 Man to 
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Men and 12 Horses 

DOES quicker work. Plows 
an acre an hour with 
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Does better work. Every fur- 
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Does cheaper work. No wages 
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The Huber Light Four is the 
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43/ Center St« Marion, Ohio 



Puffer-Hubbard Mfg. Co's Silos 



The Minneapolis Panel Silo 



The Hooplock Stave Silo 




Better Construction and 
Stronger than Ever 

WE make both styles of silos at 
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We have made the Minneapolis Panel 
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MinneapoU* Panel Silo 



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Channel Hoops lock and dowel staves 
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Wrife for deacriptive literature 
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Puffer-Hubbard Mfg. Co., 

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r 


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Hooplock Stave Sito 

(Patent applied for) 



60 



PAPvM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



to receive the same grain ration while 
running in blue grass pasture. About 
the first of January, 1917, his grain 
ration was increased gradually, lie 
was fed twice daily until June 1, and 
since then has been fed three times 
daily, consisting of cracked corn, 
ground oats and a little ground bar- 
ley. About Sept. 1, cooked rye was 
added in the evening while the amount 
of corn was decreased gradually. 

"During the last six weeks before 
the show his ration consisted of six 
to eight bushels of cracked corn, three 
to five pounds of ground oats, a light 
feed of cooked rye, about ten pounds 
of good corn silage in two feeds and 
a little clover hay in the evening. 
This steer never was off feed and was 
used in the judging classes of the col- 
lege during the entire school year." 



INTERNATIONAL SIDELIGHTS 

BY PAUL D. HAMMETT. 

J. H. Sheppard, dean of the North 
Dakota Agricultural College was in 
charge of the Students' Judging Con- 
test again. His work in this field has 
been the occasion of much favorable 
comment from International patrons 
and visitors. 

A senior yearling, shown by the 
University of Minnesota was picked 
by Joseph P. Green of Gregory, Texas, 
for championship fat Hereford honors. 
This steer made a good showing in 
the contest for champions by ages. 

In the carlot show of the Inter- 
national A. M. Mitchell, Heckla, So. 
Dak., won first place in the calves in 
the cattle division with his sweet 
Angus babies, second in the yearling 
class of the North Central district 
and second with his calves in the 
class of champion by ages. 

In the sheep division of the carlot 
Bhow R. E. Catton of White Pigeon, 
Mich., won first and second in the 
class of range sheep. 

The extreme range for the lots of 
sheep in the carlot division, which 
were sold at auction was $14.25 @ 
$22.00. Competition was keen in all 
the sales and the prices paid were 
the highest on record. The highest 
load of the show was the Heart's De- 
light Farm's entry of first prize 
native lambs and they went to Wil- 
son & Co., at $22. First prize native 
yearlings went to Swift & Co., at $15 
and the first prize range yearlings 
were taken by the same packer at 
$15.50. First prize range wethers 
went to Morris & Co., at $14.25. In 
all there were 33 loads, divided as fol- 
lov/s: Eighteen loads of range lambs, 
7 loads of native lambs, 4 range year- 
lings, 2 native yearlings and 2 loads 
of range wethers. The first prize 
native lambs were of the Southdown 
breed and came from New York, it 
being the first entry from that state 
in the history of the International. 
The grand champion load of the show 
was shown by A. J. Knollin of Soda 
Springs, Idaho. It was a load of 



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Shropshire range lambs and were not 
sold being shipped to Denver where 
they will be shown in January. 

Twenty loads of hogs entered in 
the carlot division of the show sold at 
an average of $18.90. The grand 
champion load, 52 hogs, averaging 332 
pounds, bred and fed by T. E. Burner 
of Augusta, 111., sold at $21.25, estab- 
lishing a new record for all time. 
Bidding was brisk for the champion 
load but the successful packer 
"nickeled" or "quartered" out all com- 
petition. Just two loads sold above 
$19.75 and only one load went below 
$18.00. In 1916 the average for the 
"show" hogs was $10.95 which was a 
record up until that time. 

Hudcroft Farm of Monticello, Minn., 
on an imported mare, Kasbah, won 
third in the class of aged mares in 
the Percheron show. This farm also 
won second in the class of fifteen 
yearlings on Sarah Belle, which, was 
made first prize in the futurity con- 
test. 

Minnesota's staff of live stock ex- 
tension men was represented at the 
show by Will McKerrow, of the widely 
known McKerrow sheep family. 

One of the western draft horse men 
at the show was G. A. Ford of Parker, 
S. Dak. He says that in his section 
of the country the horse business has 
been picking up lately and the Novem- 
ber sales were much better than a 
year ago. At no time have things been 
dull out there, he added Belgians are 
in growing demand but Percherons 
sell strong as always. 

The public sale of registered Gal- 
loways held in connection with the 
International closed with a general 
average of $393 on the 19 head sold. 
This is one of the best averages which 
has been made in International Gal- 
loway sales for years. The offerings 
were small but the cattle were proper 
representatives of the breed. The top 
price of the auction was $1,200 paid 
by Isaac Lincoln of Aberdeen, S. D., 
for the two-year-old bull Picador 2nd 
sold by R. W. Brown, secretary of the 
Galloway Breeders' Association, at 
CarroUton, Mo. The seller of this 
bull was the buyer of the second high 
animal in the auction, when he paid 
$850 for the five-year-old bull Emperor 
of Drumlanrig, sold by Isaac Lincoln. 



FITTING CATTLE FOR THE SALE RING. 

BY W. A. FREEHOFF. 

The writer has attended sales where 
dairy cattle were driven fresh from 
June pasture to the sale grounds many 
miles distant, and offered to critical 
buyers the following day. Then, be- 
cause the gaunt and ill-kept appear- 
ance of the cows kept them down to 
a low selling average, the consignors 
went home in high dudgeon, complain- 
ing that the public sale is a graft prop- 
osition. 

That sale cattle must be properly 
fitted in order to sell well is a lesson 
that many breeders learn only after 
similar costly experiment. While I do 
not claim that fitting alone will sell a 
cow, but if the animal is a first-class 
individual and really worth a high 
price, fitting" will help mightily in se- 
curing that price. 

Fitting a dairy cow is not such a 
hard matter. The nub of the proposi- 
tion really lies in the feed bin. A 
dairy animal must be grain fed, and 
fed liberally, so as to be well fieshed. 
A good conditioned cow will also have 
naturally a sleek hide and glossy ap- 
pearance. 

Many consignors believe that clip- 
ping a sale animal is all there is to 
the fitting game. Clipping is only 
done by the man who did not have 
time to start fitting his herd until a 
few days before the sale. Then, by 
running the clippers over the animals 
the wild and woolly look may be elimi- 
nated and the animal made half way 
presentable. On the other hand, clip- 
ping will show up lack of flesh and any 
little blemishes of the hide. Again, 
many buyers object to clipped cattle 
in fall or winter, because they are 
more subject to pneumonia and other 
diseases due to exposure. A cow 
clipped in winter will shiver like a 
leaf even if kept in a warm stable, un- 
less she is blanketed. 

Most breeders do not clip their con- 
signments at all, but make warm, felt- 
Uned blankets take the place of the 
clippers. Neither are the cattle put 
on pasture, but are fed in the barn on 
less succulent feeds, in order to keep 
the skin naturally oily. After a cow 
has been stable fed and blanketed for 
six or eight weeks, and her hide 
groomed daily, she will have a skin 
and hair as soft and lustrous as silk. 
A few days before the sale it will be 
merely necessary to clip tiio head. 





Famont 

the 
World 
Over 




Never Before Have 
Silo FiUers Been Built 
the Case Way 

In sturdiness and construction, in ability to do good 
fast work, Case Silo Fillers cannot be equaled. 

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A simple gear-shift permits cutting four different 
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Case Silo Fillers are made in three sizes — the 12- 
inch, with a capacity of 8 to 12 tons per hour; the 
16-inch, with a capacity of 15 to 20 tons per hour, 
and the 20-inch, with a capacity of 20 to 30 tons per 
hour. This affords a size for any silo, 

A complete description of Case Silo Fillers, with 
pictures, will be sent free upon request. Don't buy 
any Silo Filler until you have investigated the Case. 

J. I. CASE THRESHING MACHINE CO., Inc. 

- -^-^^ (Founded 1842) 

^^^^ ^ 742 Erie Street, Racine, Wis. 



Send for This Descriptive Printed Mattel — All Free 

Below are listed the different series of booklets and folders. 
Tell us which interest you. 



1— Kerosene Tractors 

2 — Steam Tractors 

3— Grand Detour Plows 

4— Threshers 

Or, l£ you wish, ask for our General Catalog, describins 
the entire Case line. It is free. 



5— Hay Balers 

6— Si!o FiUers 

7— Road Machinery 

8 — Automobiles 



Write 
Today 



ybii re Throwinp Tldney Away- 



if you don't water your stock properly. In Winter, cold water decreases the milk supply of 
cows and the pork-producing capacity of hogs. In Summer they need cool, fresh, clean wa- 
ter. Your stock will do 20% better on the same amount of feed, if you install an 

Sanitary Freezable Stock Waterer 

The "All- Year-Round" Waterer. Automatic feed. Guar- 
anteed non-freezable in 40 degrees below zero weatlier. Re- 
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short time. Lasts a lifetime. Saves time and labor. Simple, 
practical and inexpensive to operate. At your dealer's; if not, 
write us. Shipped ready to use, freight prepaid. Get our 
Money-back guarantee and catalog of O-K Hog Feeders, Sun- 
Lilo Windows. Cupolas, etc. 

PHILLIP BERNARD CO.. 2317 Floyd Ave., SIOUX CITY, IOWA. 




INVENT! 



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Send postal for Vroo iiook tells 
what to Invoni and how to obtain a 
PalonI thru Our Credit Systom. S>'nd Skolrh. KreO 
Opinion us to rau^nlabllliy. TALBERT & PARKER. 
Pal. Lawyers, 4288 Talborl Bldg., Woshlnalon, D. C, 



FREE PATENT BOOK 

T.IU how to lnv«nl, how lo p«t«nt. .nd how lo aall youi p.ltm 
'nKhta. You will .tw w.nl to r.c«iv. r«gul.rly our fr*t bullount 
IliUnil hundrad, of invgnUoni wanted Sond tlnlck lor lr«r 
opinion end Ut u* h«lp mtrli«l your invention Beet reft 

LANCASTER « ALLWINE, PATENT AnOWIEYS 

OURAY BUILDING. WASHmiiTON. D C. 




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C'laHnlUcil coluiupK of !<",, S. A H. 




Inventions Wanted! 

Manufacturers constantly wrftins iM 
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WatsonE. Coleman, /Ai»'y<fr.Washiii^ton,D'C 



PATENTS 



January T5. 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



51 



ears, tatl and flank, and polish the 
horns. 

Polishing the horns is not difficult. 
First go over them with a rather fine 
rasp, follow with some broken glass, 
and ending up with sand paper. A 
final polishing with a mixture of emery 
dust and sweet oil will give the horns 
that glossy appearance so much ap- 
preciated. There are other methods, 
but this one is the most common and 
verv satisfactory. 

To give the tail a nice, flnffy ap- 
peance it should be carefully combed 
out some weeks in advance, and then 
a week before the sale, braided. Aft- 
er the braid is relelised the tail will 
have those fluffy, flowing lines that 
add so much to the appearance of the 
animal. 

It goes without saying that the cat- 
tle must be absolutely clean, and tha" 
thoro washing is essential. Do npi 
wait until the last minute, however, 
before trying to remove barn stains. 
That may require several weeks, so 
begin the washing in time. Then, on 
sale day. it will be an easy matter to 
lead your charges into the ring clean 
and immaculate. 

If you have neither the time nor the 
facilities to St your stuff right, at 
least put them into the barn a weel; 
before the sale, and keep them there 
Clipping should be done at least si.\ 
or seven days previously, or else the 
cattle will have an obvious "naked" 
appearance that is objectionable. 

Beginning at least a month before 
the sale, every animal should be. care- 
fully halter broken. Unless heifers 
are given this training they will very 
likely be "bad actors" and cause all 
sorts of trouble. Nothing is more dis- 
concerting at a sale than to have an 
animal half dragged, half pulled in by 
the combined might of half a dozen 
men. Such animals cannot be made 
to stand proijerly in the sale ring even 
after they are brought in. 



THE eOG SITUATION. 

As Farmers See It 

The following letters indicate how 
hog men are planning to meet the 
present demand for increased hog pro- 
duction and how the situation looks to 
them viewed from the farm: 

Mr. William Weist, Le Sueur Coun- 
ty, Minn., writes: 
To Farm, Stock and Home: 

My opinion as to the present and 
future outlook for hc^i^ is that it never 
has been any better* than at present, 
and win, I believe, be still better in 
the future, as there is a shortage of 
hogs in all sections of the country. 
Too many hogs went to market that 
were not finisbed for market this. year, 
and the high price encouraged many 
breeders to sell off their breeding 
stock too closely. 

1 feed my hogs about one-half 
ground oats and one half corn, some 
shorts added for the little fellov/s, and 
a little oil meal and a little tankage 
which fumistieg the necessary protein 
to grow bone and muscle. The oats 
I grind has some wheat in it. I always 
itut a 12-quart pail full of wheat mixed 
in one sack of oats when I seed the 
oats. This makes a very good mixture 
when ground as the v-hoat in the oats 
furnishes the necessary protein by 
having the brr>n and shorts and flour 
of the wheat in the oat^s. I keep old 
mature sov.s, all rfc.^ittered Poland 
Chinas and raise tWo large litters from 
them every year. Am housing 100 
pigs thru the winter. 

I house them in a building 24 feet 
by 116 feet long. Have 26 pens, SxlO 
feet and 26 windows in fhe roof. Have 
one windov/ f'jr each i-en that lets the 
sunlight in each pea. Have sheathed 
my hog hoi'i e outside with 6-inch 
matched floor^nj^, then paper and gal- 
vanized Siheatiaug over this. Then I 
have the hou.se sheafhod with 6-inch 
flooring all over inside, on the stud- 
'Hngs and ui.dcr the rafters. This 
makoH an :j.\r ^i -vce all ai'ound. Have 
plank floor r': r.ver and a ventilator 
in every otiior v/indow which I can 
opfin and shut a3 I sec fit.' At far- 
rowing tim.e 1 have a stove in the hog 
house. 

I think tbe Farmers' SMppIng As- 

.'oci-'Hori;! arc all ri^ht altho I am not 
fihipr ir.g with them as I boM n«Hily all 
my hiiJH as stock hogs, about ILO each 
year, 

Geo. A. Arrducn, herdsman for Ames 
IlroB , WabasTia County, Minn., writes: 
To Farm, Stcfk and IIom«: 

Wc thin?< t T <; haa never been a 
timf! in th': ; ry of the past when 
the outlool 'r,y Jjog rai-torB was rnorc 





THE 




Wide 
Top 



Perfect 
Fit 



*A11 1 have to do is to get a man to try a Hickory 
Collar. After he has once tried it I couldn't sell 
him anything else but a Hickory. The Hickory 
is built to fit a horse so snugly and evenly that 
there is no chance for chafing. Sores, galls, 
fistula and sweeny disappear where Hickory Collars are 
used. The wide space at the top allows free play for the 
neck muscles and the bulges on the sides fit into the hollows 
of the shoulder at the draft. No pads needed. Kelley-How- 
Thomson Co. authorize me to sell the Hickory Collar on approval 
—guarantee tag goes with every collar." 



Long Sfraw 
Throat 





^c<i^ ':o<^ W'-^'Ji.^'^ 



Guaranteed Horse Collars 

are made of finest bark tanned leather which stays soft and pliable. It is cut in pairs, making 
each side uniform. The throat is five thicknesses of leather strong. The back and rim are 
stuffed with long rye straw, which is tough and will not rot. The face is stuffed wica jo/t 
bicckwheai hulls, which repel dampness and will not get kimpy. The stitching is all hand 
work with heavy oil tanned lacing. 



Sor© Shoulders Healed* Up 

Randklev and Company, Posston. Minnesota, write: "We 
have been in business less than two years and we have 
sold betv/een 250 and 275 Hickory Horse Collars. There 
is a man in our town who told us he would have to quit 
work for a week or so because his horse's shoulders 
were sore. We told Wm about the Hickory Collar and 
got him to put one on his horse and tryh. He used 
the horse rig^ht along and within a week the horse's 
shoulders were healed up. He said he never thought 
such a thingr could be done, and that he will never 
tise any otlierbut the Hickory Horse Collar." 



Mail Coupon for 
Collar and Harness Booklets 

Book on Hickory Horse Collars or 
Hickory Harness will be sent you if you 
ask for it. Lo.ok up the Hickory dealer 
and see the Hickory Collar, also get 
acquainted with Hickory Harness, Tools, 
Cutlery, Hardware, Paints, Varnish and 
Stoves. 

Kelley-How-Thomson Co. 

Duluth, Minn. 




F,, S, 0L H., Minneapolis Daiiy News, one year each, $3,50 




GRAVELY'S 

CELEBRATED Mjiajiiai 's^ 

Real Che-wing Plug '^^Pl m. 

Made Strietlif dir iis Cluiwini] Qttatihf Lni'-in™^' "U ^ 

Before the lnvent(oi» 
©four Patent Air Proof PoucB 
Many Dealers Could Not (^esft 
the Flavor and Freshness ir» 
'^£AL GRAVELY PLUG TOBACCO. 
Now the Patent Pouch Keeps It 
Fresh and Clean and Good. 
A Little Chew of Gravely Is EncugH 
and Lasts Longer than a big ehe-.'V 
of ordinary plug. 

■^S5.9raiy e1y Tobacco Co. DAMv/ueYA. ^"fiur^' 




1 ALWAYS TAKE MY HAT OFF 
TO A BEAR! HE LIKES GOOD 
THINGS TO CHEW-BUT HE 
CANT READ THAT BILLBOARD 
SUPPOSE HE PICKS ON ME! r 



JLOOK FOR THE PROTECTION SEAL- IT IS NOT RJBAL GRAVELY WITHOUT THIS SEAL 




62 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 




Garden Hoe x Manure Fork 
No. KG206H ' No. KD40 



Tools that "pitch in' 
and work — 

for you and with you; everlast- 
ingly on the job, never through 
till you're through. That's the 
only kind of tools allowed to bear 
the name KEEN KUTTER. 

KEEN KUTTER Farm Tools 
are scientifically designed to give 
that easy swing called "the proper 
hang" and to carry just the right 
amount of load for untiring speed 
in use. 

Only the best quality of steel and 
straight-grained hickory handles 
are used in the making. And 
special strength-giving features of 
construction add another reason 
for our guarantee— "Sa<is/ac<ion 
or your money back." 

Buy KEEN KUTTER and get 
— satisfaction. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE CO. 

Manufacturers and Distributers 
St. Louis New York Philadelphia 
Toledo Minneapolis Sioux City 
Wichita 

"The recollection of QUALITY re. 

mains long after the PRICE is for- 

gotten. "— E. C. Simmons. 
Trade Mark Seelatered. 



>burStoc^ 

istHaveFreshAir 

to keep healthy and fat and 
bring you the bigger profits. 
Experts assert that an adequate 
supply of fresh air is as neces- 
sary to the thrift of an animal as 
food or water. Keep your 
stock thrifty by installing 



Cupolas 



and make sure of getting 
all the profits. 
Bird, rust and rot-proof. 
Made of heavy galvanized 
steel. Shipped ready 
to install. Easy to erect — cost 
no more than ordinary kind. 
There 's an O-K dealer in your 
town— if not, write us for 
particulars of our full line. 

PUaiP BERNARD CO. 
2206 ri»yfl Ave. 
£>ioux City, 
Iowa 



LEARN STEAM AND GAS 

ENGINEERING 

A greai demand. 87 to if 1 1 pi^r day. This Is 
the largest and best eqiilpt Steam and (Jas 
School In America. Also AUTO Mechaulca 
coursew Writo for hl^ luiw caiaiuK 
ENGINEERING COLLEGE 
Dept, StO. Austin, Minnesota 

rMeDtlOQ tblR paper. I 



promising than it is at the present 
time. All the statements and statis- 
tics given out by the best authorities 
point to a great shortage of pork both 
in this country and in Europe, and as 
pork is the principal meat ration of 
the soldier and sailor it is very evident 
that the supply will have to increase 
at an enormous rate in order to keep 
up with the demand. 

The high price of feed has caused 
a great many farmers to sell their hogs 
before they were in shape for the mar- 
ket, they did this before giving the 
matter the consideration and study it 
deserves and without satisfying them- 
selves of the fact that altho the price 
of feed is high, the price of pork is 
higher accordingly and there has been 
just as much money made for every 
pound of feed made into pork this fall 
as there ever has been in the history 
of pork production. Then asrain the 
majority of farmers (at least in this 
locality) have cut down their supply 
of brood sows, thinking that they could 
not afford to feed high priced grain to 
hogs and we believe there are a great 
many cases where this is true mainly 
because of waste in feeding; as a rule 
the hogs are fed on the ground and 
grain enough is wasted on the aver- 
age Minnesota farm to pay for a good 
cement feeding platform, every year 
then the poor arrangement of troughs, 
where the hogs are allowed get in with 
their feet and no place is made for 
keeping them back while the feed is 
being poured in is another great cause 
of waste. We firmly believe that if 
the farmers could be made to realize 
the amount of money they could save 
by having suitable feeding places for 
their hogs it would prove to be one of 
the largest factors in the increase of 
pork production. 

We find that a small amount of tank- 
age fed with the other grain ration is 
a great help for it seems to supply 
the substance that is lacking in the 
other feed; we also believe that a 
small amount of oil meal is a feed 
saver for it keeps the hogs thrifty and 
in shape to digest their feed and get 
the most possible good out of it. 

We plan on raising two litters a 
year from most of our sows, but in 
order to do this one m*st have warm 
quarters for the early and late litters 
and plenty of room so that the pigs 
will not pile up in order to keep warm. 

All the bogs that we market are 
shipped thru our local shipping asso- 
ciation and this has meant a great 
many dollars to us, it is one of the 
best organizations among the farmers 
and has proved to be such a marked 
success that it hardly needs comment 
from us, the only thing necessary to 
make it a success is to have the right 
kind of man to handle the business. 

In regard to feed and treatment our 
hogs receive, will say, we feed butter- 
milk, skimmilk and water, mixing in 
middlings and ground oats in equal 
parts and give them all of this they 
clean up at each feed; we also give 
them about a quarter pound of tank- 
age each; this is fed dry; they re- 
ceive about three ears of corn each at 
a feed and we keep a mixture of coal 
slack and salt where they can get at 
it all the time; they are housed in in- 
dividual hog houses at the present 
time, but we will keep the larger part 
in a large hog house during the cold- 
est part of the winter. . , 

H. A. Johnson, Grant County, Minn., 
writes: 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

In regard to the future of hog rais- 
ing will say that I believe the present 
price of hogs is too low compared with 
the price of corn and other feeds. 
Were it not for the cheap summer pas- 
tures that we now have I believe very 
few would be in the hog business very 
long. This in part has a great deal 
to do with the rushing of small hogs 
and pigs on the market at the present 
time. 

The farmers in this locality are dis- 
posing of immature hogs and also re- 
ducing the number of brood sows to be 
held over. All owing to the high price 
of feed and no guarantee of a higher 
price to follow. 

We are at present feeding ground 
barley and whole oats to the brood 
sows, of which we are keeping ten 
as against seven last year. 

We only raise one litter per year, 
owing to the fact that a fall litter 
would require a grain ration entirely 
without pasture. 

Our hog house Is comfortable for 
any season. 

Most of the stock in this county 
(Grant) is being marketed thru ship- 
ping associations and co-operative ele- 
vator comi)anles. 



When wrltlnsr to advertisers alwars 
mention Farm, Stock and Home. 



HOG OUTLOOK ENCOURAGING. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

The present and future outlook for 
hogs In this locality is very good. A 
few of the farmers had to buy feeding 
hogs In order to feed the soft corn 
which they could not dispose of in any 
other way; and it was too soft to keep 
any length of time. Hence, I think, 
December 1 found more hogs still on 
the average farm than usual. I have 
twice the number on hand at present 
compared last year at this time. The 
fall pigs are doing well now. But the 
fall pasture was not what it should 
have been. Partly on account of hav- 
ing too many hogs on it during the 
summer and then the drought came 
along and made matters worse. Plen- 
ty of pasture and early corn for hog- 
ging off I think is the biggest item in 
cheap hog production. 

As to the future outlook, I cannot 
say. Corn will be hard to get at any 
price next spring as there was not 
much of the corn crop that was mature 
enough to crib this fall. A great deal 
of it had to be fed as it came from the 
field. And I know of several farmers 
who did not get their seed corn supply 
selected before frost. But to the farm- 
er who is able to get some early ma- 
turing corn to plant for hogging off 
and has good pasture to carry the hogs 
thru the summer, can say ho is for- 
tunate. And I think a great many 
farmers in Lac qui Parle county are 
in such a position, with the co-opera- 
tion of Mr. H. Werner, County Agent. 

To my knowledge the Farmers' Ship- 
ping Association is doing good busi- 
ness here. 

At present I am feeding ground oats 
and barley together with corn. But 1 
think we could save more on the corn 
by feeding a little tankage with the 
other feeds. I have also found out 
that pumpkins are very good for grow- 
ing or fattening hogs during the fall 
and early winter. They are good 
worm destroyers. I have also fed a 
little cooked whole barley during very 
cold weather and find that they do 
well on it. Am feeding about forty 
head at present. 

Henry Raise. 
Lac qui Parle county, Mina. 



THE HOG THE MONEY MAKER. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I certainly feel that "The Hog" is 
the stuff in the way of money for me, 
provided we can raise good com rea- 
sonably certain. As far as I can learn 
the outlook for hogs in any shape mar- 
ket or breeding stock is good, very 
good. 

I never try to feed out market hogs 
to a firm condition, because the labor 
item involved is too large. I hog down 
most of my com and sell the bunch 
before winter really sets in. I use soy 
beans to supplement corn in the field 
and feed middlings, tankage, oilmeal 
and milk as much as I have to balance 
the corn ration. During the summer I 
plan to have plenty of pasturage of 
either clover or rape as Durocs, the 
breed I raise, especially do mighty well 
on these forage crops and they are 
the cheapest feeds obtainable. I never 
feed much com during the summer, 
mainly because I rarely have any left 
over after the winter siege of cold 
weather. 

I do not think it pays to raise a fall 
litter in this climate unless you have a 
large supply of some cheap feed, as 
buttermilk or skimmilk or have a well- 
established pure-bred business in 
which you can dispose of them profit- 
ably. 

This winter I am raising 14 little 
fellows in a low shed well filled with 
straw for warmth. My breeding stock 
over winter are housed in reasonably 
warm sheds with plenty of dry bed- 
ding, water, that is not freezing, to 
drink, from 5 to 15 pounds of skim- 
milk per head a day, lots of exercise 
and mainly (2) oats, (2) middlings and 
(1) oilmeal to eat in ratio as indicated. 

I ship thru the Meriden Farm- 
ers' Co-operative Association at Meri- 
den, Minn., and, of course, Ave all 
know that that eliminates the profit 
the individual buyer used to get. We 
have had the same buyer for years (he 
is also secretary of creamery and cash- 
ier of farmers' bank at Meriden). Our 
shipping day is every Tuesday for hogs 
and every other Tuesday for stock of 
other kinds. Our association is very 
large, shipping (now) from 5 to 8 cars 
of stock a week. 

Louis Zimmbbman. 
Waseca County, Minnesota. 



— Well rotted manure scattered over 
the lawn will hold the snow and give 
better grass next year. 




I 



Check Up 



the number of days wear 
you get from"Ball-Band" 
Rubber Footwear Vacu- 
um Cured into one solid 
piece and you will see 
that "Ball-Band" gives 
the longest wear at the 
lowest cost per days 
wear. 

''BALL-BAND" 

Worn by nine and one-half 
million people. Sold by 55,000 
stores. If you want to see pic- 
tures and descriptions of the 
different kinds of "Ball-Band" 
Footwear write for free book- 
let "More Days Wear." 

MISHAWAKA WOOLEN MFG. CO. 

377 Water street. MISHAWAKt, IND. 

" The ITouse That Pcys 
Millions for QtiaUty " 




The Hinge Door Silo 

The Last Word in SlIo 
Constraotion. VI i n g e 
door is convenient, safe 
easy to operate, never 
sags, sticks, binds or 
freezes in. Locks air- 
tight—prevents freezing 
of silage in winter and 
drying out In summer- 
thus assuringperfecien- 
silage The hinges form 
a perfect ladder. Patent- 
ed cable support holds 
silo round, plumb and 
rigid as rock. 

FRFF Our book of silo 
I. a.Ltlj facts should be 
reiid by every farmer be- 
fore he buys a sUo. Write 
for it today. 

MinnesotaTank&SiloCo.»?*„rp,^urMn,n: 

Distributors of the Ross Ensilage Cutter 





Upward TRIAL 

Jhne/dca/n, 

FULLY 

GUARANTEED 

CREAM 

SEPARATOR 

A SelldPropoaitlon to send new, well 
made, easy runninjr. perfect skimmingrj 
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ferent from picture, whicii shows lar- 
ger capacity machines. Soecurplanof 

MONTHLY PAYtMENTS 

Bowlasonttarj/jnoTOcieasilyclcaned. 
Whether dairy is large or small, write 
for free catalog and monthly payment 
plan. Western orders filled from 
western jjoints, 

AMERICAN SEPARATOR CO. 
Box 4071 ealnbridee, N. V. 



Ridor Agents Wanted 




Every where to ride 
hibit the fl< ~ 



end ex.^ 
lew Ranger "Nlotor- 
blk«" completely equipped with 



electric tiaht and horn, carrier, 
stand, tool tank, coaater-brake, 
mud guards and anti-ekid tiros. 
Choica of 44 othar atyles, 
colors and sizes in the famous 
"Ransar" line of hicycl«s. 

DELIVERED FREEonannroval 
and 30 DAYS TRIAL. Send for 
big fraa catalog and particulars 
of our Factory - direct - to - liider 
marvolouB olfora and terms. 
TIQCC Lamps, Horns, Whools, 
■ Sundries, and parts for 

all bicyclmi- at linlf unual prlcn*. 

SEND NO MONEY but toil ii> uMCrtI; 
iThat you imod. On not. buy until yiiii r.rt otirprlcen, 
tvrnmiinil tho blir t'Kr.tOoUloK. Wilt.i Tmlai). 

Mil E" An CYCLE COMPANY 
lYIELMV D«pt. F6S CHICAGO 




January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOMS. 



63 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



COST OF PRODOCTION ON A SPECIALIZED 
DAIRY FARM. 

BY O. W- ROWLANDS. 

Mr. Rowlands, producing certified 
milk and shipping to Chicago, writes: 
To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I believe firmly in ten cent milk un- 
der present conditions. 

While I produce and bottle at the 
farm 500 quarts daily of certified and 
inspected milk, for which I get 10 and 
11 cents a quart, net, I find that that 
leaves me a dangerously narrow work- 
ing margin. 

1 find that I cannot possibly raise 
all the feed on my own farm to carry 
my herd of 50 milch cows, but must 
buy many carloads of hay and grain. 
Hay has doubled in price in one year, 
and grain almost doubled. Labor is 
higher and hard to get. 

For the present, most of us must 
take our profit in the improvement of 
our land due to the extra number of 
cattle we keep. This may be all right 
for those who do not need money for 
personal expenses, but I see no reason 
why dairying should be placed on such 
a basis. 

Elements of Risk. 

When you consider that even with 
the best of manegement accidents and 
disease take a heavy toll from a large 
herd, that it costs every cent it is 
worth to raise young stock, that 
storms, tornados, hail, frosts, drouths 
and other conditions over which the 
dairrman has no control introduce a 
decided element of chance into dairy 
farming, we are entitled to a liberal 
margin of profit. 

Milk Worth 20 Cents in Food Value. 

If milk would cost the consumer 20 
cents a quart it would then be no high- 
er in price than beef steak, food value 
considered, and would be cheaper than 
ham, chicken, oysters and practically 
all other animal foods. Whereas these 
last mentioned are desirable but by 
no means essential foods, milk is ab- 
solutely necessary for babies and chil- 
dren, and should command a higher 
price than foods which could well be 
in the luxury column. 

We dairymen have no intention of 



WONDERFUL SILO 
INVENTED BY 
WESTERNER 

Thirty thousand cows are eagerly 
eating silage this morning, which 
otherwise would probably be pawing 
over com fodder instead, if it had not 
been for the happy thought 
that came one day to a State 
of Washington man. 
Also, fifteen hundred 
farmers had sweet, 
Ij rich silage to feed, 
' right at the barn, in- 
stead of having to dig 
frozen corn st^ks out 
of the snow. 

Here is the story: 
A million-dollar com- 
pany, engaged in sell- 
ing lumber direct to 
user, was attempting 
to market a stave silo, 
and found it hard 
sledding, because the 
silo was just about like any other 
stave silo. 

One day (this was nearly four years 
ago) an official of the lumber company 
thought up a new way to make a silo. 
This new silo, of which more than 
1500 are now in use, is constructed 
like a building rather than a barrel, 
with double walls which prevent frozen 
silage. It is remarkably strong, easy 
to erect, made of old-growth yellow fir. 

Since the silo is sold direct to user, at a 
small profit and on fair terms, the price is 
much lower than that asked for any other 
ZorA silo. The company which makes the silo 
is responsible, has a good name for fair deal- 
ing, and guarantees the silo in every way. 

The inventor of this wonderful silowhonow 
handles silo business for his company, has 
written an- interesting and authoritative book 
entitled "All About Silos." This books tells 
the truth, not only about the particular silo 
which this man invented, but about other 
K'irxi makes. This book will be sent free to 
any farmer who simply sends this advertise- 
ment and his name and address. Address 
the inventor, 

WillisBrmdley,lfM. 




taking advantage of the war situation 
to extort a high price for milk, but in 
plain language the situation is exactly 
as stated in the President's latest mes- 
sage: restrictions are being put on the 
price of everything we sell, thru the 
efforts of the Food Administrator, and 
the sky is the limit to what we have 
to pay for our machinery and raw ma- 
terials. 

Can Dairymen Do It? 

I, for one, have no objection to price 
fixation of milk by the government if 
the fixing is honestly done. The ques- 
tion with me, and with other dairy- 
men is not: can the city people afford 
to pay 12, or 15, or even 20 cents for 
their milk, but can we produce milk 
for seven, or eight, or 10 cents, and 
live? 

Distribution Crux of the Situation. 

If the government wants to reduce 
the price of milk to the consumer, it 
should, first of all, get at the present 
expensive distributing system, that of 
duplication of wagons and routes on 
the same square. By having one cen- 
«tral distributing station for a city, by 
providing for "call stations" for milk, 
by even having the municipality bear 
part of the cost of securing milk for 
babies and invalids, and by any other 
means that suggest themselves, could 
the price of milk be reduced several 
cents a quart. 

We are in the dairy business be- 
cause we must make a living — which 
proves to be a hard living at best. 
When the price of milk goes below the 
profitable point with us, we must get 
into some other business that will pay, 
for our first duty is to keep ourselves 
from being a charge upon the govern- 
ment. 

Higher Even Than Dairymen Figure. 

Just to show how little even we 
dairy farmers realize what it is cost- 
ing us to produce milk, I will confess 
that when I sat down to relieve my 
feelings in the accompanying article, 
that I thought four dollars per cwt. 
would be a fair price for our milk. 
We are actually getting three dollars 
and twenty-two cents. But after I had 
carefully balanced the cost of feed, 
labor, and interest against my milk 
check, I found that even with milk at 
three dollars and sixty cents I would 
not be making a decent, law-abiding 
profit. Surely, I thought, my condi- 
tions must be abnormal; other dairy- 
men must be in a better position. 

How About It, Neighbor? 

So I asked my next door neighbor, 
"Sam" Wiliams, who ships as much 
market milk from our station as any 
two other men and who Is known to 
have one of the most carefully select- 
ed and best producing herds of milch 
cows in the county, to come down and 
compare milk figures with me. 

"Sam," I asked him, "what must 
you get for your milk the next twelve 
months in order to break even?" 

"Two dollars and a half for an eight- 
gallon (68.8 lbs.) can," was the instant 
response. "That figure would not al- 
low me much, if any profit." 

After we had studied his figures we 
came to the joint conclusion that three 
dollars and twenty cents per eight- 
gallon can, or ten cents a quart was 
not an extortionate price. If we pro- 
ducers of wholesale milk must accept 
less than ten cents, it simply means 
that we must accept less than the mar- 
ket price for our hay, silage, and 
grain; and that the actual profit from 
our dairy herds is limited to the cost 
of raising this feed minus the price 
we receive for it via the milk pail 
route. Such a condition of affairs, if 
allowed to continue, can have but one 
effect, that of causing us to sell as 
many of our cows as we dare without 
ruining our farms, thereby causing 
such a shortage of the milk supply that 
another year will see the cities offer- 
ing from 15 to 20 cents per quart, and 
unable to get it at that. 



CONSDUERS OF MILK, SHORTSIGHTED. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

In regard to the controversy of mar- 
ket milk In the Twin Cities, permit 
me to state that my sympathy is en- 
tirely with the milk producers. 

No one engages in the dairy busi- 
ness solely for the love of it. It may 
not be hard work, but is a drudgery, 
like washing dishes. It requires the 
dairyman's constant attendance, no 
viaits, no recreation of any kind. He 
has to be there at every meal and 




A PRIZE WINNING 
CREAM SEPARATOR 



THE 



CREAM 
SEPARATOR 

Is a Winner! 

Why don't you let it 
win for you? 

AT the great national and inter- 
national expositions, the juries 
have invariably acknowledged the superiority of the De Laval. 
They awarded the Grand Prize, the highest possible award, to 
the De Laval at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco 
in 1915, as also at Buffalo, Chicago, St. Louis, Paris, Brussels, 
and all the great world expositions for more than 35 years. 

What the world s greatest dairy experts, the men who operate 
the creameries and the big milk plants and dairies, think of the De 
Laval is best evidenced by the fact that 98% of the cream sepa- 
rators in use in such plants the world over are of De Laval make. 

De Laval Produced Cream 
Makes the Best Butter 

Since 1892 the National Butiermakers' Association has held butter-scor- 
ing contests each year in connection with its Annual Convention, and at every 
such Convention butter made from cream separated by a De Laval Sepa- 
rator has scored highest. This is a 100% record for the De Laval. No 
room for chance there. Only vmusual merit made such a record possible. 

Proof of the superiority of De Laval Separators and of De Laval pro- 
duced cream has been piled up and multiplied so many times that it is no 
longer questioned. It is an accepted fact. 

If you are without a cream separator, or in need of a better one, let 
the De Laval start winning a bigger cream 
profit for you NOW. 

See your De Laval agent Immediately, 
or if you don't know him, address 
the nearest De Laval main office as 
below for any desired particulars. 

THE DE LAVAL SEPARATOR 
COMPANY 

165 Broadway 29 E. Madison St. 

New York Chicago 

EVERY NEW DE LAVAL SEPARATOR 
HAS A BELL SPEED-INDICATOR 





2 



DOWN and 

One Year 
To Pay ( 




'PHINK of it ! For only $2 down you can now 
get any size of the New Butterfly Cream 
Separator direct from our factory on a plan 
whereby it will earn its own cost and more be- 
fore you pay. Yoa won't feel the cost. For only $29 
^fc^ you can buy the No. 2 Junior— a light ran- 
5' Jlfjning.easy cleaning, close skimming. durable, 
^j,^^ guaranteed separator. Skims 95 Quarts per 
•■^ hour. We also make five other sizes of the 

NEW BUTTERFLY 

up to our big 800 pound capacity machine ahown here— all 
at similar low prices and on our liberal termsof only %2 dt 
and a yeor to pay. Every machine (guaranteed a lifetime 
egaicBC defects in material and workmanship. 

30 DAYS' FREE TRIAL 

You can have 80 days' FREE trial and see 
for yourself how easily one of these splen- 
did machines will earn its own cost and 
more before yoa pay. Try it alongside of 
any separator you wish. Keep it if pleased. 
If not you can return it at our expense and 
we will refund your $2 deposit and pay the 
freight char^eB both ways. You won't bo 

^ .. Yoa take no risk. Festal brings Free Catalog Folder 

and direct-frora-factory offer. Buy fJirnct and save money. Write lodiy. 

ALBAUGH-DOVER COMPANY, 2120 Marshall Blvd., Chicag:o, III. 



EasijToCleaii 
)£asyToTum 





arm 




' wilL #360^ 
e GIVE FORD AUTO 



FIRST GRAND PRIZE 

In thG picture are hidden n nnmber of fares. How many 
can you ftnd? Some are looking right at you, others show- 
only the side of the face — you'll find them upside down aud 
every way. Mark each face you find with a pencil, clip out 
picture, send 1o us with name and address NOW. Wo will 
gWe away a $380.00. 1918 Model, Ford Touring Car as First 
Grand Prize and Thousands of Dollars in Cash Rewards, 
Prizes and Special rrcmiums. Each worlter v.ill be re- 
warded. Solve the puzzle. If you can find as uiany as FIVD 
PACES we will send you at once 4 nnn Vmna VnlP« 
toward the $360 Ford Auto and other 1»UWW rrCC VWlca 
Grand Prizes. We will also give away several .'10 Bicycles. 
These will be given free and extra, regardl'^pH of wbo gets 
the Auto. Somcuuo will get Ford Auto— WHY NOT TOUI 
I FARM LIFE, Dept. 381 SPKNCES, INP. 



64 



FARM. STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



"FOSTER" TANNING 



•SllMGE 18805 



liave us Tan 
Your Hide 

And you will bo dellRlitcd with the 
lluo I'obo or coat you can li;ivo at 
BMiall coal. We spociall/e In 
Robes. OiirtJinnlnK Iswind, wii- 
t(T imd motli-proof — leaves hide 
stnini; and licautltully soft. lu 
jn:ikinK rolipg aud coaia only 
best raatcnals snd exiiort work- 
inanHlilD lire »fixl. ISatisfacttan 
miaratilccd. Wc are. Oldest and 
LiiTQtM Custom Tanners for 
J^oHhiDestt-m Farmers. 
WE ALSn BUY HIDES, 
FURS AND PELTS. mid make 
prompt < returns ut highest 
market prices. Rend for Cir- 
cular, prlco liHt and tas». 



^OSTEK tfOBEA TANNING CO*, 
1604 Sth St. S. E.. mtnneapolls, Minn. 




Cedar Rapids Tanning Co. 

fanning Department of Cedar 
Rapids Hide & Fur CO- 

towa's Largest Htde. Fur and Wool 
Daalers. 

Yon will realize more moDoy for 
your hides and I'urs from us than 
elsewhere, as you are spllins direct 
to ta,nncry, theroby saving the luid- 
aioman's prolit. Our tanning; of all 
kinds of hides and furs and manii- 
factaring of coals, robes, rugs and 
mittens cannot be equalled. Send 
for our illnstrated catalog on tan- 
ning and priee list on hides and 
furs. Ship hides and furs tor sale 
tv) Cedar llapids Uido & Fur Co.. 
imd hides and furs for tanning to 
Cedar Kapids Tanning Co., of Cedar 
Kapids, Iowa, 
(Cedar Baplds' only tannery.) 



FARMERS.SAVE$5.25 



FREE 



Large $3.00 Fur Gauntlet 
IV1:ttens with each tanned 
and lined robe or coat. 

Send in this ad when shipping your 
bides. and save SS.2S on your Robe 
made up with OUR SPECIAL 
HEAVY GR£EN KERSEY CLOTH. 
Tanniiii S.j.on. Sneeinl Lln- 
iDgSTOO. Free S3. 00 Mit- 
tens, Total Value $15.00 
with this ad, only $9.75. 

Onir US Furs and wool 

ana Realize 25 to 3 j% more. Write 
for Price Li.st. Express or Parcel Post 
refunded on furs. Write for our Large 
Special Catalog ot Ladiea' Fine Fucs. 
Robes, Coats, etc. 

MASON CITV ROBE & TANKING CO. 

station e Mason City, Iowa 





rTRAPPERS-i 

A trial shipment will convince 
you that we pay the highest 
prices for Pars, Hides, 
Pelts, etc. We 
remit yoit the 
day your ship- 
ment is re- 
ceived and 
charge 00 caai* 

Wriietodayfcrrfree Trapper's Guide No. 
JO, catalos of trappers' supplies and price list 

NORTHWESTERN HIDB St FUH CO. 
MinneapGlis, Minn. Est, 1890. 




?oVh' HIDES, FOSS^Efe. 



D. Bergman & Co., 

Saint Paul, Minnesota 

DcdDirMt wtth the Losnt ad OMcet Hook Id the Weet. 
HighCTt Fnce» and Immccate Ca&h RmtumB. Write tt^ 




Ship to Us 



eET FULL PRICES 
and UBERA&.CRAD- 
INC. We practice no 
trickery. We make quick 
remittancos. Once you 
Bliip to us, you will ship 
to us always. Send for 
. « .„, our SPECIAI. PRICE- 

LIST. We will keep you posted all the sea- 
eon. HlghCBtBank Jlefereut e ;. Let us send you 
our CUSTOM TANNiriO and MettUFACTURINO DEPARTMENT CATA- 
UOUE. Money-saving prices. 

OHSMAN & SONS CO., Box 74S Cellar Rapids, Icwa. 



nVBIG MONEY IN FUR^ 

^^^^J^hlp to: "Old Reliable"! 
T^^^^^V Square Deal Housed 

Furs^ides-Pelts-Wool! 



We pay blgbest ptlcea for Fura snd 

Hldcj. Charge no comnil»BloD.__ t'ur- 
Dish free taga and ••Trapperii Guide 
to Bblppera. wnio lor price list. 



M^MIUAN FUR & WOOL CO. 

MINNETAPOLIS, MINN. 



WE BUY FURS 

iiixl bl<l<'>4 'It liljer'x'Ht priceH. Mo <;<>i>iiiiiN- 
xlon. Wiitc lor i>rlco ll«t i»M«i sIiipiiinK miK» 

J. E. IVIcCOMB 

WINNEBAGO, • MINNESOTA 



every milking seven days every week 
and 365 days every year. Nine out 
of ten of the hired men won't milk, 
and dairy farms are blacklisted by the 
usual run of nfen as tough proposi- 
tions, so if a dairy farmer is lucky 
enough to get a man at all, he prob- 
ably has to do the most of the chores 
and milking himself with his faithful 
wife, and pay higher wages besides. 
If under the circumstances he has to 
carry on the business at a loss, he 
cannot help but be discouraged and 
ship his cows to the market for slaugh- 
ter. I venture the assertion that nine 
out of ten of those who are the worst 
kickers in regard to the pnce of milk 
Y/ould not milk a cow in fly and mos- 
quito time for all the milk the cow 
gives. 

If the consumers are unwilling to 
pay the producers a price for milk 
that will leave them a fair margin over 
the present unusually high leed prices, 
the milk consumers will sooner or 
later wake up to the fact that they 
will be able to obtain no milk at any 
price, because they cannot expect 
farmers to work from 15 to 18 hours 
a day, and suffer losses besides. 

Take my own case. I have high 
producing registered cows. We milk 
three times daily, so we begin at 5 
o'clock in the morning and after the 
last milking, calf feeding and separ- 
ator washing is done, it is generally 
10 or 10:30 in the night. We sell part 
of our cream to customers at 50 cents 
per quart testing about 40 per cent fat 
and the rest to the local creamery 
that has been paying from 43 to 45 
cents for fat, and this is the first year 
that our cows are not paying their 
way. Our daily feed bill is close to 
$10 and our monthly income from 
cream, besides what we use ourselves, 
has been about $100. This feeding ex- 
pense includes our young stock, tor 
which we get good prices, which we 
expect to make good our loss; but 
from this might be readily seen how 
those come out who have only com- 
mon cows and have to sell the young 
stock at ordinary prices. 

I cannot understand why the con- 
suming public is making such a howl 
about milk, produced on the farm, 
v/hich even at 13 cents a quart is the 
cheapest food they can obtain, while 
the high prices of all other articles 
of food are accepted as unavoidable. 

F. J, Steidl. 

Traverse County, Minn. 



MILK PRICES. 

O. C. Neuman, Traverse County, 
Minn., writes: 

To Farm, Stock and Home; 

In regard to the recent effort to cur- 
tail the business activities of the Twin 
City Milk Producers' Association, I 
wish to say I hardly think I am well 
enough informed on the subject to 
give a detailed opinion. 

However, I do know from conditions 
here at home where we are now paying 
nine cents a quart for milk and where 
not so many years ago we used to get 
22 quarts of milk for a dollar, that 
when one stops to consider the differ- 
ence in the price, it seems a money 
making proposition to the milk pro- 
ducer. But let one also stop to con- 
sider the high cost of feed at this time 
and what it cost then, it gives the 
matter a different aspect. At that 
time hay v/as $4 a ton, shorts and bran 
were woi-th in the neighborhood of $17 
to $18 per ton, corn v/as 50c and other 
grains were worth in proportion. 
What are the prices now? At present, 
the hay market here is $15 per ton, 
shorts about $45 per ton, there is prac- 
tically no corn to be had and all other 
feed products are at least four or five 
times higher than they were at that 
time. Then too, consider the price a 
milch cow used to sell at and it has 
been trebled. The price of farm labor 
has also advanced accordingly. We 
could then get good farm hands dur- 
ing the v/inter for $15 per month and 
board; now the price is $40 and up 
for a competent man. 

Taking all these things into consid- 
eration, I don't believe the milk pro- 
ducers arc making as much money now 
in selling their milk at nine cents per 
quart as they did when they sold milk 
for Ave cents per quart. 

I think it will stand the consumer 
in hand not to push the price too low 
because if they do, I really believe that 
some of the dairymen will sell their 
herds and go out of business and what 
will bo the result? It will simply 
mean a shortage of dairy cows and 
eventually higher prices for milk. 

There must bo a profit in every busi- 
ness and this applies to the dairyman 
as well as every other line of business. 
These are my views and you can uso 
til em as you fjee ftt. 




Builders! Carpenters! Farmers! 
f Twelve Million Feet of Lumber! 

FOR EVERY PURPOSE at prices that defy competition I 

Writetoday for Bulletin of Free Bargains. Fifty lots to select from. 
Rvcry lot an exceptional value. Unn't buy astickof lumber until you gctour 
priecs. Just imafrinel Genuine Kcd Cedar Bevel .Sitiing nt iT.O'i per looo ft. 
Cedar Drop Sidint; at $1».50 perlOOO ft. Shir)lapat $U per KlOO ft. 2x4.Stud- 
_ ding ut?l .Mi5 per 1000 ft. Vertical Grain flooring at f i2perl(ino ft. Kvcrything 
subject to prior sale. First come, first served. Don't wait for prices to go higher. 
BUY YOUR LUMBER WHILE THERE IS SLEIGHING 

Wo will flgure your House orllarn lilU for you. List It your own way and Bend to ub fop 
freight onil war tax paid prion. Safe delivery i.:imraiit€>c<f. Come and boo your material 
loaded. We aro tho only people In the West giving this prlvllece. 

Remember, Bargain Bulletin is FREE. Send for it today 



MUlworfc Catalog and Plan 
and I'OBt I'rlco Llat Free, 



jS,".S>'Hewitt.Lea.FunckCo.|„^LF-rw.^^^^ 



New KEROSENE LIGHT 

BEATS ELECTRIC or CASOLINC 



Here's your cpportonity to get the wonderful new ALADDIH KeroBcoo 
Mantle liRht FREE Write quick for particolara. Thia jfreat free offer will 
be withdrawn aa soon as eozne distributor Btarts work in your nelRbbor- 
hood. You only need show the Aladdin to a few friends imd neiRnbors; 
they will want one. We give you ycuri Irae for thia help. Takes very 
little time, no invcf^tment. Costs nothintr to try the AUQOIH 10 nights. 

Burns 50 Hours on One Galflon 

common kcro:ienc (coal oil), no odor, smoko or noise, simple, no pumping ap^ 
no preoaurc, won't cN[»Ioiic. Tcirts by U. S. (Jovernmont and thirty-five 
loadinf; universitice Bhow tho Alnddin rivcs three time* bs much ligbl as best 
round wick flame lampH. Won BoW MciM at Panruna K.'cpoeit.ion. Over three 
million p^ple lOroady cnjoyinjr thia poworful, white, steady APCUTC 
lights Dc.irtfst to sunlif^ht. Guaranteed. And think of it— vou nUC n I w 
can ^et it wMhoirf ftirin^ onl ■ cent. All chr.rKca prepaid. Ank lUAMTFII 
for our lO-day P>e* JVial Offer and learn how to g'-t on Ftm. vff All I CU 
MANTLE LATMP COMPANY, 367 Aladdin Buildlns, CHICAGO, ICL. 
L<m«»t K»roa— (Co»l OHJ IWamio Lamp Houa% In tha World 




T WICCVTH p.? Ll/C H T 



^ FURS: HIDES 

for spot eaah. 10 to 50% more money to ship Fan and Bides to na than to sell at 
home. Write for Price list, market report and aboatooi 460-p.H. & 1. Guide. 
.EInter big contest tree to all for shippers, especially to boys nnder draft ace. 
4-10 Acre FUR FARMS and 2Q0 Valuable Prizes FREE. 
Win prise. Make big money trapping. Ship to as, highest prices, quick returns. 
No cominiasion. Est. over 25 yenrs. Pars and Hides tanned, Fobes made. 
Write toda?. ANDERSCH BROS., Dept. i, MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 





0200 T01 BEA^. 



AGigantic Wonder— ov<'r200 pods have 
bnoD^rowuon a einglo plant — all well 

_ filled, producinf? over 12UU beatia from 1 

beun planted. Plants grow etroDK and erect, branching; out ia all diroctionB. 
bearing their pods up well from tho ground, which literally load the plants; 
beans being pare white and of bet^t quality. 

Plant iu yourg trdon or any j;ood soil, only 1 bean in a kill, end they will 
mature a crop in about bO days, ripening very evenly, and the growth and yield 
will simply Burprise you. J ust tho bean everyone should i^iant this year. 

My supply in yet limited and lean offer only in scaled packctfi containing 80 
Boons eaen with cultural directions. Order early to be finro of them. 

healoil packets lOccaeh; 3 pUts SOo; 7 plit»50c; la nkta *1.00 postpaid. 
My 1,113 Heed Ituok is filled with IIlBh Grade Garden Seeds at lowest prices. 
Do not buy until you BOe my Book; itwill save yon money. Tellyw^^^ f"®S<l8: 
it's mailed free. F. «. Ml IXH. Heed Grower, l>ept. 14. KOSK HILL. W. Y. 



FARMERS DON'T MILK JOST FOR FON. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

Regarding the cost of production of 
milk I will say that the Twin City 
milk producers, the management of 
the State Farm and others, have given 
these facts so clearly to the safety 
commission and city councils at their 
hearings, that I shall not try to do 
any better hut simply corroborate 
their statements. Of course, it will 
vary quite a bit under diilerent con- 
ditions, such as milk rich in butter 
fat will cost more to produce than 
milk low in percentage of butterfat, 
etc. 

The Twin City milk producers do 
not ask anything unreasonable, and, if 
the daily papers of the cities would 
put the farmers' side of the question 
before the consumers instead of knock- 
ing the farmer, I think the question 
would soon be settled to the mutual 
satisfaction of all concerned. 

If the milk producers should be 
compelled to sell milk for less than 
the cost of production, I take it for 
granted that lots of dairymen will dis- 
pose of their dairy stock, because very 
few farmers will milk cows for the 
fun there is in it. 

I believe that it would be a great 
detriment to the country at this time 
to reduce the dairy stock. 

I am not a member of the Twin 
City Milk Producers' association, but 
have been in the dairy business more 
or less all my life, so I know a little 
about it. 

Give the dairyman a square deal. 
He is always patriotic, he will fight 
for his right as an individual and he 
is no slacker when it comes to doing 
his bit for the government in this 
great world war. 

A. E. MOBBISON. 

Washington County, Minn. 



Prom 

STRaWBERRIESt^ 

,' Growers who use Kellogc Pedi- [ 
J greePlantsand foUowthe Kellogg I 
I Way make $500 to $1200 per acre. 
FREE BOOK TELLS HOW 

J you can make big and quick profits 

growing and selling etrawberries the Kel- I 
J log^ Way. Pictorea and fully describes the 1 
world-faraoua KelloBrg Strawberry Gardens, 
aliio the wonderful Kellogg Everbeaiius 
k SCr&wberries. OUeru bie cash prizes^ ' 
" L to bova and girls, end eives tho worn- ? 
\ ea folks 30 recipes for making deli- 
Icimia strawberry dainties. Write! 
(today— it's FREE. 

R. M. KELLC36 COMPANY 

Box 410 Tdr*. Rlwra, Mlah. 'VlJlZ 



KEEP BETTER COWS AND HANG ON. 

To Farm, Stock and rTome: . 

Hay iH so scarce and high, feed has 
been Roing up so fast, labor is high 
and hard to get and manage, cost of 
everything a farmer buys has ad- 
vanced, that there is only one way 
to come out on top in the dairy busi- 
ness and that is by having good cows. 
There is very little difference in the 
amount of food a cow eats producing 
ir>,000 pounds of milk and the cow 
that only produces 5,000 pounds. 




PLANTS FOP 

JOar special advertiafaiff offer. 
/Try them on our guarantee 
'that they wiU bear from sprinff I 
clear to frost. Thouaaoda now ^ 
„ ._ _ enjoy them Biff Nursery catalosr free, 

EsrI Ferris Nur«eiy,Coa BridflO ^t^ Hampton, Iowa 





' Telia fa ow to cat livms cost throogb I 
/ jproductiVB sardena. why our Pure. E 
' Tested Form, Garden and Flower I 



™_ ^ rrowa t'^o bierest crops— tbtl 

r finest fluwern. A benutiTijI 112 
paerebopls in coVrs: Describes 
/new iDlii -TuT'.nt'.ca vcffolablea £ 
and Bowcra. ilandsomelv illus- 1 
trated; buautiful bomo sn^nnds, f 
- o-.- , flov/ei* and ^vofietabl© rardono, 

■landscapInff.anrDDDery.orcbardtJ, farms. Verttshl* 
■dictionary on earucninsl FJovrcr lover's delifrhtl 
IBerrr-frronrerfi' boo!:! An orchardtat's manaall 
PJanyour 1918 rnrden fronnthia VBlnchIo bcok. 




Guarasvteed Tanning 

We tan anything from n. horse hide to 
a weasel skiu. TanuIng horse and 
beet hides for robes and coats our 
specially. We al.so dress furs and 
make up fur coats. robes, ru^, uilttons 
fur HOIS ana unything lu this line. 
Fur repairing and taxidormi.si.s work 
neatly done. Before soiidintf your 
work elsewhere ifet our prices, froo 
catalog and shipping tags.we can save 

money. Square Deal Tanning Co- 

Old Rollablu Tannors 

514-16 Waihingion Ave., neiroit, Minn. 





SEND THEM TO US 

Wo will make soft, warm robes 
and fur coals for you. Also tan 
hides inl.u loatlior. Price-list and 

iMh?- Miller Tanning Co. 

Htioo'rsCrookfston Tunning Co. 
Pnrge, No. D«k. Croolislon, Minn' 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



65 



There will be no money in the dairy 
business ever for the man who keeps 
the 5,000 pound cow. There should be 
more in it than there is now for the 
man who keeps the 10,000 and 15,000 
pound kind; if there isn't soon, the 
5,000 pound cow will be forced out 
of business by bankrupting her owner, 
and there are not enough 15,000 pound 
cows to supply the demand for milk, 
the result will be very high prices for 
dairy products. The poor people, 
who need them as bad as the rich, 
won't be able to buy; their children 
■will not grow up without dairy prod- 
ucts as is proven by the old countries 
where thousands of children are dying 
from lack of milk, butter and cheese, 
the three greatest foods in the whole 
world for children and old folks too. 
Dairymen are as patriotic as any one 
else but no one can keep on year after 
year losing money. There is an end 
to all things. Either feed must come 
down in price or dairy products must 
come up. In the meantime, use a bet- 
ter sire each change you make. Elim- 
inate your poorest cows and replace 
them with the right kind, and hang on 
until the dairy business comes to its 
own. 

E. J. Oppligee. 
Washington County, Minn. 



WHOLE MILK MARKET NOT ALLDRING. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I am a member of the Twin City 
Milk Producers' Association. Last 
summer the contracts were not high 
enough to cover cost of production, not 
as much as we would have gotten out 
of cheese or butter. 
" But the association said nothing but 
stood by their contracts as their con- 
tracts expired Oct. 1st, then the price 
was set at $3.25 per hundred and the 
Public Safety Commission took the 
matter up as they declared the price 
too high. I w^ill admit that it is high 
for the consumer to pay 12 cents a 
quart but look at the other side. Bran 
is selling here at $38 to $40 per ton, 
oats, 70 cents; hay, $15; barley, $1.25 
to $1.30. Corn we cannot get at all. 
Oil cake, $3.35 now. 

You will see at a glance that the 
feeds are double the price they were 
two and three years ago and labor is 
at least as high again as it was two 
or three years ago. 

Two and three years ago we were 
getting about $1.70 per hundred deliv- 
ered in the city, so you can see we 
made as much on our cows then as 
now if not more, and that is not fig- 
uring the increase in price of cows in 
the last two or three years. I have 
shipped milk to the city for 15 years, 
five years to one party, but I can say 
if 1 had a cheese factory that I could 
haul to as handy as the shipping sta- 
tion, I would haul there, and another 
thing I forgot is cans. We have to 
furnish three sets of cans and cans 
have raised double as well. If it were 
not for the cattle I sell I am afraid 
my cattle account would have the bal- 
ance on the wrong side. We are to 
have a condensory at Northfield in the 
spring as it is mostly finished but in- 
stalling the machinery and I expect 
most of the milk will go there for 
this locality. 

Rice Co., Minn. Subscrcbeb. 



WOMEN AS CREAM TESTERS. 

As a means ot increasing the na- 
tion's supply of labor George E. Has- 
kell, dairy specialist of the Food Ad- 
ministration staff, has suggested the 
more general employment of women 
as cream testers. 

There are at least 10,000 cream re- 
ceiving stations in the United States, 
according to Mr. Haskell, at which 
cream is purchased, sampled, tested 
and then shipped to churning centers 
for manufacture into butter. Women 
have to some extent assisted their hus- 
bands aa cream station operators and 
in states requiring such operators to 
be licensed, a small percentage of wom- 
en have successfully passed the tech- 
nical tests and been granted licenses. 
When convenient platforms are ar- 
ranged for loading and unloading cans 
of cream with a minimum of lifting, 
the work is not physically difiBcult. 

"Women are well qualified for the 
painstaking work of sampling and test- 
ing," declares Mr. Haskell, "and only 
a short training is necessary to make 
them proficient. The substitution of 
women as cream station operators, es- 
pecially in the smaller stations, seems 
In harmony with the nation's need, as 
It will release several thousand men 
for farming and war industries." 



Whether 7oa «v»iit to f>ii7 or aella 
v., n. A n. Clamlilcd advertialaK will 
do H well. 



It Pays to Sell to Farmers' Cream- 
eries. — A. J. McGuire, dairy specialist 
of the extension division, Minnesota 
College of Agriculture, says farmers in 
Minnesota make from $7 to $15 a 
year more per cow by selling their 
cream to a good co-operative creamery 
than by shipping to centralized plants. 
Mr. McGuire made a comparison of 
prices paid to farmers for butter fat by 
the best co-operative creameries, the 
poorest co-operative creameries, the 
individual creameries and the central- 
ized creameries of the state from 
March, 1916, to March, 1917. The av- 
erage price paid by the best co-oper- 
ative creameries was 40.09 cents a 
pound as against 32.3 cents per pound 
paid by the centralizers. Even the 
poorest co-operative creameries do bet- 
ter than the centralizers. 



Dry Rot in Stored Potatoes. — The 

dry rot in potatoes attacks the tubers 
while in storage. It starts first where 
the potato is cut or bruised, turning 
the affected part of the tuber a dark 
color as deep as it extends and shriv- 
els it so that the skin sinks in. Often 
times a white cottony mass appears 
over the diseased spot. The rot keeps 
on spreading till in a few weeks the 
tuber becomes dry, wrinkled, shrunk- 
en and dark colored with practically 
no weight. The rot develops faster 
when it is warm than when the stor- 
age room is kept cool. The dry rot 
does considerable damage to stored 
potatoes in North Dakota and especial- 
ly in the western part of the state. 

There are several things that can 
be done now to reduce the loss from 
dry rot. The first step is to sort the 



potatoes removing those diseased and 
using them as soon as possible, and 
the rest should be soaked two hours in 
a solution made up of water 30 gal- 
lons and formaldehye 1 pound. In 
some trials it was found that the loss- 
es from dry rot were 30 per cent in 
potatoes not sorted or treated, IG per 
cent when sorted and 4 per cent when 
treated with formaldehye. — N. D. Agr. 
College. 



— Sometimes a skating rink may eas- 
ily be made of the tennis court by put- 
ting boards along the side and flood- 
ing with water. 

— Take pictures of some of the fine 
winter'views about the home. A home 
properly planted should have as inter- 
esting views in winter as in summer. 



GRADE YOUR CORN 



Quality and Increase 
25 to 50 Percent. 

Hero 

Corn Grader 

Write at once for Free 
Trial Offer and Catalog. 

TWIN CITY 
SEPAKATOK CO., 

2801 Colfas: Ave. S. 
Mlnneapoiis, IVIInn 





Pounder Hanows First 

Ask 150,000 users. Dealers sell 
.or you write for catalog: and de- 
livery to you. G. H. Pounder, 
Station 11 . Fort AtkiDson. Wis. 





One MahAlone 
. Pulls Biggest 

iti STUMPS 



Quickest I 

^ $SO 
and 
Up 

A Kin-tin On'. - Man 
Stljrni, Full*:r instant- 
ly Kivoa you a GIANT'S POWER— 
makes you rr.astti- of any f>tumpl 

K* *• Many Kiratin owners pull Btubbcrn- 

irSlin est stiimns in 4 tn iO minutcsl — 
■' A3 CHE AP as 5 CENTS per KtumpI 
Just a few pounds on the handle mcana tons on tho 
Stump. When stump starts, throv/ machine into hit'h 
epeeaand out comta thebigKeBtetump, root3 and all. 
FoBitively no other machine like it. Has special, jjat- 
ented features. Kecommendcd by leading Agricul- 
tural Schoola and Torestry Bureaus. 

Why have stumps when<you can now pull thsm 
so easily, quickly end cheaply? 

Amn-rlnA Offo»- To prove these claims, we 
Amazing \JtLer wm ship you any size or 
style Kirstin on THII'.TV DAYS*^ KKEE TItlAL— 
not one penny in advance. Ketarn it if not pleased. 
I£ pleased, Day low price ia:imal) monthly payments. 

Kirstin Pullers as low as Sr,0. One-man style or 
HORSE POWER— all sizes. Xliree year CTaranteo 
with each machine. 

WT_;i_ I Don't endure etumps any longer. Send 
VV riie • postal now for most valuable Stump Pull- 
er Book ever published— pictures— prices — terms — 
letters from Kirstin users and all about OUT Special 
Agent's Proposition— all Free. Write I 

A. J. KIRSTIN COMPANY 
606 Ludlngton St. Escanaba, MichUaa 



By the Government as Truck Drivers. 
Mechanics and Engineers Tlila train- 
ing may keep you out of the trenches. 
Steam and Gafl Engineers and Mechan- 
ics are also needed everywhere at home. 

Leam in the beat equipped school. 
WRITE FOR BIG CATALOG. 
CNCINEERINC COkLECE. AuaUn,MIa» 





MILKING a cow is not liKe 
pumping water. A milking 
machine is designed to work 
on a living animal and must 
therefore have qualifications 
different from other kinds of 
machinery. The first and most im=» 
portant requirement is to reproduce 
the action of nature. The sucking 
calf was the original milker. He sucks on 
the teat, then squeezes it towards his throat 
(downward) with his tongue and the roof 
of his mouth, then stops sucking momen- 
tarily while swallowing. These three ac- 
tions are faithfully reproduced in the 

actions of the Perfection teat cup, — suction, downward 
squeeze, release. That is why so many careful dairymen 
have selected the Perfection for use on their high priced 
herds. You take no chances with Perfection, even on 
your test cows, because its action follows Nature's Way. 

The Perfection teat cup fits all sizes of teats, thus 
doing awiay with the bother of changing teat cups every 



time you move from one cow to the other. The soft 
rubber lining of the Perfection teat cup feels easy on 
the cow's teats, and the downward massage, creates a 
soothing feeling which makes the cow respond by 
giving her milk down freely. 

The Perfection can be instantly adjusted to fit the 
requirements of the individual cow — whether she is a 
hard milker, an easy milker, or has tender teats. A 
turn of the needle valve of the pulsator does it. That's 
why the Perfection is used on cows on official test 
without fear of injury. 

S. E. VanSlyke & Son, Proprietors of Pine Park Stock Farm, 
Northfield, Minn., say: 

"The Perfection Milkers we have been using for over 2>5 years ire giving coin- 
plete satislaction. Our herd consists of pare bred Holtteins any one of which is 
worth more money than the milter, so we woold not continue to use it if it showed 
any bad effects upon the cows teats or udders. , .. 

We have used it as high as lonr times a day on COWS on oHlcial test, with great 
success. Some of the cows on which it was so used were two year old Heifers with 
their first calves. We are pleased to recommend the Perfection Milker to anyona 
wanting the best in milkeri." 

G. G. Burlingame of Cazenovia, N. Y., writes: 

"Your Milking Machines on my farm are giving the utmost satisfaction. They 
are very simple and easy to run and two men to do the milking in the same time that 
it used to take five. Our milk sheets show that we get fully as much milk by using 
the machines, as we did when we milked by hand. . . 

These machines are in use on three other farms, with which I am connected and 
in each case, have done excellent work. You will be interested to know that we 
made some v»ry creditable butter records last spring. One cow made nearly 32 lbs. 
In a week, two others made 27 lbs. as three year olds and one two year old made 
over 24 lbs. One cow mUked 99 lbs. in a day." 

Profit by the experience of others. 

Send for ourfree illustrated cataloe. You will find it ioteresting. 



Perfection Manufacturing Company 

2109 East Hennepin Ave. Minneapolis. Minnesota 





PAUM, 



STOCK AND HOME. 



January 1, 1918. 



and Packet Flower Seed FREE 

FOR 30 ypnrs I have sold reliable seedt. 
Thousands of ciiscomers testify to this. 
My seeds not only srrow, but produce big 
Vields. They must make good or I will. 31st 
annual catalog now ready. Write for copy. 

Lists All Kinds of Farm 
Garden and Flower Seeds 

The best arranged, most comprehensive and 
easiest catalog to order from ever issued. 
A few specialties arc: 
Cartlflad Seed Potatoes 
Wisconsin Crown Seed Com 
Pedlereed Oats and Barley 
Wheat, Speltz, Rye. BuckwhMt 
Northern Clover and Alfalfa 
Tested Garden ond Flowar Seeds 





it 
if 
if 
if 
if 
if 
i-f 
i'f 



POULTRY 

Poultry Questions answered free of 
charge. Address Poultry £uitor, 
F., S. & H. 



Sendpostal today. Mention this pa* 
per. Will include packetfiowcreceds. 

L L. OLDS SEED COMPANY / 
Onwtr 33 MADISON. WIS. 



§ommtz 



I 




I 30 DAYS FREE TRIAL 

10 Year Guarantee . 

Think of it' These' 

Btwo URBEATABIE Wis- 
consin Machines— both 

I for only $12.00— freight 
paid east ctf Rockies. 
Don't take chances. 

I Find out what an incu- 
bator is made of before 

■ buying Catalog and sample 
of material H3!>d Bent free. 



MONEY BACK 

JF NOT SATISFIED 



■ Wisconsins are made of geuuine California I 

■ Redwood. Incubators have double walls. I 
5 air space between, double glass doors, copper 

■ tanks, self regulating. Shipped complete with 

■ thermometers, egg tester, lamps, etc., ready to 

■ run. Biggest incubotor bzreain of the year. Send for 
Hour new 191S catalog fully describing this out- 
Hfit. A postal brings it by return mail. 
H ISO-Ege Incubator and Brooder both S14.7S 

■ WISCONSIN INCUBATOR COMPANY 
BBBBB Boxes Racine. Wis. 




CO DPcrnC Pore-bred Chickens, 
DnCilUd) Ducks, Geese, Tur- 
keys. Paidy northern raised, vigorons, boan- 
lifnl Fowls. Es;;s at low prices. Americft'e 
Pioneer Poultry Farm. 24 years exp, LtuL-o 
fine Aonnnl Poultry Book and Ca»aIo-ne FKKE. 

F. A. MEUBERT. Bos 601. Mankato. Mina. 



Re% BEST PAYING VARI£7CaS 

<h^^# Hardy Northern raised Chickens. 
omiiB Ducks, Geese, Turkeys. Pure-bred 
heaviest laying strains. Fowls, Eg?3. Incu- 
bators, all at low prices. Large new Poultn? 
Book and Breeders' Complete Guide FREE. 
W. A. WelKir. Box 34 > Mankato. Minn. 




0«i D9f£E,ya Book Free -108 pages. 
) Fine pure-bred chickens, ducks, Eeeso and 
' turkeys. Choice, hardy. Northern raised. 
Fowls, eggs and incubators at low prices. 
America's greatest poultry farm. 25lh year 
in business. Write today for Free Book, 

it F. NEUBERT CO., E9.X826, Mankato, RSitiO. 





R7 Varielipc Chickens, Duetts, Goese 
III lOllcilM and Prize-win- 
ninfr, pnre-brpd, hardy, northern raised,, 
Fowls, OKBS and incubators; low prices. 
Most successful farm: lyth year. Large 
fine cntulog free. LARKIN t, HERZBERG, 
Box 25, Manlcato, Minn. 



POULTRY AND PIGEONS FOR PROFIT 

Foy's big book tells al! about it. Contains 
Ifmany colored plates— an encyclopedia of 
' poultry intormat lo II. poul try, house.s, feeding 
lor eggs. etc. Written by a man who l-iioti's. 
Sent for S cents. Low prices, fowls and eggs. 
FRANK FOY. Box 30, CLINTOM, IOWA. 

I,OW PRICKS on biijh quality Barred and 
While Bocks, Partridge and Buff Wyandottes, 
8. C. Rhode Island Hods, Mammoth Pekin Ducks, 
Toulouse and Wtiito China Geese, Bourbon Red 
Turkeys. Many prizes won. Catalogue 3c, 
NAUMAN POULTRY FARM. Boz 335, Faribault, Minn. 




58 BREED 

A. A. ZIEMER. Box 



Fine Pure-breri Chickens, Ducks, 

d;t;M«:, Turkeys. Gmnt-a3, at low) trices. 
rn.Tica's Finest Poultry Farm. 
lOU I'rizes Large Calaluirue 4 cents. 

e AUSTIN, MINNESOTA 



FIFTY VARIETIES ^rVCi^r^'^^^lt^t 

ducks, geese, turkeys, guineas, moderate 

prices. . Qeij ^glralh, 



Catalog 3c 



Janosville.Mlnn. 



63 VARIETIES CliM.keiis; Bronze, V/hile Holland, 
Bourbon Hod Turkeys; TouUniso, Bnibden, African 
China Geese, Kouen.J'ekin.RuDner.Muscovy Ducks; 
Guineas. Incubators, Brooders. Catalogue li'rce, 
XIIKODOKK FKANZ, Boz84, Mankalo, Minn. 



R. C. Brown Leghorn ^'^'rT'tle^. ch.n.o 



Strictly 
Chiiico 

Stock. WrilO JOS. A. SHERMAN, Silver Lake, Minn. 



RUODK ISLANI* KKIJ.S Prepare for next 
year' flock. We have t he Stock. Write for prices. 
UKKLU TliOIVI.SON, Box 293, AuHtiii. Miiiii. 

M AM MOTU Bronze tarkeys. White China geese. 
Barred Hock cockerels. 31 firsts Twin Citiors, <Mc. 
Farm ranuu. Mrs.H.B.HOBaRT, Alexandria, Minn, R. I . 



PURE BRED WHITE AND BARRED ROCKS. Young 
and Yoailiiigflock. reasonable. Buy yonr cock- 
erels now. Mrs. J. F. BLOOM, Hill lwat«r, Minn. K.l 

Wh Ite Kixrks Kkkh for liii iclilngSi.M for Hf teen. 
Hpeckled Sussex eggs for hatching i'/i .'iD tor flfti cn. 
LOMBARD, 4725 PHIsbury Ave, Mlnnoapolls. Minn. 

MAMMOTH BRONZE TURKEYS for SalO Good wciKllt 
and hIzo. Prico for toms, |7, hens, $,■>. Write me 
for Information. H. A. BECKER, Elbow Lako, Minn. 



FREE ^""^•^'^"^ 



I T^ nm by maif. A cm < 



' Tflfl'titrrPYf 



■ . men 

. ■ , r..,l(«.d. 

..Ill Mpielllilll Ort. 

• re time Write 
It'll <I-Ulhl 




it 
• > 

i 

THE POULTRY HOUSE. 

BY I. B. UENUKltSON. 

For many years the idea has pre- 
vailed that hens, in order to lay, must 
bo kept in warm, expensive houses. 
Many, as a consequence, believe that 
fowls will not lay in the v/inter time 
on account of the cold weather. The 
old-time warm houses are, however, 
gradually becoming a thing of the past, 
and the newer type of fresh-air houses 
are replacing them. All experimental 
work in housing has shown that the 
cold house gives better results than 
the warm house, other things being 
equal. These results refer especially 
to egg-production, fertility of eggs, 
and also the vigor and vitality of the 
stock, and the vigor of the young 
chicks which are raised from a flock 
kept in the fresh-air house. 

Keep Houses Dry and Well Ventilated. 

The whole problem of housing re- 
solves itself into the simple observa- 
tion of nature's la'vus. Damp, poorly- 
lighted and badly-ventilated houses — 
whether warm or cold — will always 
bring disease of some kind. It is not 
the cold house so much as the damp 
one that retards winter egg produc- 
tion and injures the vigor and vitality 
of the flock; because the freer the 
house is from moisture, the healthier 
the fowls will be. 

The essentials required in a good 
poultry house are plenty of light, dry- 
ness, fresh air and good ventilation 
without drafts. The one hundred dol- 
lar house may be just as good as the 
five hundred dollar one so long as the 
principles underlying poultry housa 
construction are observed. By provid- 
ing good serviceable, tlio not neces- 
sarily expensive, poultry houses, the 
hens can be placed in a condition 
where they can do their best in egg 
production. Location is, of course, im- 
portant, that there will be no damp- 
ness coming up from the soil below. 

Some General Rules. 

The front of the house should not 
be higher than seven feet, and it 
should not be wider than twelve or 
fourteen feet. The front should be 
made of four by four feet windows, 
and cotton frames, same size, placed 
alternately. The cotton frames can be 
made of ordinary cheese cloth, and 
should be made to swing inward by 
having them hinged from the top. 
Place the windows and frames two feet 
above the sills and board up the space. 
The windows must be so constructed 
as to admit the maximum amount of 
sunshine. This is accomplishad by 
having the height and width of the 
window the same. A long narrow win- 
dow placed in horizontally will not 
admit the amount of sunlight that will 
be admitted by the same area of glass 
in a square window. 

If the poultry house is built as a 
lean-to against some other building, 
the width to build it has to be gov- 
erned more or less by the height of the 
building against which it is built, as 
t;ie roof must have sufficient pitch to 
shed the water properly, and also bear 
the weight of snow that may come on 
it during the winter time. By having 
the house only twelve or fourteen feet 
wide, the sun will strike practically 
every square foot of floor space some 
time during the day. The house can 
be built with a straw loft in it to ab- 
sorb any moisture and aid ventilation. 
The ceiling can be made of six-inch 
boards placed four inches apart, and 
about two feet of straw placed on this. 
At the front the loft would not be 
more than one foot high unless the 
building were highei* than seven feet. 

Interior Arrangement. 

The roosts and nest could be ar- 
ranged at the back of the building in 
such a way that all floor space can be 
used for scratching. It is a common 
plan to put up a platform about three 
feet wide and placed throe feet off the 
floor. Place the roosts ten inches 
above this platform, having them all 
on the same level. Under no condi- 
tions should the roosts in a poultry 
house bo put in on the slant — one 
higher than the other, after the stylo 
of a ladder— thoy should all be placed 
on the same level. There is always a 
tendency among a flock of hens to fly 
to the topmost perch and there fight 
for roosting space. The result is over- 
crowding on the uppermost perch, 
which is injurious to the health of tbe 




^hy Not Own a Farm? 




c Get One of Your Own 
It's an Easy Thing to Do— If You Know How 

There's a whale of a chance for Wheat Farmers in Manitoba. It's the 
greatest wheat raising country in the world, and we can prove it. Down 
at Peoria, 111., this Fall— Sept. 23, 1917, to be exact — Manitoba walked away 
with the Wheat Championship of the VVorld, and took all the other wheat pri.ies besides 
at the Twellth International Soil Products E;i;50sition. Then, jt'st to be friendly and 
sociable, Manitoba Farmers also took iii-::t prize on Barley and Hax, and sweepstakes 
on Oats and Kye. If that isn't enough to tell you about fertile soil and desirable climate, 
the Government of Manitoba wiU frive you fii!!or and more complete information by 
sending your their FKEE ILLUSTRATED BOOKS. 

These Books tell you how to get hold of fine wheat land at from $25 to 
$35 an acre, and years of time to make easy payments. Owning a farm 
isn't hard under these conditions, and thousands of renters and overworked, poorly paid 
farmers on rundown land would proUt ii they read these books and followed their directions. 

By AU MeaiBS Get These Free ISooks 

These Books 
explain to yod 
tlie situation re- 
garding beef 
cattle', which 
are bein^ killed off 
rapicly m Europe; 
about countless 
herds of hogs and 
sheep that have 
been slaughtered 
for food purposes 
— all of which will 
have to be replen- 
ished from this side 
the water, after the 
war is over. 

Manitoba Wants YOU 

because you can make big money at mixed farming, stock raising and dairying, as well 
as raising wheat, oats and barlpy. Remember, live stock is and wi:i be for many years 
very hinh in price. Manitoba is recognized by stockmen and experts as the cheapest 
producing part of the North American Continent, for growing the highest type of Hogs, 
Cattle and Sheep. 

Land values in Manitoba, it is freely predicted, will double in price after the war is 
over. Get in before the big rush, and buy prime land now cheap. 

VXTmS'I'a IVA'Ur J"^t send the coupon or put your name and address on a post- 
w » * %w TW card, and we wiil send illustrated books by return mail. 

FREE COUPON 

Saperintendent of Immlsration and Coloiilzatlon 
Province of Manitoba 
Boom No. 717. Winntpcs. Maniltoba, Canada 

Dear Sir Please send me yonr Free Books on Manitoba Fanning. 




NAME ..... 
ADDRESS . 



WE WANT CREAM 

lA^^^^^I Salted Cattle Hides, Salted Horse 
WW%^\^Wm Hides, Dry Hides, Pelts, Skins, Tal- 
low, etc, 3rou will have to ship out this season. Prices are 
high and market booming. Write us for quotations, tags, etc 



Established 

1883 



THER. E. COBB CO. 



SAINT PAUL 
MINNESOTA 



'WHERE YOUR SHIPMENTS BRING MOST MONEY" 



birds. It often happens that the birds 
fall off and are injured. 

The arrangement of the nests, drink- 
ing pans, grit boxes, etc., is a matter 
of convenience, or the likes and dis- 
likes of the person looking after the 
hens. From three to six square feet of 
floor space should be allowed for each 
hen. 

Floor Space Required. 

The breed of hens kept and the size 
of the flock will practically govern the 
amount of floor spaca required. The 
lighter breeds like the Leghorns, Min- 
orcas, etc., are more sprightly and ac- 
tive, and keep working and moving 
about more than the heavier breeds 
such as the Plymouth Rocks, Wyan- 
dottes, etc., hence the former breeds 
will, as a rule, give better returns 
under somewhat crowded conditions 
with the minimum amount of floor 
space. Small flocks require more floor 
space per hen than large flocks. A 
house twelve by twelve feet, having a 
floor space of one hundred and forty- 
four square feet, would be plenty large 
enough for twenty-five hens. This 
would allow a floor space of about six 
square feet for each bird. On the other 
hand, a house sixteen feet wide and 
twenty-five feet long, having a floor 
space of four htnidred square feet, 
would easily accommodate one hun- 
dred hens without overcrowding, and 
yet allow only four square feet per 
bird. The theory is, that in the small 
pen one hen has only one hundred and 
forty-four square feet to work, against 
lOur hundred in the larger house. It 
follows, therfore, that as the size of 
the flock is Increased, the average floor 
space required per bird may be de- 
creased, but never below three square 
feet. 

There are three different kinds ot 
floors for poultry houses, two of which 
are giving excellent satisfaction. A 
board floor forms an excellent breeding 




sunshine 

^ Hog House 
Windows 





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SHRAUGER & JOHNSON COMPANY 
' 405 Walnut S«. Atlanllo, Iowa ! 





Our 
Big Book 
Hatch inc 
Facts" 

FREE 



Increase 
your hatches with 
the Mankato Spo- 
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' years' poultry expe 
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IncubatorCo. 

Box 719 
Manknto, Minn. 




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bprasa Prepaid 





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January 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



57 




DISCOVERS 

NEW KIND OF 
INCUBMORI 

Ramaricable Hatcher- BuHt Round tike Hon** 
Nest; 1 6 Wonderhrf rimo-Saving, Work- 
Saving and Money-Saving Features 
Explained in New Free Book 

-The poultry world has been startled by this new 
type of hatcher of -which over lO.COO are already in 
ose. It is the work of Mr. Jchn E. Huftord. who for 
19 years has been a practical poultry raiser. 
Unlike other machines, this new incubator is built 
round like the hen's nest. There are no cold cor- 
ners because there are no comers at alL 

Mr Hufford's new hatcher re- 
quires only one grallon of oil to a 
batch and only one filling- of the 
lamp to a hatch. Instead of wast- 
, ing excess heat by allovvine it to 
, escapeupthecbimney.theKadio- 
Round, as this new incubator is 
called, cuts the Came down at the 
burner when the ecs chamber 
getstoo warm, thus^azYWfi'heat in- 
stead o£ ■wasting it. 

Amazing Results Reported 

There are many other features 
whichbelp to produce results that 
' have startled poultry raisers 
J.E.BUFF0RO everywhere. Automatic Moisture 
Vaporizer supplies moist, mild heat from above, 
exactly as the hen does. Complete circuit radiator 
supplies even beat throughout egg chamber; tall 
chimney Rives perfect draft; hinged cover— no heavy 
tray to lift out — eegs turned 
and cooled quickly without 
botber; double glass in top 
njeausvisiblecegcbamber; 
only 3 minutes a day re- 
quired to operate. 

New Book Free 

It Is impossible to fully describe 
the Radio- Round Incubator in this 
small space, but any reader can 
obtai!ithebeau'ifuIiilu5tratedcata- 
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exactly how the Radio-Round is 
built, why it saves so much wcrlc, 
time and money and why it pro- 
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Also gives hatching repelts from 
hundreds oi owners. 
II you are anxious to doable or 
treble your poultry profits, write at 
once to Radio-Ronnd Incubatot 
Co„344 Roger St., -Wayne, Kebr., 
im the book that tells alU Do this 
- today b^ore you forzet. 

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^Jbuys 140 -Egg 

Belle City Incabator 

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When ordered with my 
$5.25 Double Walled- 
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Bdie City tachbator Co., Box 23 Racine, Wij. 







W2. 



The "Stork" keeps egga 
wann by contact — Just like 
the hen'B body. Eiitirely cUt- 
fere.it from all otbera and abso. 
luiciy correct In p.-inclpio — Ifs 
nature's way. Eve.-y fertile egg 
will hatch a Btrong ber.Ithy 
ChJck. Icvc-*!„-i-.3 tt'.i Inrj- ^ 
baior and avo.J exijeiruye losses. 
Write for 1318 Catalog— today. 



M 
CaUIti 
tllMllK 
Katura't 

Gugisberg Incubator Co, «t.^g2tWr„"^: 



S?nd fQr EREE CATALOG 




THE LOWEST. 
Priced Bncubator 

Per ChEck Hatched 

"Hiis is proved by tba "Saeeesefal" 
y^T Tcrr-.Td. too want the "Sao- 
fol for a sure Bucceaa this year, 
J and chickens— help feed the world. 

Wnta me a postal for book and prices. "ProDer 
Care and Feeding of Cbieka, OaAT and Tnritera" 
MM for 10 cents. "SncT^ *i«»eyB 
eenftil" Grain Sprooterg 
furnish n^een food — majia 
h«n« lay in wint'»T 
•bout myhitrh-^rmdepoal- 
try-all \CMi\n« varieties, 

t. %. Ollcreet, Pre*. 

DES MOtm INCUBATOa C9. B 
«MteMeM..*«>lMaM.ia ■ fan 




place for rats and other vermin, and 
also harbors mites, lice and disease 
germs. The one -we like the best is a 
concrete floor. Such a floor can be 
cleaned at any time, and should dis- 
ease break out in a flock, the floor 
can be easily scrubbed, disinfected and 
also -whitewashed. It may be more ex- 
pensive, but once it is laid, it -will last 
a lifetime. The sand, earth or gravel 
floors are probably best for the hens, 
but when it comes to cleaning out the 
poultry house about three inches of 
dirt has to be removed in order to 
get out all the litter. From the stand- 
point of cleanliness, therefore, -we find 
the cement floor most satisfactory. 
Labor Savers. 
There are a fe-w additional conve- 
niences that can be added to the poul- 
try house to make it more efficient. 
Good judgment will decide -what is best. 
The work of feeding the hens can be 
lessened to quite an extent by having a 
barrel or box that will hold grain 
enough to last the flock a week or two, 
and placing it in a corner of the house. 
This will save a lot of unnecessary 
steps. Curtains can be tacked on the 
ceiling and dropped in front of the 
roosts on very cold nights. Allow suf- 
ficient space at the top of the curtains 
for prorer ventilation while the hens 
are on the roosts. 



PRODOCIKG STRONG, FERTILE EGGS. 

BY A. C. PETEBS, 

In order to make poultry pay a good 
profit over and above the producLion 
cost when feed is high, it is essential 
that the majority of the hens lay dur- 
ing the winter when eggs bring the 
best prices. The early-hatched pullets 
must be largely depended on to pro- 
duce winter eggs. It is therefore im- 
portant to hatch early, but pullets 
should not, as a rule, be kept for breed- 
ing purposes, nor should hens that are 
intended for breeding be forced to lay 
much during early winter. One or 
two-yeared hens should be kept for 
breeding. Hons should be selected that 
have laid well during their pullet year, 
producing at least 120 eggs from the 
time the first egg is laid. Use hens 
that moult rapidly and come thru 
the moult in good condition. They 
should show by their appearance that 
they have good health and vigor. 

They should be active and before 
Janr.ai-y 1 should not be fed more than 
one-half as much as the pullets which 
are forced for egg production. They 
should be given a ration of mixed 
grain in deep litter. The mixed grain 
may be made up of one-half cracked 
corn, one-half heavy oats to which 
should be added about 10 to 20 per cent 
of a mixture of other varieties of grain 
such as kafir corn, sorghum and spelts, 
etc. They should have access to a dry 
mash during the afternoon, as a rule, 
which should contain a mixture of as 
many of the following ground feeds 
as one can get; bran middlings, and 
ground oats mixed together in equal 
parts, then add an equal bulk of corn 
meal, about five per cent of the entire 
amount broken alfalfa or clover leaves, 
and about five per cent of meat scrap, 
with plenty of hard sharp grit and 
oyster shell. About 30 or 40 per cent 
of the feed should consist of sprouted 
cats and alfalfa and clover leaves. 
J. he hens should be left to roam the 
fi:lds until the weather is too cold or 
there is snow on the ground. At such 
times they should be kept in the house 
or scratch shed, Avhere they can be 
kept comfortable, harpy and contented. 

Make them work by feeding all the 
mixed grain and sprouted oats in the 
litter. Give them part of the grain in 
tiie morning, sprouted oats at noon 
and m:::cd grain toward evening. Be 
sure that they are free from mites and 
l;:e and see that they are always eager 
for food at feeding time and that they 
are given only enough to keep them in 
fair condition. 

Their quarters need not be warm 
but they should not be cold enough so 
that the hens' or roosters' combs 
freeze. If breeding hens are kept in 
this manner until about January 15 
they will be in proper condition to 
produce strong fertile eggs which will 
hatch well during late winter or early 
spring, at which time mo.st of the eggs 
should be incubated. About January 
15 the food should be increased to 
about all they want so that the hens 
will start laying about the first of 
March. From this time on their food 
should contain 30 or 40 per cent of 
green stuff in the form of alfalfa or 
clover leaves and other succulent food 
that is available, and about 10 per cent 
of good meat scrap and some sour 
milk or buttermilk. 

They should not be fed so much 
mash that they will not exercise freely 



The Fact-Packed 1918 Book 
'That Points the R?B«if^A 
'^Way to Good Hatches ri^lB 

WRITE for it today. It is a 
handsome book — one that 
'will interest you intensely. One 
' thatwill help every poultry raiser to add to 
bis income -to increase liis hatches — to as- 
sure splendid hatches of sturdierchicks. Ona 
thatwill add to your knowledge o£ genuine 
Incubator values— enable you to know posi- 
tively what to expect and dcm.-ir l in the incu- 
bntor you buy. Write for it— read it— and leant 
the secret of the fine batches assured to users oC 

X-RAY Incubators I 

Sent Express Prepaid to Practically All Points 

Fill the big oil tank of the X-Ray Incubator just once during 
the hatch. The lamp's flame is scientifically adjusted by the 
X-Ray Automatic Trip. The flame is automatically decreased 
or increased as needed. No wasted heat — no "cooked" eggs 
—none chilled. 

The 20 Exclusive Features make the 1918 X-Ray Incubator 
better than ever. They include the X-Ray Gas Arrector— 
ingenious device that prevents lamp fumes entering egg chamber; X-Ray 
Nursery Tray, that assures sanitation, protects little chicks; X-Ray Egg 
Tester most perfect, handy tester ever conceived; Handy Height; Quick Coolingr 
Egg Tray. All exclusive X-Ray features that make poultry success sure. Be sure 
to write tor the 1918 X-Ray Booli tonight. 



ts 1 



One 



to an 
Entire 
natch 



X-RAY Brooders 

Built this year with famous X-Ray 
Duplex Heater, as- 
suringr uniform and g , 
properly distributed^*^ 
beat. Canopy top ^-■ -jjjii'' 




"I Always Do 
Better With 

OldTpasiy 




So says Mrs. 

Catherine Sullivan of Osman, Wis., one"o£ 

the750.C0O Old Trusty owners, "I've seen many 
grood incubators but the hirrher the poultry prices 
the more we depend upon Old Trusty," Write and 

CUT THIS BOOK of POEr 
Foiiltry ''Know How" rllL 

and leara why Old Trusty means more than 
ever to you this year. With valuable ecrcrs aad 
b!? profits at stake you can't afford to lose a 
single hatch. Our oldest machines are now 
14 years old and still making big hatches. 

We Pay the Freight or Express and 

ship Old Trusty double quick— completa'y , 
b«:lt— ready for business the minute it arrives. 
Write today. Yours truly, H. H. JOHNSON, ' 

M. M. lOHNSON COMPA^jV / 
H.H.IOHNSON CLAY CENTER NEBE^ASKA 




in the litter. They should have range 
v.henever weather concitions warrant. 
If conditions and environment are 
right the hens will be in fair fiesh, 
active, happy and contented and they 
will sing and cackle most of the time, 
scratch a lot, and fisht a little, and 
their eggs will be strongly fertilized 
and will produce strong, vigorous 
chicks that Will fairly pop from the 
shells at hatcMng time, providing of 
course that the incubation has been 
properly done. 



Legume, a Grain Substitute. — One 

hundred and seventy-five pounds of 
good alfalfa or clover hay is worth as 
much as one hundred pounds of the 
ordinary grain feeds. With the pres- 
ent prices for feeds ranging from $C5 
a ton for bran to $85 a ton for corn, 
the average cost for 100 pounds of 
rrain is about $2.75. The cost of its 
food equivalent in the form of 175 
pounds of legume hay Is $2.15. This 
much hay will produce 200 pounds of 
milk and effect a saving in feed cost of 
CO cents, which is at the rate of 30 
cents for each hundred pounds. 

The utilization of such hay partly 
solves the dairyman's problem in these 
days of high feed cost and milk inves- 
tigations. — G. E. Weaver. 



— Nearly 8 per cent of the eggs mar- 
keted in the Ignited States are lost 
through spoilage or breakage. Much 
of this loss could be prevented thru 
community egg circles. 



RisK ^^^^^^ $1250 

AViih 30 Davs Free Trial FreigW 
An lOVr. Guarantee Paid 



Thfnic of itf Yon caa now get this f amots 
Iron Ck)vered Incubator and California Bed- 
' wood Brooder on 30 dav^s tri?,!, vith a ten-year 
guarantee, freight paid east of the Eockies. 

iBcnbator fa covered with ealve^Lie^ iron, triple w 
conper tanks, nursery, ece" ^-^^r: r. Set np tl idy toi 

Brooder is roomy ot^d v?:-:! --^ ' 

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meat— money back i£ r'>t £a 

fied or eeDd for t ree cata t c ^ . 




IMentloD tie's paper.] 




Potato^ 



Saves Time and LahoT — Increases Yield 

Pays for ItscU many limes ever. One man aud team 
■ pens farrow, drops Boed any disiamc or depth, drops 
fertilizer (if desired), corcra np, murks next row. Anto- 
inatie. More accurate, dependable and quit-kcrthan hand 
planting. Farrow opens r.nd seed dr* p: mi plain stghi 
Does not rajaro seed. Pas I'^uz life, ucetls £ew repMrs. 3 
Kizos for 1 or 2 rows Piotoct yourscif against un- 
certain labor and seasons. AVntt; for Ci-.talos. 

Enreta 
Mower Co. 



In Stock 
Near Yoa 



Box 952 
UUca. N. Y. -/i,- 





[MectloD tiiiB paper ] 



January 1, 1918. 





Nit's. Mary L <3i^e7oW - fditor 



For the Home Council. 

WHY NOT CENSOR THE PERIODICALS? 

Once in awhile I hear somebody pro- 
testing against the reading of the yel- 
low-backed novel. I haven't seen a 
book of that variety for many a year. 
They are not found on the bookseller's 
shelves nor exhibited in windows 
among the newspapers and magazines 
of the day. The much-abused ten-cent 
story book of days by-gone was inno- 
cent indeed, compared with much of 
the periodical literature of the present. 
Not the yellow, but the blue, the red 
and the green books (with other tints) 
abound in realistic "red-blooded" 
stories so daringly risque that one 
with a modicum of modesty would not 
read them aloud in the family circle, 
nor allow them to fall into the hands 
of innocent young people in his care.. 

Vice in its most disgusting forms 
is portrayed so graphically that the 
bleared eyes, the bloated features of 
their libertines and degraded women 
seem all too real. Nor is salacious 
fiction confined to the lesser publica- 
tions. Much that is suggestively-im- 
moral may be seen in high-class period- 
icals. 

The old-time story papers and maga- 
zines contained frivolous, romantic fic- 
tion not realistic, but clean, at least. 
No oaths, or coarse expression marred 
their pages. One might safely begin 
the reading of a new serial or short 
story without fear that an indelicate 
suggestion, or phrase, would bring a 
blush to the cheek of the most modest 
of maidens. 

A late number of a woman's maga- 
zine contains a story purported to be 
from a small boy who relates his ex- 
perience in "Ousting Aunt Mary." 
Here is a partial list of his slangy ex- 
pressions: 

"Good Lord," says Pop, "I'll be 

d ■ if I can stand another visit 

from that durned, old fool." 

"Sure as shootin'. I didn't see that 
servin' was interferin' with her line 
o' rag. Gosh! It was some job eat- 
in' breakfast." 

"A blamed old hen party. Always 
has Pop foamin' at the mouth. Cussin' 
didn't do no good. I'll be goldurned." 

When requested by Aunt Mary to 
tell some news story at the table, the 
boy blurts out the substance of a par- 
agraph in relation to Teutonic plans 
to re-populate the country in plainer 
language than decent people would 
tolerate. 

This story is not even funny and is 
surely not uplifting. The heroine of 
another story recently published in a 
first-class periodical, shocks the staid 
ladies of a small town who are, of 
course, ridiculous prudes, by a daring 
dance in which her feet are elevated 
to an alarming degree. She is an aris- 
tocrat bewilderingly beautiful, and her 
performance would be applauded by 
the select society in which she was 
reared. 

But there is no use in enumerating 
examples of the risque stuff which 
creeps into our periodicals even tho 
the editors insist that they want only 
clean, wholesome stories. 

The movies are censored — why not 
the periodicals which revel in the 
risque, the stories depicting the lives 
of bad men and women? 

One editor advertises his require- 
ments in a writer's journal in this 
wise: "We need short stories with 
a daring flavor of sex interest." 

"The elemental man" seems to be in 
high favor with fiction writers and 
many editors. We do not need him in 
our homes. 

Many mothers have no knowledge 
of the literature of the day. They do 
not even glance at magazines and pa- 
pers their children read. By some all 
;i( tion is barrf:(l ; Ralph Connor's "Sky 
I'llot," would IxV consigned to tho 
M;irrie8 as quickly as the vilest, most 
1 Mirient novel which Is in circulation. 



Others, tho capable of discrimi- 
nation think they are too busy to ex- 
amine the reading matter which is 
brought into the house. 

"I wish you would look over Lena's 
books," said one of the latter class to 
me. 

"I'm afraid they are not all of the 
right sort, but I haven't time to ex- 
amine them." 

Yet this lady had an abundance of 
time to crochet and embroider. 

Mothers who feel unable to direct 
the reading of their children would 
do well to consult their teacher or her 
pastor in regard to the selection of 
periodicals and books for the family. 

With our excellent schools, equipped 
as the most of them are with libraries, 
young people should acquire a taste 
for good reading. But if the yellow 
journals and tainted magazines are 
received in their homes, the better 
class of literature will soon pall on 
their tastes. 

Movies are thought to be responsible 
for much juvenile crime, but the 
stories in which the gunman figures, 
and in which the arts of the burglar 
are portrayed must have an equally 
demoralizing effect. The coarse, 
slangy and oath-punctuated dialogue 
cannot be cast on the screen and 
therefore the printed story carries 
with it an added evil. 
So why not censor the periodical? 

Polly Ann PRrrcHAKD. 



For the Home Council. 

HOW I MADE m CROP. 

I was very anxious to start my 
garden, but I had rather a hard time 
deciding how large a plat to take. 
Most of the girls had lots about forty 
by fifty, and not to be outdone by any- 
one I took my garden fifty by sixty 
feet. 




Elsie McNall 



In spring the ground was plowed 
and harrowed, then I raked it. As I 
had my garden at home I raked it as 
soon as it was harrowed. First I 
planted peas, beets and onions and 
after all danger of frost was over I 
planted corn and beans. The plants, 
tomatoes, huckleberries and ground- 
cherries were set out later. I was also 
going to try to raise some peanuts; I 
ordered the seed and read all the lit- 
erature about peanuts I could get, but 
I did not get the seed until it was too 
late to plant them so now I have to 
buy what peanuts I want. 

Our canning club was divided into 
groups and each group had a certain 
time in the week to work. Each group 
had a leader who helped with the 
work and assisted our teacher as much 
as j)ossible. 

Before my vegetables were ready 
to can I put up several quarts of rhu- 
barb and berries. My peas and beans 
were ready to can first. I prepared 
them at home, then took them to tho 
school hou.so where I blanched, cold 
dipped, packed and sterilized my pro- 
ducts. When 1 thinned out the beets 



I canned them for greens. This year 
I canned my beets a different way. 
Before the beets were blanched until 
the skin slipped off, I had some 
trouble with them loosing all their 
color and of being soft and unfit for 
use. This year I only blanched them 
about half as long as before. It was 
much more work, however, to scrap 
the skin off, but I don't mind the work 
so long as I got results. 

We had monthly meetings and dis- 
cussed subjects of interest to the 
members. We also held picnics which 
were enjoyed by all the members. 

In July and August we canned the 
most. Some of the groups canning as 
much as one hundred and thirty cans 
in one morning. Our group consisted 
of eight girls from high school. We 
also helped the little girls, from the 
fourth and fifth grades, who were 
very willing to learn to can and help 
mother. When we canned corn one 
would cut and one pack as corn must 
be handled as quickly as possible. I 
had no trouble with my corn keeping 
this year. I followed the instructions 
very carefully and the corn canned in 
glass jars kept as well as that in tin 
cans. 

I was one of the six members of 
our club who went to the County Fair 
to demonstrate the cold pack method 
of canning. There we canned two 
days, putting up corn, tomatoes and 
apples. Three were chosen for a team 
to go to the State Fair, and I was very 
pleased when I learned I was one of 
the team. 

We worked very hard the next week 
and canned as much as we could to 
exhibit at the Fair. 

While at the Fair we stayed at the 
Girl's camp. We had meetings, went 
sight-seeing, played games and en- 
joyed ourselves as girls usually do. 
While at the camp we met Mr. Benson, 
the National leader of boys' and girls' 
club work, and many other people who 
are interested in this great work. 

We competed with twenty other 
teams from Minnesota and won in 
spite of the fact that Mr. Erickson 
teased us saying we let a boy beat us. 
I also won grand championship in 
canning. 

It was decided our team, and a boy 
winning second in the State should 
have the privilege of representing 
Minnesota at the Inter-State Fair. In 
about two weeks we again boarded 
the train, this time for Sioux City. 
There we competed with the cham- 
pion teams from Iowa, Nebraska and 
South Dakota. Good luck to South 
Dakota! 

Our club was composed of sixty 
members who canned over four 
thousand quarts of which I canned one 
hundred and eighty-five cans. I also 
assisted our leader as I have canned 
before and knew something about it. 
I do not say the work was always easy 
for it was not. It was hard and dis- 
couraging at times, but I feel fully 
repaid for all and more than I put into 
the work and I will continue it as long 
as I can. 

Elsie McNall, 
State Champion Canner. 



- TRAINING LITTLE GHLIDREN. 

Simple, home-made, indestructible 
scrap-books are most satisfactory for 
little children. They afford endless 
opportunity for education. 

We have been intensely interested 
in watching our little daughter with 
her first books. In addition to their 
educational value, they are a source of 
great pleasure and have grown to be 
her daily companions. When she was 
about fourteen months old, she was 
given her first book, a small linen one 
containing pictures of animals. Those 
we would call by name as we pointed 
them out to her, and as they became 
familiar she would point them out her- 
self. After she had learned to talk, 
she could say the names also. Linen 
books containing pictures of objects in 
colors were next given the child and 
when she had become acquainted with 
these, group pictures were added to 
the collection. 

By counting the objects in the va- 
rious groups — not over five at first — 
and by calling attention to tfieir color, 
the child learned both number and 



MotherKnows! 

"Hello I _ Isthisyou,mother? My 
new sewing machine just came— - 
and oh, it's a beauty! But they 
forgot to send any oil with it." 
"So much the better, my dear. 
Those so-called fish oils only gather 
dust and jint. They really make 
the machine Aiiri/frto run. Don't 
oil your machine with but 
3-in-One. I've been using it for 
twenty years and I know there is 
nothing else as good.'* 

3-in-One 

penetrates to the bottom of the deepest bearing. 
Practically eliminates friction. Never gums or 
drica out. Instead of collcctine dirt, it actually 
works dirt out of bearings and keeps them 
clean. Makes old machines run like new. 
Saves repair bills. 

3-ln-One is a perfect polish for 
Jhe case. Brings back that 
new" look and prescnxs the 
wood. Prevents rust and tar- 
nish on the nickel and metal 
surfaces. 

Sold at all stores— In 15c, 25c 
and SOc bottles and in 25c 
Handy Oil Cans. 

FREE — Liberal sample of 
3-ln-One Oil and Dictionary 
of Uses sent free. 

Threa-in-Onc Oil Co., 

165 IDS. Broadway. N.Y. 



Salesmen 
Wanted 

In all Northwestern 
States to sell direct 
to the consumer, our 
line of 

MACKINAWSi 
SWEATERS, 
RAINCOATSi 

Wool and Cotton 
HOSIERY 
and 
UNDERWEAR. 

Parcel Post or Ex- 
press charges paid 
by us. 

Good Salesmen do Well 

APPLY AT ONCE 




Minneapolis Wooien Mis Co. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

IMentloD this paper.] 



MUS9C LESSONS FREE 

Become most popular person la your set! 
[ Leaknto I'LAY l:Y NOTK:— Piano, Oraran, 
I Violin, Panjo, Mandolin, Trombone, Flute, 
j Guitar, Uliclclo, Saxophone, Clarinet. Piccolo, 
I Cornet, Harp, 'Cello, orto sine Special Linii- 
teclollerollrcewceklylcssons. Voupayonly 
I ior mii'Jc and postatre, only 12 J -2 cents a 
jvCL-k. NoAxtrni. IJcpinnrTsormlvancrdpuplls. 
Sv(.>rythinfr illuHtrntou. plain, t^implo.HV^ttfniaUc. 
J?rco lortiiron ench wui l:. lU ycaia' buccobs. 
1 WRITE CuarAL TOnAV 1 or rroo Ilooht«t. Over 
1 200.000 Lucccssf til ptiptlt* all uvcr tliu coootry. 
U. S. SCHOOL OF MUSIC 
7S1 Brunsv/lcU Bldg., N*w York 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



£9 



EDISON'S Life-like Phonograph 




Model 50, Edison Dtamond Jlmhemh 



Music You Can Have vfith the Amberola 

Here aie a few selections taken at random from the Edison 
Blue Amberol Record Catalog. They will give you an idea 
of what a treasure-house of music you will have to draw on 
when you get your Amberola. 



ACCORDION 

Aroou reuse Waltz 

Carnival of Vcoice — Variatioiu 

Italian Army March 

My Sweetheart Waltz 

BAND 
American Eagle March 
Ada March 

Coronation March — Prophete 

Father of Victory March 

Gems of Scotland 

Invitation to the Waltz 

Jolly Fellow" Waltz 

Loin du Bal 

March Reliitioso 

Medley of War Songs 

Messenger Boy March 

Sestet — Lucia di Lammermoor 

CONCERTINA 
The Butterfly 

Catch Me If You Can, Dance 
Merry Widow Waltz 

CORNET 

Bride of the Waves 
Conae Sing to Me 
A Dream 
Nightingale Sent 
The Rosary 

FLUTE 

Hear Me. Norma — Norma 
Long, Long Ago 

HARRY LAUDER 
1 Love a Lassie 
Just a Wee Deoch and Doris 
Roamin' in the Gloamio' 
She's Mv Daisy 

MARIMBA BAND 
Blue Danube Waltz 
Garden Dance 
Messenger Boy March 
Sari Waltz 

INSTRUMENTAL 
MEDLEYS 
Hawaiian Hula Medley 
Medley of Southern Plantation 
Songs 

Money Musk Medley — Virginia 
Reel 

Selectiom from Red Mill 

When it's Allele Blossom Time 

in Normandy Medley— Turkey 

Trot 



INSTRUMENTAL 
QUARTETS 
Dream_ of the Tyrolienne (Herd 

Girl's Dream) 
Flower Song 
Hearts and Flowers 
Serenade 

OLD TIME SONGS 

Carry Me Back to Old Virginny 
Just Before the Battle Mother 
KiUamey Lost Chord 

Love's Old Sweet Song 

ORCHESTRA 
Destiny Waltz 

Every Little Movement — Madame 
Sherry 

In the Shadows Last Waltz 

OVERTURES 
Morning, Noon and Night in 

Vienna Overture 
Orpheus Overture 
I^uy Bias Overture 
Beautiful Galatea Overture 
Light Cavalry Overture 
Overture Oberon 
Poet and Peasant Overture 
Rienzi Overture 

PATRIOTIC 
Battle Cry of Freedom 
Star Spangled Banner 
Where Do We Go From Here ? 
It's a Long Way to Berlin, but 

\l/el\ Get There 
We're Going Over 
Over There Laddie Boy 

Send Me Away With a Smile 
Good-Bye Broadway, Hello 

France! 

I May Be Gone For a Long, 

Long Time 
U. S. Army Bugle CalU-No. 2 
Good-Bye, Good Luck, God Bless 

You Medley— Waltz 
U. S. Army Bugle Calls-Part I 

PICCOLO 
Nightingale 
Through the Air 
Will o' The Wisp-Polka 

VOCAL QUARTETS 
Bridal Chorus — Lohengrin 
Down on the Mississippi 
Moonlight Bay 
Little Cotton Dolly 
In the Golden Afterwhile 
Moonlight on the Lake 



MINNESOTA 

Ada — J. J. .fnlDisfMi 
Adama—K S ICrckciiliracIt 
Aitkin — Uyrlf Muslf Co. 
Aitkin — I'otlc-r-C'asey Co. 
Albert Lea — Ilcnry llarm 
Anoka— B. J. Witte 
Arlington — A. W. Scbarpiag 
Austin— Hrhleudcr t'aper Co. 
Bagley— Im|K>r1al Dmg Co. 
Bamesrille — (i. A. .Janpcky 
Beardsley -.J. L. f"1 1 /.geiald 
Beaulieu — E. A. 'tt'esfoii 
Bellechester — (Joodliue Co-Op, 

Bemidji— K. A. Barker 
Bird Island— E<1. rollins 
Bramerd— M. D. Folsom 
Breckenridge— W. V. Paeko 
Brown's Valley -II. W. Barrett 
Buffalo— T. Ttiomi.Mon 
Canby— f. X. Kittelsrjn 
Cannon Tails — V:ilpntine Fnm. Co 
Cass Lake— I,. II. Boni.s 
Chaska— O. 11. IIHIh 
Chatfleld— f. II, Anilfrson 
Clarkfteld- .lolin Larson 
Climax — .1. 1". s^KM 
Cloqnet— VV. J. Potfr.i 
Cottonwood— .M. U. cdw.n 
Crookaton— a. A. Wallace 
Dawson— A. M. A. rianBon 
Deer Biver -Daloy 4 Hanger 
Detroit .1. W. Itlioad.-s 
Duluth Saviiliiiiicn Co. 
Eden Valley — It. W. Hynpnian 
Emmons Ho. .Minn. Timtn Co. 
rairmont - M<'l roii»lltaii Mn«. Co. 
Faribault - 1(. 11. Bach I'laoo Co. 
Famirgten I". J. ficmboli] 
Fergus Falls .1. N, Kovang 
Foley Win. Stilml 
Fos»t«n y,i\ Utiiiil 
Gibbon- <;. K. I'.lcbl 
Oleneoe -la.v 'Jonid 
Glenwood Arllmr Ire<n« 
Graceville .1. I", 'irainrrr 
Granit* Fall* -Ix ti rllnK Drug Co, 
Hallock Olfe Peterson 
Harnka K. K. .Nelson 
Hi>«»lng» II. A ';ieridenn)ntt 



THE iV£W^ DIAMOND 

AMBEROLA 

Don't miss this opportunity ! We have made special arrangements with the Edison Labora- 
tories, and have secured the personal consent of Thomas A. Edison, the master inventor, to 
offer you the use of one of Mr. Edison's 1918 Model New Diamond Amberolas and any 
twelve of the famous Edison Records in your home ON FREE TRIAL for a period of 
three days. The reproducer of the New Diamond Amberola is the genuine Edison 
Diamond-Point reproducer. The records we offer are the famous Edison Blue Amberol 
Records that are almost unwearable and unbreakable. 

Don't hesitate one moment to mail the coupon at the bpttom of this page and fiivd out all 
about the 

ABSOLUTELY FREE TRIAL OFFER 

which permits you to have Thomas A. Edison's marvelous invention, the New Diamond 
Amberola, on trial in your home without costing you one cent or obligating you in any way. 

Once you have Mr. Edison's wonderful Diamond Amberola in your home you will 
never let it go out again, so real, so life-like are its reproductions. It is hard to believe that 
an invention can be so nearly human. When you come in from the fields or home from town 
all tuckered out, and when the evening meal has been cleared away, you go irilo the silting 
room and put a record on the Amberola. At the first note of Anna Case singing "Annie 
Laurie," Albert Spalding playing "My Old Kentucky Home," or any other favorite 
melody, you settle down in your favorite chair for an evening of the keenest enjoyment. No 
need to go outoide for entertainment — you can have your fill right under your own roof and 
it won't make any difference to you whether it is as cold as Greenland or whether there is 
a blizzard raging outside. You run the whole show to suit yourself. WTiy losger deny 
yourself this delightful, inexpensive entertainment and recreation? 

HOW TO GET THE AMBEROLA ON FREE TRIAL 

Look over the list of dealers belowf, and pick out the name of the one nearest you. Fill out the coupon and 
mail it to him. He will send you the beautiful Amberola booklet, "A Master Product of a Master Mind," and 
the Blue Amberol Record Catalog, from which you may select the instrument you prefer and any tweh^e records 
for FREE TRIAL If, after you have tried them, you feel that the enjoyment the Amberola gives you is 
worth more than the small amount you would have to part with to keep it, you may remit in cash ot anange 
convenient terms with the dealer. If, for any reason whatever, you do not care to keep the Ambeiok and 
records, simply notify the dealer, who will cheerfully take them back. You risk nothing, you do not obligate 
yourself in any way. RESOLVE NOW that you will not turn this page before you have filled out ihe coupon. 

You*ll want the beautiful booklet, '*A Master Product of a Master Mind/* 
anyhow. It is FREE. Just ask for it. 

LAURENCE H. LUCKER, 88 So. 8th St., MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
If you live in Iowa or South Dakota write Harger & Blish, Des Moines, Iowa, and Sioux City, Iowa. 
EDISON DEALERS WHO GIVE FREE TRIAL. 



Hawley— K. K. I^c 
Henderson — .\. C. Bhisni;; 
Henning — J. I). Lcfiiuii^t 
Hibbing — .lolin Goaril 
Hopkins — \V. S. Kmetana 
Hutchinson — E. B. Metiannon 
International Falls — ('has. Wirt 
Jordan — ('. II. Case.v 
Kasson — Walter Anden-on 
Kimball — A. ('. Douplns 
Lake Benton — i;. H. Kiekcnapp 
Lake City— A. K. Kaiser 
Lamberton -I.,. H. Grlnim 
Le Hoy II. H. Albprtsoii 
Lewisville — .1. IC. Moor(^ 
Little Falls— W. Folsom 
Long Prairie— Iteichert & Scbenk 
Mable— I.ee Bros. 
Madelia- I'fefreile & Bill 
Hadison--('. <). Querna 
Mahnomen I^rin'x House Furn. 
Mankato--*;oiner .Tone.^ 
Mapleton — <). V. KarllKTC 
Marshall- A. .1. Gag 
Mazeppa- A. K. Ilawkinson 
Milaca -^I>eiiiiison Dni^; Co. 
Minneapolis — K. Siiie I'liono Co. 
Minneota — T. Ciilsliaw 
Montevideo — ('. A. Slicidahl & 
Moorhead Wui. Neslieiui 
New Bichland — .T. A. Tyrholm 
New Ulm i;, A. rfclT. rli- 
North Branch — A. .1. Knieger 
Northfieid ('. A. Biermuii 
Odin (). .\. Call 
OsilTie -Oltii Balir 
Ortonville I,. I'alm 
Osakia— I'uiil 'I'oKstail 
Osseo .1. M. KvaiiH 
Owatonna- C. Zamlrani & Sons 
Park Rapids— n, TV. fuller 
Payiieaville - ISiialiie &. .Seliwartz 
Pcrham- M. II. i.hhh 
Plainview Sjiantoii iliisle Co. 
Princeton .Mrx. A. 51. Kw inR 
Princeton < . A. .Taek DniK Co. 
Raymond— Karl Soniirierrille 
Red Lake FaUs— R. Ilolzman 
Red Winir — .\. Swanson x Honn 
Renville .1. O. Wemhy 
Rochester A M. Bii. h & Co. 



Roseau — .T. M. Holm 
Sanborn — E. .T. Yaejrer 
St. Charles — Geo. Snillli & Sons 
St. Cloud — .1. P. Avery 
St. James — A. K. Peek & Sou 
St. Paul— W. A. Lucker 
St. Peter— Julius Kltt 
Sanhom — E. J. i'aeger 
Sauk Center— T. R Myo( t 
Shakopee — M. A. Deutsch 
Sleepy Eye — .Sleepy Eve DruK 
Springfield— I'. W. Kusk(! 
Spring: Valley— P. K. Joi i is & Soix 
Stephen — Stc plieii Dnij; Co. 
Taylors Falls — M. A. 'rnnKcn 
Thief River Falls— Thief River 

Music 
Ulen— Thos. McDonald 
Vesta — Jacob Seliroedcr 
Villard — P. G. Peterson 
Virginia — Savolaineii Ct). 
Wabasso — J. J. IIofTman 
Wadena— Bntturff & Son 
Walker— T. A. Barker 
Warren — I). Parrell 
Waterville — J. .T. Worleiii 
Wells— Stiles Jlry. Co. 
Wheaton — Hole.v & Nonlin 
<j„„ Wilder — Malehow Bros. 
"onWillmar— 'I he Music Store 
Wilmot— G. W. Baker 
Windom— E. E. Glllam 
Winona — Inter state Merc. Co. 
Winnebago — Sheaffer & Alvcy 
Wood Lake — N. T. Mai;nnssen 
Zumbrota— Sigmond & Sons 



Cando — Carl W. Slocura Pingiee — K F. Pressnall 

Cayuga — Frank Kniiacke Portal — C. B. Biiggs 

Churchs Ferry — Whilei & Peterson Ray — Hrnnsvold Bros. 



NORTH DAKOTA 
Almont - O. r. EUingson 
Anamoose — Wni. (ilol/.liach 
Aneta Ilendrlckson & Co. 
Antler— W. H. Wegner 
Balfour— Miller Drug Co. 
Ban try -T. E. I 'o.v 
Bathgate— McNeil & Grandy 
Beach — M. I'. I.<iTgien 
Belfleld -Kiioii[> At March 
Bismarck — I.enliart Dniir Co. 
Bottineau — Klaileland -Wllllara.n 

Drug Co. 
Braddock T<. M. Ooftrsclilag 
Burlington — Wistroui Bros. 



Courtenay — V'ale.s' Pharma<'y 
Crosby — Boock & Korbel 
Dazey — II. M. Kranz 
Devils Lake— E. li. Eugebretson 
Dickey — Hcg.stad Bros. 
Dickinson— (ieo. Ber/.il 
Dogden — P. K. Sohutstad 
Edgeley— W. U. Ravely 
Elgin— Julius Heil 
Ellendale— N. T. Ilolto 
Esmond — II. F. Sitzer 
Fargo — Stone I'iano Co. 
Flaxton— I'laxton Drug Co. 
Fortuna — Oscar Johnson 
FuUerton — Jj. llonwilij 
Goodrich — T. B. I.evi 
Grafton — (;. W. Kiiogmau 
Grand Forks — Stone Piano Co. 
Grenora — W. (J. Felland 
Halliday— S. W. Hall 
Hankinson — Hankinson Drug Co. 
Harvey- W. L. Buttz 
Hettinger — A. J. Hancock 
Jamestown— H. G. Plcard 
Kenmare — E. H. Gross 
La Moure — Wm. Isaacs 
Langdon— A. (). Wold Co. 
Larimore — C. M, Swanson 
Linton — Ilcyerni.TH Bros. 
Mandan — C. G. Omyue 
Marmarth — W. C. Vandervort 
Mayville~\V. R. Mnnro 
McVillc -McVille Drng Co. 
Michigan — N. B. Benson 
Minnewaukon — Olson Drug Co. 
Minot -MInot Drug Co. 
Montpelier — K. E. Carley 
Mott Mott Drug Co. 
Now England — New E. 

Drug Co. 
New Rockford — J. C. Mar.x 
New Salem — Gaebe Drug 

Co. 

Nome — C. K. Myhre 
Oakes — A. (i. Anderson 
Omemoe — O. S. IJen 
Park River— P. Walstron 
Perth- -P. O. Buggo 



Reynolds — Sweii EUingson 
Rhame— S. P. Killy 
Richardton — C. Turk 
Sarles — Erskine & Greinor 
Sentinel Butte— The Butte Drug 
Sherwood — Miller Drug Co. 
Sheyenne — Wcstad Drug Co. 
Steele — Poye Photo Shop 
Sterling— S. T. Parks 
Streeter — Buck & Enzminger 
Underwood — Eva odor's Pliarm. 
Valley City— Dakota Drug Co. 
Walhalla— Moriii & Heltach 
Watford City — Luudin Bros. 
Werner — Werner Pharmacy 
Westhope — Westhope Drug Co. 
Williston— E. J. Swedlund 
Yucca — M. D. Woiley 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Brookings — J. G. Ovloe 
Bryant— Ell Schmidt 
Elkton — Elkton Drug Co. 
Milbank — R. .\. Berkner 
Revilo— L. E. Eiistenes 
Rosholt— B. C. Arehart 
Sisseton — M. E. Croi kett 
Volga — H. 1. Eunis 
Watertown — L. W. Cooke 
White — Arthur Gazeley 
Wilmot — Wilmot Drug 

WISCONSIN 
Amery — Danielson Drug Co. 
Arcadia — Jos. Felsliwim 
Augusta— II. J. & E. 1'. Treiher 
Barron — C. C. Morrison 



Biair — O. Ii.steHfe 
Bloomer — If. W6ni*r & Sons 
Chippewa Falls — Geo. S. Raymond 
Cumberland — B B. Hiipkins 
Durand — Bowniau & MeXfahoii 
Eagle River — S. R. Van Bnssum 
Eaii Claire — W. B. Sleiuherg 
Ellsworth — Moody-Baher Co. 
Gelesville— HaMersoD-PJniBBier 
Co. 

Hay-ward — A. Schmidt Drug Co. 
Hudson — hjiigebrttsou 
LaCrosse — Bergli PIhbo Co. 
Mellen— 0. W. IjOfkhart 
Menomonie — Meoo«aoi»e Pi:ouo & 
Art 

Hondovi — C-lias. Ijc^ 
Neillsville — C C. Snit*ii.au Co. 
New Richmond — » '. Tl. Todd 
Odannah — J. S. Stearn* Lbr, Co. 
Osseo — A. B. Olson 
Park Falls— .A. F. Mait- 
Rice Lake — Oscar O^crl.y 
Rhineiander — Geo. Jewell 
Spooner — I,ciijiiier Drug Co. 
Spring- Valley — P. li. U'lie 
Stanley — A. Kristlanwn 
Superior — HusseJ Bros. 

IOWA 

C&lma: — R. J. Betkfr 
Creseo — Oi esco Music .'sliop 
Secorali — Dci orah Mnyi- Shop 
Waukon — C. A- S'tout 

MICHIGAK 

C&lumet — McJ^ognu A J'' ari i- 
Crvstai Fallfr Binne. *t Mou. s 
Hubbell— M< 1). iialU BroH. 
Ironwood — Wiii. D Tripv'et 



Black River Falls — A. S. Rullanil OnloDagoB — 1) l>i'n- 

I" WRITE YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS IN MARGIN 
BELOW AND MAIL COUPON TO NEAJ*EST 
EDISON DEALER 



I 



Pkate aend me the Amberola Book and particij/an> ahcut i/c ur /\W££ TRIAL 
offer on Edison Amhemka 



60 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



color. Emilio Poullson's book on 
"Finger Plays" is an enjoyable sup- 
plement to pictures of this kind. 

\Vo found simple, home-made, in- 
destructible scrap-books most satisfac- 
tory and attractive. Anticipating the 
book stage, we had collected a num- 
ber of colored pictures from maga- 
zines. For the leaves of those books 
we used brown paper-muslin, cutting 
a number of pieces twelve by twenty- 
four inches and, after laying them one 
on top of another, stitching them 
through the center, thus making a 
l)ook twelve by twelve inches when 
closed. On the pages we mounted the 
pictures with paste. 

One book contained pictures of 
fowls, turkeys, chickens, ducks, geese, 
guinea fowls, and some pigeon and 
crow pictures also. In another book 
we pasted pictures of four-legged do- 
mestic animals. Many of the pictures 
showed the family life of these in their 
natural surroundings. They proved 
most interesting as the child's expe- 
rience is confined almost exclusively 
to the family of which he is a member, 
and animal families naturally appeal 
to every child. 

Our little girl is now nearly two and 
a half years old, and she has never 
tired of her scrap-books. Thru them 
she has become acquainted with the 
different animals and the sound made 
by each, aiul is able to connect the 
animals and their calls. 

The number of books of this kind 
which would be of great educational 
value to the child is almost limitless. 
Birds, flowers, vegetables, trades, 
farming, and history might all be pre- 
sented to the child in this form. As 
our little girl grows older we have 
planned books of harvesting pictures 
showing the various stages in the 
growth of wheat from the preparation 
of the soil, planting of the seed and 
so on, until it passes thru the hands 
of the miller and baker and linally 
reaches the child in the form of her 
daily bread. 

Another interesting process is the 
building of the home from the trees to 
the finished product. This book will 
contain pictures of the forest where 
the trees grow, the man felling the 
great trees, the horses and wagons 
which haul the trees to the saw mill, 
the cutting and planing of the boards, 
the train which transports them to the 
lumber yard, the boards piled high in 
the lumber yard, the carpenter at work 
putting the boards together, the house 
in the process of construction and 
lastly the finished home and the family 
who lives in it. From these process 
books, the child can be led to realize 
that it takes rain, sunshine and 
warmth to m^ike the trees and the 
grains grow, and that there are many 
people to thank for providing our sim- 
plest food and that above all, God is 
the great source of everything. 

"Mother Goose Rhymes" and the 
child's favorite, "The Night Before 
Christmas," are always welcome diver- 
sions, and after repeated readings the 
child is able to supply words, lines, 
and later whole verses, thus inciden- 
tally developing the memory. 

With the exception of a few simple 
books which are really story-telling 
pictures, I would advocate the telling 
of stories rather than the reading of 
them to small children. The primary 
object of story-telling is to stimulate 
the imagination of the children, culti- 
vate a taste for good literature, and 
guide them to the best books. 

Mrs. Jess Sweitzer Shaeffer. 



For the Home Council. 

HOW FARM WOMEN CAN MAKE MONEY. 

In most localities the growing and 
selling of small evergreen and orna- 
mental trees, either with or without 
other lines of nursery stock, may be 
made a profitable business by a farm 
woman. One farm woman who always 
had a love and knack for growing 
trees for seed, made good money that 
way, and is in a position to constantly 
increase her income from this source. 
She is starting large numbers of wal- 
nut and butternut trees from seed, to 
sell at three to five years of age. She 
buys catalpas and other ornamental 
trees by the hundred as seedlings, and 
grows them in her garden in long 
rows till larRe enough to offer to the 
public. She makes a specialty of 
standard varietie.9 of evergreens, buy- 
ing and growing them the same as the 
others. A hundred one and two-year- 
old seedlings of many varieties may 
be had by mail for a dollar, and at 
three to five years old aside from loss- 
es brine ten to fifteen, and cost very 
little to grow. Her plan is to put out 
a hundred or two of each of the best 
kinds every year, IncrnaHing hnr plant- 
ing If her sales justify doing so. She 




Seeds Are Scarce 



Decide Eaply ^What You 
Wm Plant 



Y^U are facing- a critical situation. 

has there been such a shortage, 
seed for some crops. 



Good seed is scarce. Never before 
You may not be able to obtain good 



Revise your crop plans if necessary, so that you will get the most out of 
every acre of land and every hour of labor. Your country needs the largest 
tood and forage crops that you can produce and you will receive high prices 
for what you raise. 

Arrange early for your seed supply. Be sure 
to use hardy seed adapted to your locality, and 
tested for purity and germination. Dependable 
seed is always the most profitable, but this year 
it is more necessary than ever before, on account 
of the value of the crop. You can't afford to 
take chances with doubtful seed. Go to your 
dealer early and order the best brands of all the 
seed you will have to buy this season, before they 
are sold out. 

NortbrupKing&CoSs 




are known to thousands of farmers as depend- 
able, tested seeds of hardy varieties. They 
are carefully recleaned and tested for purity 
and germination. Under favorable conditions 
they will make big stands of healthy, produc- 
tive plants. 

These seeds are sold by dealers in nearly 
every locality of the Northwest and have 
behind them a reputation won by thirty-four 
years of honest dealing. 

Notwithstanding the general scarcity of 
seed, we have on hand large stocks of most 
varieties. 

Be sure of your crops this year. Call at 
your dealer's early and order your seeds by 
brand— STERLING brand, NORTHLAND 
brand, or VIKING brand. 

Names of dealers in your locality handling 
Northrup, King & Co. 's seeds, furnished on request. 

United States Food Administration License No. G-32453 

Northrup, King & Co., 

SEEDSMEN 
MINNEAPOUS, MINNESOTA 



is also raising a considerable number 
of the best varieties of apple trees, 
starting them from seeds herself, and 
having them grafted with the desired 
varieties. She does not plan on do- 
ing an extensive business, just simply 
supplying a home demand. Such a 
venture would be especially profitable 
in 'sections where little natural tim- 
ber grows, and on the outskirts of 
progressive little cities. 

Another woman makes a snug sum 
of money every year from grapes. 
Grapes are as easily grown as any 
common fruit, but for some reason few 
farmers raise them. This woman has 
a large yard of the standard varieties, 
and puts them in small market bas- 
kets, placing them with nearby coun- 
try and village merchants to sell by 
the pound. She keeps her vines well 
pruned, and produces a fine quality of 
fruit. Farmers in the vicinity buy her 
fruit in preference to any other. 

Another woman has a little plum 
orchard of choice varieties. She 
l)runes and takes care of her young 
trees herself, and sells all her product 
at fancy prices without difTiculty. Her 
plums arc in special demand for par- 
ing, and putting up whole. 

Another farmer's wife makes a con- 
sideniblo amount of money every year 
from strawberries. She sets out a 
now bed of the best varieties every 
spring, putting the plants in long rows 
HO that they may be easily cultivated. 
As soon as the old bed Is thru bear- 



ing it is plowed under. Her new bed 
every year insures her a big crop of 
large berries, and she is never able 
to supply the local demand. This wo- 
man plants only what she can attend 
to herself, but she makes enough 
money of her own to buy what new 
things she wants for her home each 
year. 

One woman raises bulbs, perennials 
and shrubs for sale, specializing in 
rambler roses. She is fortunately sit- 
uated, and sells considerable quanti- 
ties of bulbs and such like to a certain 
seed house, thus securing a nice in- 
come of her own. 

Nanct Bbooks. 



For the Home Council. 

ADAPTING OURSELVES TO WAR TIMES. 

In these war times there are many 
unpleasant conditions which we all 
would like to avoid, but it is impos- 
sible to avoid them, and some it would 
be unpatriotic to try to avoid. So let 
us try our hardest to adjust ourselves 
to circumstances and make the best 
of everything and try to like things 
which we naturally dislike. 

Like the Chinaman, when asked if 
he liked rats, as he was in the habit 
of eating them, replied, "He's my 
vituals and I must like him." There 
is a lot of good sens© in that reply. 

There are many things that we can- 
not get rid of, therefore we must like 
them and induce others to like them 



SEED 
CORN 

Buy your soedxorn RIGHT this 

Get dependable, guaranioed seed 
et prices that are lower than 
you're asked to pay for corn ' 
bought at your own risk. Don't 
pay a high price for "crib run" 

old corn or depend on the poorly ma^ 
turod last year's crop for seed. Plan 
Adams fully Kiiaraoteed, hlfrh (rt-rm.- 
nation tost seed corn, SKLECTKD AND 
TE3TEO BV PROP. J. A. HENDniKa. late 
instructor at lown State AgT 
iColIeKe. Investigate our seed 
' \yrite for information, 
prices and samples NO\r 





103 



SSPer 
Bu. 

Samples Free 

Finest seed produced. 
All new crop. Av(r. 
99 l-2pori't. GuaruD- 
teo<? hinh RormiaatioD 

rdic" 



teat.The cream of No. Iowa. Timothy Bolt Jrop.'l'uJdSS-' 
•nd bett erj)r oduclngthan ueod farther south 

CHEAP 



OATSl 

eeenl oats of thin bin x-".- 
ducln« vRi n'ty at bnririii. 
prioo. Write for Hamjilo. 
Tho Adams S«od Co.., 
Box <»[j Ukcuoau, Iowa 




FREE 




TRIAL 



Ijet ufl send this fine Razor for 80 days free trial. When 
satisHed after nsinff, send $1.85 or return razor. Order 
lodaf. JONES MFO. CO., Dept. I 34, CHICAGO, IkU 



Sirawberrv pDp|7 To Sntrodnco our Pedigreed Ever' 
PL A NTS f^l^LtL' bearing HtiHwhomVs wo will Bend 
J5 Oae plants free. COKSOLIDATEO HURSERV CO.'.' ST. lOUn, MO. 

IMentloo tbls paper.] 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



61 



al«o At present when we are asked 
to conserve food, which is necessary 
for our soldiers, we can all help in 
that I keep a few boarders, to help 
me out, and they object to wheatless, 
meatless and sugarless days. So, in- 
stead of cutting these out for entire 
days I have corn bread, corn pancakes, 
corn waffles, oatmeal cakes, or buck- 
wheat cakes, at least once a day, and 
make them so good that but very lit- 
tle bread is eaten at that meal. And 
instead of having wheaten breakfast 
food I frequently substitute cornmeal 
mush, "Hoover ptidding" as it now is 
called. At other times have oatmeal 
or corn flakes. Frequently have oat- 
meal or cornmeal mush fried for break- 
fast, and instead of beef or pork every 
day I substitute fish, oysters, eggs 
or cheese. , , 

And instead of so much pie and cake 
T change off to puddings of various 
kinds, which require less shortening 
and also less sugar and flour. I have 
quit using sugar in my tea or coffee, 
and also on my breakfast food, but do 
not ask the rest to do likewise. 

I feel quite patriotic in thus denying 
mvself of these luxuries, which I have 
always been accustom.ed to having. 
But I know we are all as well nour- 
ished and as healthy as before, and we 
are Hooverizing to considerable extent 
without scarcely knowing it. 

And another way in which to adapt 




A Good Piano 

ON EASY TERMS 

If you would like to have a beautiful 
fine toned piano In your home, write us 
for the special offer we are now making In 
places where we have no local agent. You 
can save a good deal of mon'^y and at the 
same lime secure a piano you will be proud 
of and buy it on very easy terms. Write 
at once and we will send you full infoima 
tion by return mail. If you woald like to 
consider a good used piano ask for our 
Bargain Balletin No. 61 just out, descrlb 
ing many fine bargains at from $85 up. 

W. J. DYER & BRO. 

Dept. 98 ST. PAUL. MINN 

Established 47 Years 



Potted Winter Blooming Bulbs 

. W^e euarantfco them to roach you 
rsafely, even in co)de^^t of weather and 
to blossom Batisfactorily this winter in 
Noor home. Potted in rich eorth and 
fertilizer. They arc rooted and ready 
rto make instant growth. Yoar choice of 
>arc]49D8, Hyacinths, TullpH and 
Oofug, 2 pots for 25 cts, 10 pots for 
Jl 00 Postpaid. 

Cor Nurseries and Seed Farms wore 
established here in Northern lo'.va over 
a half centary ago and our *'Unzzard 
Belt" strains of Fruits. Ornamentals. 
Everbearing Strawberries, Garden 
— Be^ds, etc., are heing grown success- 
fnlly in every state in the Union. Catalogue of 
our various Blizzard licit*' prrwlncts and a copy 
of onr papf;r iiardneHs Garden Experience, Free. 
The tiardner Nursery Co., Hoz 54 , Osase, Iowa 




ourselves to war conditions is to be 
more economical in dress and thereby 
save money to buy Liberty bonds, or 
contribute towards Y. M. C. A. build- 
ings and furnishings for the soldiers, 
and the children should be encouraged 
to save their nickels and pennies for 
the Red Cross fund. That will appeal 
to them more than anything else, for 
they know how serious they feel about 
little hurts and can sympathize with 
sick or wounded soldiers. If we could 
persuade our young boys to give the 
price they usually spend for cigar- 
ettes, picture shows and other foolish 
things, what a lot it would be and 
mean so much for our soldier boys, 
who will surely appreciate every act 
of kindness done for their sake. 

And furthermore, much as we dis- 
like to have our boys leave us, let us 
do our very best to encourage them 
and cheer them on in this great con- 
flict, and hope and pray for their 
speedy return. 

Mbs. Theda Dee. 



For the Home Council. 

SKIMMED MILK IN COOKING. 

Skimmed milk is usually so abun- 
dant on the farm that its value in the 
diet is overlooked. Quart for quart it 
contains a little more protein and a 
little more milk sugar than whole milk, 
but much less fat. Because of the 
lack of fat it cannot be used in place 
of whole milk for children. It is, 
however, a most valuable adjunct to 
the diet on meatless days, and the 
cheapest protein food for the farmer's 
table. 

Aside from its food value skimmed 
milk adds much to the quality and 
flavor in cooking, and is a first aid in 
converting left-overs into palatable 
dishes. Milk used in bread in place of 
water adds as much protein to a pound 
loaf of bread as there is in one egg. 
It gives a softness of texture to bread 
that adds particularly to the palata- 
bility of graham or bran bread. 

Cereals cooked in milk instead of 
water gain in flavor and food value. A 
particularly nourishing dish is pre- 
pared by cooking down 10 to 12 parts 
of skimmed milk to one of rice, oat- 
meal or other cereal. Where this is 
to be served for a dessert, use one- 
fourth cup of rice and one-fourth cup 
of sugar to three cups of milk. Cook 
until thick. This can be used in place 
of cream with stewed fruit. 

Milk soups or purees are made with 
skimmed milk and the pulp of beans, 
peas, onions, potatoes or celery. Fish 
chowder made with milk is a most 
substantial meat substitute. A few 
oysters or a little meat stock will suf- 
fice to lend flavor to a milk soup. 

Skimmed milk thickened with flour 
and served hot on hard, stale bread 
or toasted biscuit makes a comforting 
cold-weather dish for breakfast or sup- 
per. 

White sauce or cream dressing can 
be used with bits of meat to make at- 
tractive dishes, or with warmed-over 
vegetables. Cheese added to the 
sauce gives another variation. This 
can be served on rice, macaroni, hom- 
iny, or cauliflower. 

Skimmed milk can be used in mak- 
ing such desserts as blanc mange, 
junket, tapioca, custard, cornstarch 
and bread puddings. In fact, skimmed 
milk is an ever-ready help in many 
forms of cooking. 



A Good School 

That offers most thoro courses in Prepara- 
tory, Bookkeeping, Shorthand . Stenotypy and 
Typewritiiig. On account of the war there is a 
Tremendous demand at good salaries. This isrhnol 
is Known all over the Norliiwest for lis super 
lor trainlntf. Write for Catalog today. 

AUSTIN SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, AUSTIN, MINN. 



TO 

CONSUMER 



Coffee Wholesale 

10 ihs. foi 35c i2.r<I I'ropald S IM 3e pw lb. In 5tb 

1 ■* I Ijx. fn, 'Uc. I'repaid I ztia from St. Paul 

50 lb-., ("i 'i-ie. II 1.60 By SVelKtat Prepaid 

This Cofleo in Koaranteed and If not satlsfac- 
U>Ty retnm )tatonrexp<:n«ean<lgetyoiirnioney 
back. Order thiscolTee and yriu'll always bay It. 
JAPAN TKA COMPANY 
K B. Anderson, Mkt. 
t4« W. e<h Slra«< ST. PAUL, MINN. 



r>0 

frMlactorntonKir 



LP M 5 r C duplicat/jd at Ioks 
C ra O t O than roMiil prices. 

Bwcon Lens Grinder 



For the Home Council. 

FROM ONE OF THE SHDT-INS, 

These neighborhood clubs must be 
very nice things for those who can go 
to them, but I have often wondered 
how many other women have to stay 
at home and be lonely because others 
are so busy with neighborhood clubs 
and such things that they have no 
time to be neighborly. 

I came near saying that I envied 
the editor of Home Council having a 
boy over in France, and then I had a 
vision of what it would be like, and 
concluded that, after all, perhaps the 
woman was right who said to me, "It's 
easy for her to talk. She hasn't any- 
one to go." So I guess I'd just better 
try to do cheerfully the work that is 
given me and see if in this "Sodom" 
I can raise four boys, worthy to take 
the places of four of the best lost "out 
there.*' There must be some satisfac- 
tion in having children old enough 
to realize that they have become some 
thing really worth while. One can 
tell so little of what the little folks 
are going to be. 

I liked Ida M. Shepler's article 
about dressing the children. I have 
often wondered why the women who 
wore brot up in warm wools in the 
mild Enronean countries, should they 
come to this "prosperous" country, let 




Strength in 
Flour 




What Is Gluten? 

Gluten is tKe protein element in -wlieat. 
it is the foundation of all flour. On it de- 
pends a flour's strength, rising power, flavor 
and nourishment. Therefore, the more and 
better quality gluten a flour contains, the 
better the flour. 

Patriots are saving wheat by mixing wheat 
and rye flour; wheat with corn flour, etc. 
Success -with mixed flours depends largely 
upon the quality and character of the wheat 
flour so used; — get the best and strongest 
wheat flour available. 

Pillsbury*s Best is milled from selected 
wheat which is rich in gluten. Consequently 
it is a strong flour and is well suited for use 
with mixed flour recipes. When used by itself, 
it makes a large, sweet, highly-flavored loaf of 
bread that will not dry out quickly. 

The Flour Question Settled 




Assures 
Good Bread 




62 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



«EAT MORE FISH" 

Oheatier Uian «io<it and jnat as noaTlsbing 




SABLEFfSH (lunmM'ly Black C>id) 
llocouiuicmlpd by II. H. Bn'^;ia of Klsliories 
We uttor tlio foUowing, packed in lOU-lb, 
(not wu) boics: 

SABLEFISH 14c PICKEREL I 3e 

RED SNAPPERS... I 4c PIKE I 6o 

WHITINQ Sc WHITEFISH I«c 

HALIBUT eOc TULLIBEES 12q 

COD 13c HERRING »c 

FINNAN HADDIE (sniokod) MULLETS 80 

I'arkrd in Ifi and 'iO lb. boxes 20c 

NORTHERN HERRINO, lU Cartons (»0 lbs.) . .$9.00 
IN CARTONS 4 (8Ulbs.).. 4.00 

'■Fiozon with lUe Wisgle in Tholr Tails." 

'''Iva"'st"''{ Dressed Herring - - 9^c 

Packod any assortment in 100 lb. boxes at above 
prices. In less than lUO lb. boxes add 26c. 

100-lb. assortment, above varietCs « 2-oo 

50-lb. " " " 7.80 



FISH IN BRiJNE- 



-Splcoii and Pickled 

20-lb. 10-lb, 
pail 

.»2.oa 

, 4.00 
. 3.60 
. 2.50 
, 3.20 
. 8.30 
. 2.7D 



Flat Lake Rnperior Herring .... 

Breakfast Mackerel 

Spiced Messed Herritij; 

HambMrft Stylo Spiced Herring 

Full B'at Ilorrlog..,, ., 

AnchoTie Spicud 

Kussian (<ardiaos 

Order New 

OUR GUARANTEE) Prompt sblpment, satisfac- 
tion or iiiimey refunded. Out Fish are State 
inspected. 

NORTHERN FISH CO. Dept. S, Dululb. Minn. 

Capitalized, $50,000 



pail 
$1.15 
2.25 
1.S& 
1.30 
l.KS 
1.75 
1.40 




FROZEN FISH 



OCEAN FISH 

Red Snappers ...14c 

Sableflsh ..14c 

Gray Cod 13c 

WbitiB«. 9e 

Halibut... 80c 



CANADIAN FiSH 

Pike I6c 

Pickerel ...13c 

Whlteflsh... 16c 

TuUibees ,...,18c 

Mullets 8c 

Lake Superior Herring - ' 

Lake Superior. Pan Frozen, 

Dressed Herring -no waste- 
Packed any assortment In ITO lb, boxes at 
above prices,. Add 25c for smaller quantity. 

Prompt Shipment — Full Weight — Quality 
and No Subfiiitutions guaranteed. 

Write for price list and recipes. 

WAKOE liARSBN FISH COMPANY 
Dept. F. S. H. OULUTH, MINN. 

Our Ki.sh Inspected by Minnesota 

Stale iTood & Dairy Commission. 



8Hc 



WINTER FROZEN FISH 





Herrins: 8c lb. 

IMckerel CRound) 13c lb. 

Pik<' 16clb, 

I,ari;<! Whitefish. 16c lb. 

TuUibees 13c lb. 

We offer for immediate shipment the finest 
winter-c:ins;lit fi^h at prices quoted above. 

Fancy I- rozen Oeeaii *'isli — Ked Snap- 
pers, 14(! lb; Dressed Sablcfish, 14c lb; Whiting, 
9c lb; Halibut, 20c lb. 

JOHNSON & CABU, 
Dept. 2, Fidelity Bldg. Duluth, Sllnn 



APPETIZING, toothsome, 
•* rich, tender fish, "that 
fairly meitin your mouth" 
caught in deep icy cold 
■vpater.s and Instantly froz- 
en alive. Inspected by 
Minn. State Food Commis. 
•Ion for yotir protection. Unlnih prices; 100 lb. 
boxes net wgt. Silver star Herring, 7!^c per lb: 
Whitlnii, ilc: Ked .Su;i[,p(Ts (drc'ssod headless) 11c; 
Tulibeo (H hili;lish) 14.:; babloiish(dressed headless) 
ISJ^c; Pike Itic; P ckcriil, 14c. Chicken Halibut 
(dressed heaaicss) IBc; Salmon (dressed hi'adless) 
l6c. One-half cent per lb. hiifiior than above prices 
for 50 lb. lots, also wln:n orilorcd shipped from our 
briinch houses at Fat g». N. 1)., Aberdeen, 8. 1)., Dus 
Molne.-), la., as v/e payllio freight to these points. 
Larue pr;ii;licai cook Ijor.l'. Free with each $15 order. 
For a real I ri,at OrUor rjow. Profusely illusir;ited 
catalog Froo. SAM .IOHNSON a, SON'S FISHERIES, 
Inc. a Dululli, Minn., Depl. 3. 

We Pay iiie Freight 

r.t Farijo, N. O., Aberdeen, H.D, and 
Oi!S Moines, la. You Sovo Both 
Time and Money when your .shipnjents .are 
tntiUo <lirect from the .shipping point nearest 
you. All our fish are inspocKJd by Minn. 
8taloI>airy and Vood Com. This gives you lull 
protection. Sweet,, rich, lasty, juicy fresh Hsh. 
Diiluth prices: lUjy.il Uerri'ig, lUU lb. box (gross 
weight), Net m lbs. I'iko (.lersiiy Blue), per 

lb. «c: Uo<;kliHh,lle;Skaiewlng, Uc: Sableflsh, ViWc- 
Pickerel He; Salmon, l(;c. Add 50c uio e ucir 100 
lb. when shipment m are made from ourolhershlp- 
plngpolnl;<. Shipments will be ma<l<i Dec. 16lh. 
Think ahead— .send your order nowdlniei to 

A. S JOHNSON FiSH CO. "T' Duiuti), iVIinn. 
Order from the OSd Reliable Fish Firm 

Fresh water frozen Herring, He; 
I'ilio, 15c: Pickerel, 12c; (Jlscoes 
(Hmall Luko Superior Whllefish), 
Hablnllsh l ie; Whii.liig, (li;. A ny assort ment of above 
varlel leH in Ml- lb lio.Tes a nd up. 

I.AKIC SlII'ICKKUl ia8H C'OIVIPANV 
Depl. S, 208 C. PIrel SI., DULUTH, MINN. 

Koforcnccs, Aoiorlcan iSzohango Matlunal Bank. 



their children wear thin cotton under- 
wear thru our severe winters. I never 
thot of its being a matter of fashion. 
But, of course, our fashions are set by 
the women who live in the steam- 
heated Hats, and many of the women 
who live by the old-fashioned heaters 
have no better sense than to follow 
these fashions. Isn't it "fashionable" 
to disregard children's comfort, any- 
way? My neighbor, who always has 
her housework done much better than 
mine, lets her little ones come over 
here on cold days, bareheaded, with 
slippers and big holes in the heels of 
their thin cotton stockings. 

A Fakmek's Wipe. 



For the Home Council. 

WHEN MY DREAM COMES TRUE, 

Our house was built in the "good 
old days" when little thot was given 
to planning for conveniences. The 
first floor of our house consists of a 
front room with two bedrooms, a liv- 
ing room, a dining room opening into 
a rcstroora, bedroom, lavatory, a 
kitchen and side porch. To the south 
is a front porch and to the north a 
back porch, all three being screened 
in and vine-covered. The second floor 
consists of a hall way, three bedrooms 
and a storeroom. 

Under the dining room is a small 
cellar, the kitchen and lavatory, each 
having a fifty-barrel cistern, which 
provides plenty of water for all pur- 
poses the year around. Should "my 
good old man" give me three hundred 
dollars I should not hesitate a moment 
to put it into improving the house. 
First, I should have a full basement 
put ill with provision made for a 
laundry, coal room, and cooling room. 
In addition to this I would install a 
modern ventilating system thruout 
the entire house, with a toilet and 
bathroom on the second floor. 

A large part of the above work 
could be done with the help of the 
general man on the farm and I woula 
still have enough of the extra money 
left to build a sleeping porch to the 
south, opening from the hallway on 
the second floor. 

This would suffice for our present 
needs 'till another dream brings me 
money for a heating and lighting sys- 
tem for the entire house. 

HULDAH EVANDEB. 

Ottertail Co., Minn. 



For the Home Council. 

HOW I WILL OSE MY $300. 

As my husband's income this year 
was $300 more than he expected he 
has turned the snug sum over to me 
to me for investment. After carefully 
considering the matter, I have decided 
to put in a water system. 

Our house is a large square build- 
ing containing nine rooms, con- 
veniently arranged with heating ap- 
paratus and light, so if I am able to 
obtain the water system I shall be 
satisfactorily and conveniently sit- 
uated. 

In my case the water will be 
pumped from the cistern, by means 
of a gasoline engine, into a pressure 
tank placed in the attic, v/hich is suit- 
ably arranged for this. The bath will 
be on the second floor fully equipped, 
two faucets and a heating tank in the 
kitchen, a laundry equipped in the 
basement. 

I think this a good investment, as 
it is going to save a great deal of 
strength and vitality for the house- 
keeper besides the pleasures and com- 
forts this system will afford. Water 
without a doubt is the greatest pro- 
moter of cleanliness, and cleanliness, 
the poet says, is next to godliness. 

Douglas Co., Minn. Mes. Otto Lunb 



CONTRIBUTED RECIPES. 

Apple Fritters — Core and pare four 
apples. Cut into slices one-third inch 
thick, leaving the hole in the center. 
Sprinkle with sugar, lemon juice and 
cinnamon. Dip each slice in fritter 
batter and fry in deep fat. Drain on 
brown paper and sprinkle with sugar. 

Fritter Batter — Yolks of two eggs 
well beaten, add one-half cup of milk, 
one tablespoonful of olive oil, one salt- 
Hpoon of salt, and flour enough to 
make a drop batter. When ready for 
use, add the well beaten whites of 
two eggs. — Helen Tiyman. 

Apples With Oatmeal — Core apples, 
leaving large cavities, pare and cook 
in a syrup made by boiling one cup 
of aiigar with one and one-half cups 
of water for Ave minutes. When the 
apples are soft, drain and fill cavities 
with the hot, well-cooked meal, and 





'Sr&rJti^.l,~g-^^'t;z;-!.2::sL. sr; ll IS 

ESJIIr^tfc^lt.it^'.*^---^'^^ 1.-..-. *W»! 10 



A book every 
music-lover 
will want 



It has required 20 years of 
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This great book of 542 pages is the recognized authoritative index to 
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Every m-asic-lovcf will want a copy of this great Victor catalog of rausle. Erefybody 
should have ihia bool;, whether or not they have a Victrola. All will appreciate it because 
of the information about artists, opera and composers, and the numerous porlraits and illus- 
trations it contains. Any Victor dealer will gladly give you a copy of this great catalog of 
music, or wc will mail yau a copy free, postage paid. 

Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U. S. A. 

Berliner Gramcphooe Co., Mootreal, Caaadica Distributors 

New Victor Records demonstrated at all dealers oa the Itt of each month 




Victor 
Supremacy 



ly. .Iw.,. look for the bmou. \tm1c- - i ^, . 
oicc." It I, on nil ^nu>D* prtxluct. ol | j^^^^ 
f.lhloe M.chlnc Cornpany. jj ■ ■ ■ " 



When writing to advertisers always mention Farm. Stock €UDd Home. 



For Free Catalog of all the Styles of Victor -Victrolas 
Send This Coupon 



We sell Victor- Victrolas at the low- 
est Victor prices ou small inonthly 
payments or for cash. We carry all 
the Victor Records. Write us or send 
Coupon for Catalog. 



W. J. DYER & BRO., Dept. 82, St. Paul 

Send Victor Catalog to 

2fame 

Aildress. 



DEPT. 82 



W. J. DYER & BRO., Victor Distributors 

ST PAUL. MINN. 



■ ■ ■ STRICTLY ERESH.Wcatllcr fru- 
1 Hcfl ^■'"^ I'liko Kish. dirt-ct to con- 
JH 1 H B siniiors, packcrt In barrels or 
boxes, at thti roIlowiiiK prices: 
Herring, S7.00 per lOU lbs: Plokorel, 910 )>i-r lUU lbs; 
Pike, SI 4 per lUU lbs: Tutlbeoe, StO por lUO Ib.s. 
My tniili^ Is conllncd to l.iiko Superior and Nor- 
tlierii Liilu'S h'lsli— iibsoliitoly no (ici';in or other 
arllllclally frozen or sloniiied tl^ti bandied. Send 

order to ^ KEKNER, ^''pVs"" Dullish, Minn. 

Bsfabllshod laoa. U. S. I'ood Administration U- 
e. nsi! (>. 4liW5. 


^MgRRRRi). ^ Uf r gnaranlea onr Lake 
^^t^^H^w^wSSBHr Ilorrin^to bo 
^JMjBmStf^^ real fresh weather frozen 
^"SSSsafjf'^ ~ dully from onr own Klsbory, 
packed loose in strong sanitary boxes, special for 
family use. Prompt and safelv delivered at your 
siation, $8,00 per lOU lbs. rickorel 12o; Pike 16c; 
Willi int? 9c; Dressed Habletlsh i;!i<;c, Send for 
prices. All onr Osh comply wlib Nalional I'uro 
Kood laws. ELLINQSON & HANSON, Dululh, Minn. 
U. S. Fond Adiiiinislral ion License No. (J. :;:M3. 




You ran Kct noiiifhody to nell you any 
thInK yon wnnt. If yon aae P., S. A iff. 
1 CluMHlflcd advrrtinlne. 


lr=r5=;^li^K^S3r-!^ POWERFUL AIR GUN 

lITrgrtea^*^ tL>-^^ '^vor action ridi, fro.. rursflUInf 2IS Art 
IfaSt''^^ nnii IJfUftfmi * I'lfturcn or IJ-t i>ltint. I'oi.t t^artlti nt Kto. 

Otinyotif\wct,. oatcs MFC. c6.,o«pt.a2i cnicaqo 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



63 



serve with cream and sugar. — Helen 
Lyman. 

Shepherd's Pie — Two Cups cooked 
meat, one cup stock, one tablespoon 
fat, one tablespoon flour, one-fourth 
teaspoon salt, pepper, two cups 
mashed potatoes. Put diced meat into 
a baking dish. Add brown sauce 
made of fat, flour, seasonings and 
stock. Cover top with mashed pota- 
toes, brush with fat and brown in 
oven. 

Turnip Fritters — Pee! the turnips, 
either white or yellow variety, and 
cook until tender. Drain and mash, 
seasoning with salt, pepper and 
chopped parsley, if liked. Cool slight- 
ly, then add one well beaten egg. Add 
sufiicient flour to stiffen; set aside 
until cold, then slice and fry in bacon 
fat until a golden brown on both sides. 
Serve very hot. — Eleanor Kramer. 

Potted Hominy and Beef — Five cups 
cooked hominy, four potatoes, two 
cups carrots, one teaspoon salt, one- 
fourth pound dried beef, two cups milk, 
two tablespoons fat, two tablespoons 
flour. Melt the fat, stir in the flour, 
add the cold milk, and mix well. Cook 
until it thickens. Cut the potatoes 
and carrots in dice, mix all the ma- 
terials in a baking dish, and bake for 
one hour. 

Stuffed Onions — Boil the onions in 
salted water until nearly tender; 
drain, and remove the centers leav- 
ing a hollow shell. Chop the onions 
centers, mix with them an equal quan- 
tity of fine breadcrumbs, season with 
salt, pepper and butter, then add a 
heaping tablespoonful of chopped meat 
to each two onions. Stuff the onion 
cases with this mixture, place in a 
buttered pan, pour around them a 
half-cup of milk, and bake for thirty 
minutes. Serve hot. — Eleanor Kra- 
mer. 

Potatoes a la Riley — One quart of 
peeled and diced white potatoes, one- 
half pint of thick cream, one-third 
pound of strong American cheese, one 
small onion, a two-inch cube of fat 
salt pork, and salt and pepper to sea- 
son. Chop the onion and mix with 
the diced potatoes, salt and pepper. 
Break or chop the cheese into small 
bits, sprinkle over the potatoes, then 
pour over all the cream, and the diced 
pork, and its fat after trying it out. 
Bake for an hour, in a covered dish, 
then remove the cover and brown nice- 
ly. If liked, chopped red or green 
sweet peppers may be substituted for 
the black pepper. — Eleanor Kramer. 

Tamale Pie — Two cups cornmeal, 
two and one-half teaspoous salt, six 
cups boiling water, one onion, one 
tablespoon fat, one pound Harabur? 
steak, two cups tomatoes, one-half 
teaspoon cayenne pepper cr one small 
chopped sweet pepper. Make a mush 
by stirring the cornmeal and one and 
one-half teaspoons salt into boiling 
water. Cook in a double boiler or 
over water for 45 minutes. Brown the 
onion in fat, add the Hamburg steak 
and stir until the red color disappears. 
Add the tomato, pepper and one tea- 
spoon salt. Grease a baking dish, put 
in a layer of cornmeal mush, add the 
seasoned meat, and cover with mush. 
Bake 30 minutes. 

Roast Meat — In roasting beef, heat 
a pan or roaster, place the meat in it, 
turning it till the cut surfaces are well 
seared. Do not use a covered roaster. 
The searing makes a coat or crust on 
the outside which prevents the escape 
of the juice, so that the meat is lit- 
erally "cooked in its own juices." If 
the roast is placed properly, the melt- 
ed fat will run down the sides and 
baste the meat sufficiently. This 
makes a juicy roast, while if water is 
used, or a cover, a dry roast is the 
result. When water is used or a cover 
placed over the roast, the resulting 
steam will break the seal and allow 
the juices to escape. — North Dakota 
Agricultural College. 

Fish Chowder — Rabbit, fowl, or any 
meat may be used instead of the fish, 
or tomatoes instead of milk. Carrots 
may be omitted. One and one-half 
pounds fish (fresh, salt or canned), 
nine potatoes peeled and cut in small 
pieces, one onion, two cups carrots cut 
in pieces, three cups milk, pepper, 
three tablespoons flour, one tablespoon 
fat. Fry chopped onion in fat for five 
minutes. Put fat, onions, carrots and 
potatoes in kettle and cover with boil- 
ing water. Cook until vegetables are 
tender. Mix flour with one-half cup 
cold milk and stir in liquid in pot to 
thicken. Add the rest of the milk and 
the fish which has been removed from 
the bone and cut in small pieces. Cook 
until the fish is tender, about 10 min- 
utes. Serve hot. 




REPAIRS 



FOR ALL FUNRACES AND 

Send us Name and Number and we will 
supply Repairs and Parts at small cost. 



STOVES 



II S. Third Street, U. S. STOVE REPAIR COMPANY, Minneapolis, Minn. 




AGoodViolinOutfit 



For $11.75 



Includes a selected violin of beautiful 
finish acd tone, also violin case, bow, chin 
rest, tuning pipe, box of rosin, extra 
strings, instruction book, and free lessons 
(correspondence method). Your money 
back if not perfectly satisfied. Other out- 
fits at $15, $2U and up. Also cornets, saxo- 
phones, clarinets, drums, flutes, ac'ordlons, 
mandolins, guitars, ukeleles, and the new 
taneo banjos, etc. Vicirolas and records, 
pianos, organs, sheet music. Write for 
free catalogs. 

W. J. DYER & BRO. 

Dept. 103 ST. PAUL. MINN. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer.i 
in Musical Instrumeuis 



I 



USiC TAUGHT FREE 



boil can Ktoui TrUuM, Uitiku quuA-Ci} 
In Your Home. Write today for our booklet. It tells 
how to learn to play Piano, Organ, Violin, Mandolin, 
Guitar, Banjo, etc. BeKinnera or advanced pupils. 

American School of Music, 39 lakeside 6ldg.. Chicago 

[Mention tbls paper.] 




The Seed Corn 
Situation 



p NCREASED production of Foodstuffs is the watchword of 
America in 1918. 

The highest prices ever known will be paid to farmers for 
good quality crops. 

Government grades of grain have taught farmers the import- 
ance of purity and quality. 

For your own good and the welfare of the Nation you should 
have our 

Planters Encyclopedia 

That's what our 1918 catalog really amounts to, for it 
represents very much more than the usual list of seeds, 
offered by a seed house. It deals with actual experiences 
— tells our way of improving old varieties and what the re- 
sults have been. It illustrates the newest strains of Seed 
Grains, Seed Corn, Garden and Flower Seed, tells how to 
grow and cultivate them, and how others regard them. 

Many lessons from the school of "actual experience" are 
given. It explains why our northern grown seeds, such 
as Alfalfa, Clover, Timothy, etc., are more certain to survive 
in your locality and give you a cleaner and better crop, why 
"Farmer Brand" Seed Grains resist drought, rust, blight 
and lodging, and yield plump, heavy grain — where others 
faU. 

Our main object, however, is to have you understand that 
everything you buy under "Farmer Brand" labels repre- 
sents the highest quality obtainable. It is your protection 
from foul weeds, your guarantee of a reasonable price, 
based on our "Grower to Planter" selling plan. 

In a nut shell, our catalog represents the results of 29 
ye^rs of down-to-earth farming, has been prepared with 
much care and at great expense, — entirely for your benefit. 
We offer it to you without obligation, hoping it may aid 
to increase production of food stuffs, for your own good 
and the good of our country. 

How to Get Top Prices 

"Farmer Brand" Seeds will make every foot of ground 
produce its utmost. They enable you tliereby to perform 
a patriotic duty as well as to reap the benefits of top prices 
and increased yields. 

"Farmer Brand" Seeds are grown on clean, well 
fertilized soil and under the supervision of men who have 
made stjed growing their life study. Climatic conditions 
here in the heart of the agricultural 
Northwest impart to "Farmer Brand" 
Seeds a hardiness and vitality that en« 
ablcs them to withstand many hardships 
and adverse weather conditions. 





29*-^ Year 

rARMERSEED 
C^NURSERYCO 

^ 101 First Ave., 



A backward growing season and early frost 
played havoc with the Corn Crop tliroughout the 
Northwestern Corn lielt. Good Seed Corn therefore 
is at a premium and prices higher than usual. Exceptional 
care in selecting — curing and testing is of greatest impor- 
tance. Buy only from reliable growers who have a reputa- 
tion to live up to. The stocks we offer are strictly Northern 
Grown and have been carefully cured, graded and tested. 
However, our supply is limited and we advise prompt action. 
Eat More Home Grown Apples, 
Cherries, Plums and Berries 
We grow the leading varieties, of trees, also a complete 
line of ornamental trees, hardy perennials, flowering slirubs, 
etc. We quote bargain prices on every item and sell direct 
only. 

Garden Seed Shortage 

A serious shortage of garden seeds 
also exists. We offer the biggest 
value for a small price in our 
Hoover Col lection. Take 

advant 
and let 
your en 
order 
as 

quickly 
as 

possible! 



send me your new catalog as 
soon as ready. 

'Send also Collections 

Hoover War-Garden Seeds for which 



.FARIBAULT, 

MINNf. 



I enclose $ cents. 

Am especially interested in 

Name 

P. O 



64 



FARM, ST OCK AKD HOME. 



TRUE TRACTOR TALES. 

[Continued fi-om page 4G.] 

Ions lubricating oil per day at 26 cents 
per gallon. 

We raise colta. and cattle, and milk 
eleven cows now. Were all fresh from 
six weeks ago. Feed calves skim milk 
and calf meal and have a nice bunch 
of calves. Raised all our feed, clover, 
corn and timothj-, threshed clover that 
made four bushel to the acre and tim- 
othy that made six bushels to the 
acre. I raise very little wheat. Have 
all our own help in home and outside 
two sons, partners in ris and regular 
gas experts. In winter they get a few 
autos to repair from neighbors, so 
that is as good as any school they can 
go to. Of course they are thru school. 

This year we are going to try dis- 
tillate instead of kerosene. Can get it 
here for 6 cents per gallon. I don't go 
much on too small a tractor, as I be- 
lieve the cheapest way out is for every- 
body to stack their grain. Plow as 
early as possible, then after plowing 
start threshing. Our soil is a heavy 
black loam, no gumbo as this valley is 
noted for, but it produces the clover, 
alfalfa, potatoes, corn and grain. 

1. J. Gretteu & SoKS. 

Cass county. North Dakota. 

Young Boy Runs the Tractor. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I own a small tractor which I pur- 
chased two years ago. I have used it 
for harvesting and plowing and have 
cut all my grain with it, pulling an 
eight-foot binder. Have also plowed 
about 200 acres a year with it, pulling 
a two-bottom plow. 1 have a boy, 
thirteen years old, who did most all 
the plowing this fall with it. I am 
farming 360 acres, mostly small grain. 




Home of T. H. Packingham 

1 have 30 head of cattle, 9 head of 
horses and mules, and 12 head of 
brood sows. I expect to raise more 
corn as I think there is more money 
in live stock than In so much small 
grain farming. 

I have used the tractor for sawing 
wood, also grinding feed and find it 
very satisfactory. 

T. H. PiCKINGHAM. 

Deuel county, S. Dak. 



MORE TRACTORS— MORE FOOD, 

[Continued from page 42.1 

mechanical efficiency for animal effi- 
ciency and he is thereby increasing 
his own efficiency need per day and 
per year. So the tractor steps in 
to help feed the hungry world. 

It is not any more a question of 
whether the tractor will replace the 
horse. Speaking in a broad sense 
it will not, rather it will supplement 
and add tremeadously to the power 
of the horse in tilling the fields of 
America. It will take the burden of 
the heaviest labor of the farm and do 
it more efficiently. Very possibly it 
may tend to make our farms larger. If 
that happens the tractor must neither 
be blamed nor praised too much, other 
things that have a much more impor- 
tant bearing on that situation are at 
work tending to drive us toward the 
large corporately owned and managed 
farm and toward its possible rival, the 
co-operatively owned and directed 
farming community. 

The job before the American farm- 
er today is a tremendous one, namely, 
to make the 350,(500,000 acres of tilled 
lands pro(hice enough for our needs 
and give the world a comfortable sur- 
plus besides. On this 3.5 acres per 
capita he must grow enough corn to 
feed our livestock, fill our silos, fat- 
ten our hogs, enouRh wheat to give 
each one of us 6 bushels a year and 
3 bushels each to send abroad, he 
must raise potatoes and oats and bar- 
ley and rye sufficient for all our needs, 
grow enourh flax to paint our ships 
and bulIdinG;s, enough garden truck to 
fill the shelves of our grocery stores, 
and for good measure he must pro- 
duce enough cotton to provide cloth- 





Beauty and Year * Round UtiKty 

In the Smart Briscoe Coachaire 

THE body lines of the handsome Briscoe Coachaire command respect amid any surround- 
ings. On country roads — on the boulevards of the city — it compares favorably with the 
cars of much higher price. Briscoe finish — Briscoe color schemes and exclusive Briscoe 
niceties give it the look of a car costing much more than the Briscoe price. Open in warm 
weather to permit the highest enjoyment of the delicious spring, summer or autumn air. 
Closed in winter to shield you from the icy blasts. The Briscoe Coachaire is the perfect 
all-season, all-weather motor car. 

An Extra Value Motor Car 

You will be surprised at the generous values crowded into the Briscoe Coachaire. See 
the famous Half-Million Dollar Motor that means 40% more power for Briscoe owners. Note 
the many Briscoe extras— the balanced chassis, deep channel steel frame — full eUiptic 
springs front and rear — two unit starting and lighting system (the kind used on foreign 
made racing cars). 

Look Up Briscoe Dealer 

The Briscoe Coachaire awaits your critical inspection at nearby Briscoe dealers. Look him up today 
Arrange for a demonstration aiid you will know why Briscoe owners take such pride in Briscoe possession 

The Briscoe Coachaire is built entirely iu the 
ten moctern Briscoe factories at Jackson, Mich. 

BRISCOE MOTOR CORPORATION 

Dept. 142, Jackson, Mickigan 



ing for half the world. On another 
5 acres per capita he must raise the 
young stock of the nation, pasture the 
cows, raise our 63,000,000 cattle, 50,- 
000,000 sv;ine, 50,000,000 sheep and 
25,000,000 horses. He must see to it 
that there is enough wool grown to 
clothe our armies and our folks at 
home. He must find room in addition 
to all this for the orchards that pro- 
duce our fruit and for many scores of 
very important crops that are not here 
mentioned. The tractor comes to help 
make this 9 acres per capita more 
productive of human food, more sure- 
ly a high and safe wall behind which 
we can protect ourselves from want 
or the fear of want, and 'the. extent 
to which it is going to be used in the 
years to come is m.easured by just 
two things, or rather three, the me- 
chanical perfection of the machine 
itself, the degree of success that at- 
tends its use and the readjustment 
of our field's and farm plans to the new 
and coming type of power. 



Home Plan 
W No. 1410 

Ijf A eomir.odiong Eonea- 
1/ lowo»3 Craftsman lines. 
1 Lvery built-in conven* 
ience. MateriaSs CGBtf 
pUte. 



$1515 



For Better Grain Grades. — Enclosed 
you will find the coupon published in 
your i)aper. I have gladly filled it in 
and wish you to use it to all the ad- 
vantage you can to back up the fight 
for better grain grades. The farmer 
gets the short end of most all deals he 
transacts anyway. 



— Order seeds early. There is a 
decided shortage of many kinds and 
the home supply should be obtained «s 
soon as possible. 



"I Bought Wholesale ~ Saved BIQ" 



Thousands have written us thus. Farm products have never 
brought so much money as today. This means rapid increase in 
j farm values. Yet lumber is still comparatively low. It will cost you 
•ess to build now than after the war, when the big rush starts for 
.aiding material. , , 

Get our euarantced prices today. Hlfirhest atendard firrade mate- 
, rials. Homes $300 up. Shipped anywhere. RMdy-cut or not 
■ Keady-cut. Safe, prompt delivery truaranteed. Write for Free 
Book o£ 200 plans— shows photos and exact floor plans, faena 

I coupon. 

I Gordon 6563Gor(Ion Street 

■ Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Beck Davenport, la. 

GORDON -VAN TINE CO. 6S63Gordon St., Davenport, 

Gentlemon— I'KsiSu ucaJ mo FREK tin; booka cheeked below: 
1—1 Gordon- Van Tine 
I— 1 Uomo Flana 

NAmo 

AddrfMin ... 



□ Barn iind Ootboilding 
Plan Book 



□ Buildins Material 



J Catalog 




January 15, 1918. 



Get My Price 

FIRST 



(EOAUSE of the 
k high prices eener- 
ally prevaUinsryou 
ought to get my price. 
You can buy direct from oiir 
factory at the lowest cost. But 
that isn't all. The Monmouth 
Disc is easier on your horses. 
Makes a better seed bed for larger 
crops, tcms around aa easy as a plow, cuts 
soda and doda and tarns trash under. 

"MonmouthTongueless 

Caerantetd for Fioe Yeara 

Blades are made of hiarh carbon steeL Ad- 
justable scrapers, hard maple bearinEis.hard 
oilers and transport trucks if you want 
them. We also make complete line of Trac- 
tor Discs. Free trial for SO days. Ectnm it at our 
e-ip-^nEe if not satisfied and we will pay freight both 
ways. Scad a postal card for full details on farm 

^ I , ^% ft tools and snpplios. Get my 

L^inpl6t6 ^^Lbis tree Book and low 
- - unm money-saving prices now. 
— — Ask the Plow Man with 

°* *^ ^ Monmouth Plow 
Factory 
230 S. Main Street 
lU. 




Quick 
Shipments 
from Monmoutb. 
Kani w City . Omaha, Fargo 



Listen 

:^EverjTrhere yoa I 
I turn there ara calls for competent 
j auto and gaa engine mechanics. The i 
Icry for help goes up from the army. 
Jfrom garagre. from 
tthe farm, from car 
rjwnera who want 
/chaoffeors. *' Send 
as good men.*' 

[Make Up to $25 a Day ! ^ 



I mnnine year own garage, or leam to be i 

1 a good repairman, chanffeor, track or j 
tractor operator and g^t a good job at pay | 
I running from $90 to $300 per month. 

LEARN KE«E IN 7 SHORT WEEKS 

Le«rD by a^tn? tools, not books, on our com-. 
ptet«« eq-aicment of two to 12 cylinder motors, 
stnraf^e ba^Cterie!l, stardoe aixl iernition systemsr 
vuICBoizinK apparatus, tractora. etc Erery 
o£ every car ia here for yoo to work on 

Getfacts about my half-prico tuition offer 

BefoiD yon think of soinfi: anywhere to an aoto A^rt^^ 
Bch^l. l^t me trU yu more about my com- sP.* 
plete course and tjxtra low tnition rate— ^ ^^vO 
naif what ia usually chartred. No auto ^S^tf' 
and tractor course more eompletu cor z^'JZ:^'-^%A 
cheaper in price. Tractor course in- ^C^xv^x Kp'jsr 
eluded free. Life acholarship: Come c .-v^.o"**!^*,* 



and save. 
1 coupon todav end sretfree 
book and all f ' 



L«ai 

:oapon toda , 

aato book and all facts. 

Iowa State Automobile 
&, Tractor Scliool 



SIOUX cm.iA. 




^IRONASE 

Farm. Garden and Ordiard Toeb 

Answer the farmer's big Questions: 
How can I grow crops with less 
»p«nae? How can I eave in plant- 
ing potatoes ? How make bigh-priced 
seed go farthest ? The 

IRON AGE Potato Planter 
solve, the labor problem and makea 
the best use of high-priced seed 
Means $5 to $50 extra profit per acre. 
Every seed piece in its place and 
only one. Saves I to 2 
bushels seed per acre. Uni- 
form depth; even 
spacing. We make a 
full line of potato 
machinery 
Send for booklet tcdar 
No Misses 

No Double* 

BateniM M'f'g Co.. Box 73 B. Grenloeh, N. J. 
LINDSAY BROS., Distributors. Minneimlis, Minn. 



RE' 



lOet myWgtjoolc and Bamplc of Erown Fence. ^ 
■ Compare our prlcp.i and duality v. lth others. Wei 
ISf.'^..j;2!',.2''5 - '"npy- Prices 13c par Rod up. 
I DIRECT FROM FACTORY-FREIGHT PrEPAID 
It,,^^® VS* heavy DOUBLU OAI.VANIZKD 
\,-^; J51 jrtyle<i— Hon, Hhccp, Poultry, Horse, 1 
1 Cattle, Rabbit 1 ence— Gal<M, I^wn P encp, Htcelj 
1 Posts and Uarb Wire. Writo todny f',r bl« I 
Imoneyaaylnff catalof; and mrnple to tc<tt— free. 
I BROWN FENCE & vi/!RE CO. , 

IDEin; 219 . - CLEVELAND. OHIO I 



KXTSJEJLMAJ^ FENCE 



HORSe.HICH, etJLt.. I 
STRONG, PIG-TICHT. 

, Mado of Open Hf-arth wire! 
heavily enlvanlzed— af:tr>.^; 
duroljle, long-lostln;?, r . t-ri^, 
] BiBtlriKfence.Solddlrecttottiol 
J arrner at wire mill prices. 
11 CT<;'sftfcwoIO-arl)l(( values 
-B-lneh Hoi» ronc<t> 21?'o a rod 
47-ineh farm Pence> 3i;.'o a red 
48-lneh Poultry Peoc»-a4>'c a rod ■ 
>i ,.Sp'"5i'il F-rlcoa on Cilv. Barb'^d Vvirol 
'Wr b)-./ Cnoalog of ftn-o valijr ^i niiov.s l</i styjc ■ 
arj'l »,. ;:/), f, „t Fnrm, Iv.t.it-y ,-,,] j a- n I- en- « oil 
T'^imA irp',n< •/^!avlc;< prices. If s (ree. Write t^.-day. 
_KrrSSLIVlflN BROS. ?io? 243 MunclB, Itnl.' 




L E G A L S 



This department Is conducted by SHER- 
MAN CHILD, attorney-at-lavv, SIG Lumber 
Exchange Building, Minneapolis, who will 
answer questions as fully as possible In the 
space permitted In these columns. In casfes 
that require the services of an attorney he 
l3 recommended. 

Questions siiould bo separated from orders 
for subsfriptious and other bu-sines-s, and 
writtea only oa one side of the r-a'>^r. 



IJaWHty o£ Hotel Keeper — M. S., 

Wisconsin. A hotel keeper is answer- 
able for the loss in his hotel of the 
goods of his guests unless tlie loss 
arises from the negligence of his guests 
or an act of God or any public enemy. 
This is the common law on the subject, 
and the rule in all states unless 
changed by statute. 

Seed Wlieaf, Warranted to Sprout — - 

C. E. A., Barnesville, Minn. "If I buy 
seed wheat warranted to sprout and it 
fails to do so after being planted, can 
I recover damages and on what basis?" 

Ans. — Yes,_ the seller is liable on his 
warranty. the damages, as has just 
been held by our supreme court, are not 
the loss of the entire crop but the loss 
between what one could get from a 
crop If some late crop such as buck- 
wheat were sown and the crop which 
failed to germinate. 

Contract — R. A. E.. Bemidji, Minn. 
"A sold some cedar posts and poles to 
B. These poles and posts were to be 
delivered at the railroad station some 
time before May 1st, 1917.. B was to 
pay for the cutting and hauling of the 
timber. Last spring A sold the land to 
C and told C about the cedar contract; 
that the cedar that was cut is now on 
the place and belongs to B. Can B take 
the timber from the land when the 
contract says it was to be delivered 
to the station and the contract expired 
last spring? Can A claim the timlier? 
Does the cedar become the property 
of B after it was paid for and not de- 
livered as the contract called for?" 

Ans. — Cedar posts or other growing 
timber belong to the land until it is 
cut. It then becomes personal property 
and does not go with the land. If one 
sells land after the poles are cut, the 
poles do not go with it but belong to 
the person who had bought them from 
the owner of the land. The poles would 
seem to belong to B and he would be 
entitled to a reasonable opportunity to 
take them away. 

Judsment — J. Lf., S. D. The garnish- 
ment of the bank is of course in con- 
nection with a main suit against you 
for |85 and the bank can be held for 
only so much as the plaintiff gets judg- 
ment against you for. Whatever the 
amount the bank discloses that it holds 
for you upon the garnishee disclosure 
will be held by it until the case a-?ainst 
you is tried. Whatever judgment is 
procured against you will also be en- 
tered against the bank as garnishee for 
the amount of funds necessary to ob- 
tain a judgment. If you wish to get 
the money from the bank before the 
main suit is tried, you can do so by 
giving a bond, I presume, as we have 
such an arrangement in this state. If 
you are sued for ?8.5 before the justice 
of peace, it is for the justice to decide 
whether you owe anything and how 
much, and whatever he decides, you 
owe unless you appeal from the judg- 
ment. If the justice renders judgment 
against you, you can, of course, appeal 
to the supreme court. You might, per- 
haps, save suit costs by tendering to 
the jjlaintiff the amount of his claim, 
.'.55. That is — offering that amount to 
him in currency in settlement of the 
whole matter. 

Stock. Farmers' Creamorr — H. A., 

Long Prairie, Minn. About 15 years 
ago the farmers organized under the 
state law and sold stock and built a 
farmers' co-operative creamery. For a 
few years the creamery did not do 
much business so the sinking fund just 
about kept the rep.'iirs up, and there 
v.'as no fund for a dividend or interest 
on the stock. The creamery now is 
doing a good business but has not paid 
any interest on tbe stock but returns 
all the sinking fund above running ex- 
penses back to the patrons, so if a 
stockholder is not a patron he gets 
nothing for the use of his money. 
There are many stoc'<holders who are 
rot patron.?. C^n they demand the 
company to purchnse their stock or can 
they demand legal rate of interest on 
their stock? 

Ans. — Stock draws no interest but is 
entitled to its share in surplus if divi- 
dends are declared by the proper offi- 
cers (directors). Tf vou mp.'in !>■• ''nk- 
ing fund the profit on milk which is 
promised the p,T.trons, th.it is not a 
linking fund. A sinking fund or money 
belonging to the creamery cannot be 
returned to any but stockholders. 

Keepin;; Tile In Repair — J. L., Wis- 
consin. "Three years ago my neigh- 
bor and I had a piece of wet land which 
joined. My neighbor wished to tile his 
'and and wanted me to tile mine which 
I did. His land Is drained thru my 
land, therefore thru my tile, from 
the line fence to about throe or fo'ir 
hundred feet from the river, said tile 
empties into a, ditch in my fle'd, and 
.'laid ditch leads to the river. Mv cat- 
tie come to drink out of this ditch and 
^'orce the sides of the ditch down into 
the bottom and have partly closed up 
the outlet of the tile. Mv neighbor claims 
T am to keep this ditch open or to 
fence the said ditch from the outlet to 
the river. Will you please advise me 
whether I must keep it fenced or 
cleaned out? Can I disconnect the main 
tile at the line fence? Each party paid 
bis own share of the tile and for the 
labor of laying." 

Ans. — Where the owners of adjoining 
farms join together and tile from one 
piece of land over to the other, al- 
fho each does his own tiling, the 
owner of the lower land is bound to 
keep the tilSntc from being closed up 
bv his cattle so that the drainage from 
the other piece of land will not be ob- 
structed. 




A Good Seed Bed Pays Bi^ 

You can't raise the best crops, no matter how good your seed or how lich 
your soil, unless the seed is placed in a well prepared bcl. By using a 
Moline Disc Harrow you can get a fine, compact mellow seed bed in which 
the plant food is quickly available and moisture is retained. 

Moline Economy 
Disc Marrow 

For many yeara famous for its light 
draft and durability. Lnd thpar.t of the 
gangs is tal:cn up by sprioi; rressure. 
Docs exceptionally good v.'orii in trashy 
ground. Bearinss are dust procT an'l have 
oil soaked, maple bushings. Tht; longest 
wearing, lightest draft bearing kaown. 

Moline Three Lever 
Disc Harrow 

An extremely flexible, deep rcT^frating, 
light draft disc harrow. DliC f:;.'-.!.s are 
held to their work by spring pn^ :irr; and 
readily follow uneven ground. Cif.'crence 
in pressure betv/een disc gantrs. i-trfectly 
eaualized. Frame is so construizted that 
the disc gangs do not ride or buirsp. Bear- 
ings are dust proof, and have maple bush- 
ings — extremely long wearing and light 
running. Discs are of the finest ^.tesi, very 
sharp and highly polished. Either round 
or cut-out disc blades will be iurnished. 
A rear section for converting the Moline 
Three Lever into a doable cut disc harrow 
will also be furnished. 

Your Moline dealer handles these splendid harrows — see him. 
If there is no Moline dealer in your iocaliti/ write ua for full 
information. Address Dept. 57 

Moline Plow Coinpaiiy. Moline. IlllBois 




When writing to advprtls^B aiwavs mention Farm. Stock and Hom? 




Violin Music Free 



Send us names and addresses of three violin 
players and we'll send you free of cost a50-cent 
Music Book of 23 select pieces for Violin in easy 
arrangement. We want every violin player to 
have free our musical magazine, "The Musi- 
cians' Mouthpiece," listing easy orchestra Books 
and Music. Enclose lOc for packing and 
mailing Music Book and Catalogs. 
E.T. ROOT a SOWS. 1519 E. 55th SI.. CHICAGO 



I WrestHag Book FREB 

Bere's yourc-iaiice to he r.n expertwreatler. Leam. 
ea8i)7 at homo by it from world's chuniptoiu| 
Frank Gotcli and F'^rmer Bums. Free bookt«tlsl 
you how SetiretbolCs, tJ-.'Cka and tricks revealed. I 
Don't dotay Be etronir ;-id healthy. Handle blcl 
men wi'h rase. Write tOd'fly. Stato rour wiro. I 
LFarmer Burns^QT I R;imce Bldg., Omaha. Mf^ || 



MOjini MACHINE FREE 




Havoyour own"movid" 
•t homii. A wonderful moving pictorr TM- 
chlne.rcoip'eU' wilh u^s generator an<l n-'^ 
rft-l«^ all dilTcrnnt '99 v.eweL Pow..rfi,N r 
ahowiniC [(i>'ttir<>8 Inrirc attd clear. ' 
Bollinit i:6artan(irt?Iiiriou pictures or - 
poat cardn ht ]0c each. Urdar cbolc<- 
OATM MFCL CO., DtpLlSlI CHt<.„ 



66 



FARM, STOCK 



AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



Short Talks n 

i i 

fi lyrTiv vjvTiv ffc j^t jji 1^ ixi i|i iiDfliBi juii ><vvn*S 

This department Is conducted by tho 
Editor of F., S. & H. Questions sent In by 
pald-ln-advance subscribers are answered 
free of charKC by him personally, and by re- 
turn mall. A copy of tho answer Is retained 
nnd published for the benciU of the readers 
of F., S. & H. 



New Render. — The last ciuotation on 
the stock you paid $1.00 each sliare 
■wa.s three cents. You can buy 100,000 
shares for two cents per share and 
then you will be paying too much. 

t'ow TcstiuK Assofiatioiis. — Ij. J. T>., 

Iowa. "When and where was the first 
cow testing' put in effect?" 

Ans. — Tho first cow testing' associa- 
tion was organized in Michigan in 1906, 
Newavge county, Wisconsin now has 
81, Minnesota 26. 

Eflfeet of li'eed ou Taste of 'Eggs. — 

Mrs. Lucy H. D., Balsam Lalce, Wis. 
"I have been told that eggs will take 
on the flavor of feed the hens eat; is 
this so?" 

Ans. — Yes, when eggs are off flavor 
it will many times be found that hens 
have been fed decayed swill or some 
other unclean food. Not only the eggs 
but the meat of fouls will taste of 
strong" foods like onions or sage and the 
flesh of hens fed decayed meat will 
taste rotten. 

GraftinK Wax. — Geo. H., Goodhue 
County, Minn. "A friend from Iowa 
sent me some apple scions; and I in- 
tend to try to graft them in the cellar 
this winter. I helped father graft when 
a boy, but have forgotten how we 
made the wax. Please send me a good 
recipe for grafting wax." 

Ans. — A good grafting wax may be 
made by using the following: Resin, 4 
parts; beeswax, 2 parts; tallow or lin- 
seed oil, 1 part — by weight. If a harder 
w.ax is desired used 5 parts resin, 2V2 
parts beeswax and 1 part tallow. 

Frosted Potatoes — Effect Upon Mar- 
ket. — O. M., Wis. "What effect has the 
frosted condition of potatoes on the 
general market situation?" 

Ans. — If you were a housewife and 
had purchased five bushels of frosted 
potatoes you would refuse to buy any 
more until those were used up, know- 
ing that if you did buy new stuff it 
■would have to wait until the stuff 
which was spoiling, had all gone into 
the kettle or out at the back door. 
Multiply that one case a good many 
thousand times and that is what hap- 
pened to the potato market this fall. 

Pruning Plum Trees. — J. M. L., Wa- 
seca. "I have some young plum trees 
on a place I have just bought and 




GARDEN TOOLS 

Answer the farmcr'sbig questions: 
How can 1 iiave a good garden with 
least expense? How can the wife 
have plenty of fresh vegetables for 
the home table with least labor? 
rDr\\T Am? ComtinedEill 
IKUJS AK^L, and Drill Seeder 

solves the garden labor problem. 
Ta)ies the place of many tools — 
tiered in small space. Sows, cov- 
ers, cultivates, weeds, ridges, 
etc. .better than old-time tools. 
A woman, bey or girl can 
— u itanddoaday^shand- 
work in 60 
minutes, 30 
combina* 
tions, »450 
to $30.00. 
Write for 
booklet. 

BatemanM'rsCo.,Box7dC,Grenlocb,N.J. 




LINDSAY BROS., Distributors, Minneapolis, Minn. 




CYCLONE 



Guaranteed — any parts bro- 
ken by wind are replaced, free 
of charge. 

R*ALTHOUS£-W«EELE(» *TV 

windmill works at full efficiency in 
light breeze or stiff gale because of the 
automatic gravity controlled wings. 
Steady power all tho time. Oil it once a year. 

Write for Iroo book oJ useful windmill infor- 
mation. 

NDSAYBROS., Dept. A. Minneapolis, Minn. 

. W. CHBtributors for AlUiouBo-Wbeeler Co., Mfrs; 



DON'T PAY 



BIG PRICES 
_ _ FOR COFFEE 

Buy in 51b. Igli from JEVNE'S and SAVE 10c per lb. 
WE PAY POST, EXPRESS or FREIGHT 

IF. YOU i/)VK (;o'<i) c-ol■K^;K skmi h<m riucK list 
JEVNECOFFEECO.(KBt.lH81)CoffeeSpcciali«U 
Dept. 31. 285S-57 W. Madison St., CHICAGO 



Everlasting Flowers 

We have thorn made up In tuneral do.slRns 
and boquets, 12 to 20 Inches, price $3 to $10. 
Write for prlncs on blgK«i' tle.signs. Shipped 
anywhere. Prompt aiicntlon to orders. 

V. CHRISTENSEN 
I04 So. Mapio St., Watertown, S. D. 



60 PROQRESSiVE 



EVER BEARINQ STRAW- 

berrjr piantB for $1. I'lmt 
paid. Ordor now for H|>rliiK. OITor llmlied, 
KILLMER'S NORTMCRNNU RSERIES, St. Paul, Minn. 



Auctioneers 



Make Big Money. ^^'{Z 



y 

VVilln tod.iy for free cat- 
• il. 11". (Our rtc^' 'V!t(jon tiorso Ik cuiiiIiik fine). 
MIO'.OUHI AUliTIOtI SCHOOL, W. U. ClA UI'lWrEK. 
f'' 1. 01, 81(1 Walnut Ht., Itansas Oily, Mo. 



would like .loino supffe.stions as to 
pruniiiK' theiiv How much should they 
bo cut back each year and when is 
the best time to do tho work?" 

Ana. — In the early period of Rrowth 
both the Japan and the American plum 
will need more or less severe cuttins 
back of the annual growth. This, of 
course, depends largely upon the soil 
and climate. As a rule tho heading and 
shaping of the tree to Insure a growth 
open enough to admit sunlight and air 
should be done early in the spring, 
Just before growth starts. 

SiiltMorlptloii. Collection of. — A. T., 

Wisconsin. "Can the circulation de- 
partment of a paper compel me to pay 
for it after it has run out?" 

.\ns. — I.,ogally the subscription can- 
not be collected, but as a fair jiroposi- 
tion to the publisher, I always pay for 
publications until I pay up and notify 
them to stop the publication. I do this 
because I do not always pay just as 
soon as due and I do not like to have 
the publisher cut me off for the non- 
payment of subscription. The lot of 
the publisher is hard enough with 
small subscriptions, which often do not 
pay wliite paper and postage, without 
annoying him by technicalities. — S. 11. 
Child. 

Submarine — Sinking Ability. — N. N., 

Minn. "How deep can the submarine 
go? Can it rest on the bottom of the 
ocean and rise again?" 

Ans. — It is said that the latest sub- 
marines may safely go 200 feet below 
the surface of the water, tho this 
would depend on the type of boat and 
the strength of hull construction, since 
at that depth the pressure would be 
very great. Whether or not it can rest 
on the bottom of the ocean depends 
chiefly upon the nature of the bottom. 
If it were of a muddy consistency and 
the boat were allowed to settle into 
the mud, it would probably stay there, 
since the lifting power of the sub- 
marine is limited. 

Full Milk Cheese— Old Subscriber, 
Minn. "I live in Northern Minnesota, a 
good ways from market. I will have 
two or three fresh milch cows next 
spring. I would like to learn thru the 
columns of the Farm, Stock and Home, 
how I could make full milk cheese. I 
want this for home use next winter." 

Ans.— Your question was not accom- 
panied bv any name and address so we 
regret not being- able to send you a 
personal reply. Some time ago Prof. 
Haecker wrote exhaustively on the sub- 
.ieckt of making cheese on the farm. 
This article so thoroly covers your 
question that it would pay you to write 
again sending your name and address 
and we will send it to you. It would be 
impossible to give this information in 
the space available in this column. 

Ice — Does It "Freeze Dry?" — A. R.. 

N. Dak. "Does ice 'freeze away' or 
does it swell? We are having a dis- 
pute and have left it to F.. S. & H. to 
settle it one way or the other." 

Ans. — Speaking in one sense water 
does not freeze away, but rather in- 
creases in volume upon freezing, as vou 
may notice by the bulging up of the 
surface of a pan of frozen water, or 
the bursting of a water bottle if the 
water is allowed to freeze. In other 
words, ice occupies more space than 
the water out of which it was made, 
but there is another sense in which 
water does freeze away, for example 
clothes "freeze dry" on the line. This 
simply means while freezing the water 
evaporates, as you m.ay notice when 
you see mist rising above a newly 
frozen lake, but the first answer to 
your question is, I presume, the one 
you are after. 



STOCK NOTES, 

W. Palkenhagen, Montevideo, has 
added Pride of Meadow Lawn to his 
Angus herd. 

A. G. Soderberg, Monticello, was a 
buyer of Clydesdales at the Interna- 
tional. 

The Hurdcroft farm, Monticello, has 
sold the consistent winning stallion 
Herbert to J. B. McLaughlin, Dick- 
inson, Md. 

W. J. Hill, Great Bear Lake, Minn., 
paid $9,000 at the International Short 
horn Sale for Mount Victoria Stamp, 
calved Sept. 5, 1915. F. C. Landon, Wi- 
nona, Minn., secured Dainty Duchess 
3rd for $1,125, in addition to other good 
ones. F. C. Stevens, Stillwater, L. E. 
Dailey, Eagan & W. Daly & Son, Pipe- 
stone, were buyers. 

Alex. Mitchell, of Jasper, Rock coun- 
ty, Minn., sold 42 head of registered 
Shorthorn cattle for $.32,775. Thirty- 
five cows avera<?;ed $805.27 each, while 
seven bulls averaged $654 each. 

At the sale of O. P. Sorenson, Bala- 
ton, Minn., of Herefords, 57 head sold 
for an average of $561. Maple Lad 
72nd was the top of the sale at .$2,000. 

The record price of $1^,832 was paid 
for a seven months' dairy Shorthorn 
bull calf at a sale in England. 

The Hereford breeders of Faribault 
County have listed with their secre- 
tary 100 head of cows, heifers and 
bulls of various ages for sale. This is 
the kind of co-operative effort that 
will pay and is in line with Farm, 
Stock & Home suggestions. 

The sixteen breeders of Aberdeen- 
Angus who consigned to tho fall sale 
at South St. Paul, were rewarded with 
an average of $169.00. Fifty-five head 
sold for $9,285. 

In England during 1917, at public 
sales, $2,482,077 was paid for 6,497 
Shorthorns, 




Economy never means 
neglect 

TF your house, barns, cribs, implements and other 
farm equipment need painting, then painting is 
imperative. Delay means decay and decay means 
loss. The Sherwin-Williams Company have been 
making paints and varnishes for the farm for fifty 
years. Every farm surface has been studied and a 
special finish made for it. This **right finish for 
every surface" gives you a wearing quality that 
makes the first cost of the paint unimportant. 

Do not get just a can of paint — get the specially 
made Sherwin-Williams finish for the particular sur- 
face to be painted. Your dealer will supply you. 

Save Your Crops with 
S-W Dry Lime Sulfur 

in powdered form 

It is deadly to pests but harmless to trees and plants. Dry Lime Sulfur 
saves weight in hauling, cannot freeze, leak or deteriorate. It mixes in- 
stantly with water, spreads easily over the foliage and sticks fast. Spray- 
ing booklet sent free on request. 

Phenolene — A Disinfectant 



Equally effective in the household and in 
tho stable, cattle eheds, chicken houses, 
etc. A pure, coal tar product that effect- 
ively rids the farm of vermin and disease 



germs. Entirely free from objectionable 
tarry substances. Ask for Sherwin-Wil- 
liams Insecticides, Dips and Disinfectants 
at your store. Write for full information. 



Address, The SHERWIN-WILLIAMS CO., 685 Canal Road, N. W.. Cleveland, Ohio 

Sherwin-Williams 

Products 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



67 



\uKe more Moitey 
PuIIJbig stumps 




Clear your stump land 
cheaply — no digging, no 
expense for teams and 
powder. One man with a 
K can tip out any stamp 
that con be pulled with the 
bestiach steel cable. 

_Wor!cs by leversge — one 
|xmci;>!e as a Jock, i 00 potmd 
pull on iKe lever gives a 46-ton 
pclI on the stump, h lade of the 
finest stecJ — g'jarantee<3 against 
breakage. Endorsed by U. S. 
Covomsent experts. 



^^•^V HAND POWXft. 

J Stump 
f-AJ Puller 




Puller 

Write today for special 
offer end free booklet on 
Land Clearing. 

■Walter J. Fitzpatrick 

;\ >. Box 347 

182 Fifth Street 
San Francisco 
California 



BOWSHEF^ 



Saves 15% to 20% of Feed 

Eeep Stock Healthier. Crush ear com 
fwith CT without siiucks) and Grind j " 
klDds of smrJl trrain. 10 sizes 2 io 
H. P. Conical shaped grzoders — dif- 
£erei:t from all otters. 

Lighiesi Running, 
Feed Mails 

Haody to operate. A?k«rhy;aiid 
Btate sixe of your enpi^e. 
We also make Sweep Grinders. 

rorr A folderon V .hMJof 

■ Feeae and MiuiurKS. 

e. m.P. BO WSHER GO. 

S a ulll Bend, Ind. IE 





Cured While Working Hard 

T tKmV it my duty to tell you how I itsed Save' 
ThK-nonm," tvriles J. Moss (Baliff) of Korth- 
ingtan, IForasler, Ireland. "The horse u here 
far my man to look at. There isn't the tlightett 
mark of tpavin on either of his hocks. He ham 
been working hard all the time. About four 
months back he vas kicked again, swelling very 
badly. I uted the rest of the remedy on him 
and he is now the same as ever.** 

SAVE-lSi-HORSE 

(Trado Mark, a»»).l«re<l) 

hat B recor<3 of curing when all hope !• j;rven up, 
extending over 22 year*. Guaranteed by signed 
contract to cure RinKoone, Thoronin. SPAVIN or 
Shoulder. Knee, Antle, Hoof or Tendon Disease. 
«r Tonr money refunded. Be prepared! Write 
todhyfor FREE Save-The-Horae BOOK, telling 
now to discover and treat any latneneaa; copiea or 
Gg»»nlee and expert »eterinary advice — AUm 
rKtt. Always keep a bottle on hand. 

TROY CHEMICAL CO, 

2 State Street. Binekamton. N. Y, 

Druiiini mtrrwhirt nil SaVfThl-Htru with SIttud 
Ouaranttt. •r iw imd it dirut h tarul Pin frtmid. 

Fistula 

and 

PoU EvU 

AM>rri7irnaf*)y )0/iOO canes arc Btlceeaa- 
f'lMy tTf n*f:(i h y<'Fir wifh 

Fleming's Ffstoform 

I No f-xii^irienrj) neeeanary; ean and aimple; 
>Mt a Itttle attention everr nfth day. 
^rtee 92 a Bottle— your me«i«y ratuntfed It 
M ratis, no matter how old tbe eaae or how 



mMtieraetory otlter treatment may have been. 
Write for a Irae copy of 

nuiwrt TE*T-r«cuT rcraMun «mitu 

VeloaMe for it« information opon diaeaaea of 

hnrv-m ar»l mrflt:. Vi2 paet<«, 87 flhMtrationa. 




I Vete r in a ry I 

* Couducled by C. C. Lipp. ^ 

.MI questions from pfiid-ln-advance sub- 
eciibers, ■nhen accompanied by full address, 
are answered free of charge by Dr. Llpp by 
return mail, in order to mvo liinvly s i \ ue 
to Ihe subscriber. Co|)ics of these answers 
are then collected and published lor the in- 
formation of the readers of F., S. &. H. 



Injured Slioulder — A. D. M., Douslas, 
■V\'.\ o. "I have a mare that h.Td one 
front leg' swell about the slioulder. The 
soft swellin.!? sulisided but was fol- 
lowed by a hard lump, size of a man's 
hand. Pleiise advise treatment." 

-Ans. — It is very probable that this 
will require the services of_ a skilled 
veterinarian to perform a su'rerlcal op- 
eration for its removal. There is no 
treatment that can be advised for local 
application. 

Ailinff Fowl— R, W. McC, a D. "My 

chickens are dying: with diarrhea. Can 
you tell me wliat to do for them? 
Chickens are young and have nice 
clean coop. They are fed speltz, wheat 
and a little corn. Why do they die?" 

Ans. — It is impossible to attempt a 
diagnosis unless one of the ailinff fowls 
can be examined. If you will ship one 
by prepaid express to the Animal 
Health Laboratory, State Collese, 
Krookinprs. it will receive prompt and 
careful attention. Tou will be advised 
of the finding's for which there will be 
uo charge. 

Ailins 5Iare — M. S., Shakopee, Minn. 
"Five year old mare lost her colt \'^ 
November. She has .srood appetite and 
works well but seems lifeless. She is 
thin and her hide is scabby. What can 
be done for her?" 

.A.ns. — This condition is probably the 
result of al)ortion which resulted in a 
serious case of blood poison. It is 
feared that any treatment advised in 
this column will he unsatisfactory, be- 
cause the mare canTiot be exami'ned to 
adapt the treatment to her especial 
needs. Give her tablespoonful doses 
of Fowler's solution in her drinkin.s 
water twice daily for ten days. Then 
discontinue all treatment for ten days, 
after which the Fowler's solution ma.\' 
be given for ten days more. 

Aliims riiickens — Mrs. H, K., Dalton. 
Minn. "My chickens are ailing. Their 
feet freeze stiff and it is not very cold 
in the barn where they stay. I thaw 
tlieir feet out in cold water and they 
seem all right until they get a little 
cold again. They eat all right but 
seem to have indigestion. Their drop- 
pings are bright yellow. Please ad- 
.vise." 

-Ans. — The symptoms described do 
not warrant sin attempt at diagnosis. 
It would be a good plan to send an 
ailing fowl to the A^'eterinarj'' depart- 
ment. University Farm, St. Paul, by 
prepaid express. It will be examined 
free of charge, and you will be ad- 
vised of the nntnie of the disease, and 
the best method of combating it. 

Allln« Colt, W«riM.« — H. W. W.. Chi- 
nook, Mont. 1. "Four year old gelding, 
broke this spring, li.is difficulty in pass- 
ing his urine. Late afternoons, when 
he is working, he becomes suddenly 
sick, lays down and throws himself 
about. Usrnally takes three hours to 
get over it. I^ast attack was eleven 
hours with mucli wind. 2. A spring 
colt has worms which make h«r poor. 
Please prescribe." 

Ans. — 1. The i=r\'mptoms you describe 
lead to the sustiicion that this colt 
suffers from a form of colic. An exam- 
ination will be required to determine 
this, and until then intelligent advice 
cannot be undertaken. 2. Oive her 
from one to two tablespoonf uls of tur- 
pentiD«, depending on her size. This 
is to be given in one pint of raw lin- 
seed oil. It is best given in the morn- 
ing before feeding. A second treat- 
ment may be required in a week or ten 
days. 



SOOTH ST. PADL STOCK MARKET. 

The decline in the demand for stocker 
and feeder ca,ttle the pa.«:t thirty davs 
has been noticeable. Only a few hun- 
dred have changed hands to go back 
to the farms for feeding, and they 
have sold at practically packers' prices. 
This fact is rather surprising, and was 
not expected, considering the scarcity 
of cattle and the urging of food com- 
missions and authorities. A. price guar- 
antee would help farmers and feeders 
in getting into the market. They want 
to know if tliey will be able to sell, 
after conditioning, at prices which will 
show a profit. In gcner.il, cattle prices 
have been on a downward grade. This 
is in a measure due to the Christmas 
week fjuiet and the lessened holiday 
demand. Veal calve.s are steady, while 
bulls declined in sympathy with the 
general market. Since the first of the 
year, dairy cows have been in moder- 
ately active demand. (lood quality 
springers were a little higher. Cattle 
nrices: 

Beef Steer.s .$0.00 to JlO.fiO 

rrutr-hers (i.f.O to D.r.O 

"Veal Calves 14. to 9.75 

The following table sliows the re- 
ceir't.*! from .Tanuary 1, 191 S. to .January 
7, 1fil8. as compared with the same 
period in 1917: 

Year Cattle Calves TToga Sheep 

irnx r..S78 1.4r,S 18.2fi9 1,4.'?6 

1917....: r>,190 28.367 5,891 

The 125 

Dec 112 10,098 455 

Hog."* have niled above the $16 price, 
btit experienj'ed hog men are of the 
Otiinion that the (oming ininlh will 
Bh')W a decline. Th'c first week in .Ian- 
'lar.v showed 4^ cenis on an average 
knocked off the 200- pound class. The 
ouality of animals is pretty fair, for 
the season. TTogs wr igbing around 228 
pounds sold for $1(!.20. 20(5 pounds for 
$16.10. inr, pounds for $i<;. 

Sheep. — Steady and In active demand. 
N.ilive lambs sold from $14 to $16.65. 
A few ewes ranged down from $10.50 to 




^J$^ C.O.D. Kerosene I 



TRACTOR 

When yoa «pend money for a tractor, ept^iid it for Of*e- ttiat will give 
you service year in and year out. 
The C. O. D. Kcroaene Tractor meeta every t>ower dfiirvbrdl cm the farm, 
draw bar and bolt. Most reliable, efislcet to operate. Moat simi/k? and prac- 
tical four wh<-el desijrn. Strongly built of the bcBt materiaJn obLajruiblc by expert 
ineclwinitri. Will easily plow one acre an hour on cheap kcroseno. You ou-e it to 
yourself to invcwtigate the C. O. D. Kerosene Tractor. Hum.'reriii of faiTn- 
ers ar* now using C. O. D. Tractors with complete Bucce«9 and featisfactkm 



I 




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MORE CROPS-LESS LABOR 

Tells how 100% increased yields are possible, — hew to improve 
the soil physically, — how to lengthen the growing season, — how to 
insure crops against drought and floods, — how to make every acre 
produce a profit, — how to increase the value of your laiid, — why drain 
tile pays increased profits annually. 

Written by the best authorities, men who write from actual and practical 
experience. Get your copy NOW. Every farmer should read it and learn 
how to get bigger crops and profits this year. 




DENISON 



Double 
Process 



TILE 



The best for over thirty years. Denison Double Process Drain Tile is eisdorsed . and used by 
thousands of practical farmers, drainage engineers everywhere, the United States Go-w-enlment and 
State Agricultural Experiment Stations. Don't take a chance. PTiofit by the expericace of others 
and use Denison DouIMe Proces-s Tile, made of HARD BURNED SH.ALE CLAY, asd insure your- 
self a permanent and lasting drainage system. 

I>-|.|.^f. Orrlt^t* C\lt\r*\c "^^^ '-'"^ shortage demands quick action if yo'd walit"to tile 
V/tUCl V^waiVA this spring. We are getting cars now and can make deliveries, 

but if you -wait until later on, you may not be able to get drain tile anywhere. Order NOW and in- 
sure yourself bigger crops. The man with the tile on the ground will get the tiler fliEt. 

Write for Name of Neeirest Dealer 

Denisons' Double Pror ■ ; Tile is sold by the best lumber dealers in each tffwm. Order direct 
or through your dealer. Send a postal for FREE book and name of dealer neare<^t you. 

MASON CITY BRICK & TILE COMPANY 

Largest Shippers of Tile in America 
804 Eighth St., MASON CITY, IOWA 



SELDOM SEE 

a big knee like this, but your horse 
may have a bunch or bruise on his 
ankle, hocic, stifle, knee or throat. 



ABSORBINE 

TRADE MARK: BtG.U.S:PAT. OFF. 



will clean it off without laying up 
the horse. No blister, no hair 
gone. Concentrated — only a few 
drops required at an application. $2 per 

bottle dclivrred. Deacribc your ca«c for Bpecial instraction* 
inrt Book 8 M free. AlJSOfUJINE, JR.. the anu- 
«eptic liniment for minkiiid, reduces Painful SwellinES, 
EnUr^ed Glanda. Weni. Bruises. Varicose Vein.i; allay. 
Pain and inflammation. Price SI and S2 a bottle at drujfgist, 
or delivered. Made in thr tJ. S. A. by 

W. F. VOUNG, P.D.F., 94 Temple St,, Springfield, Mass. 



5 -Passenger Toiirin^ Car 

To be Given Away 

April 1, 1918 




CET RID OF 

Worms and Bots 

You can remove every one 
of them. We guarantee to 

rkiU and brinf? from the body, dead, in 
a very short t 'hc, all i>in worms and bots, 
with the Mie and sure remedy. 

NEWVERMiFUGE 

Ahaolutciv liiirmlo-.s. Can he given tomnres 
in foal before the ciKtitli month. Horse owner.') 
write U8 tliat NewvcrmifuKe baa removed from 
500 to 800 l)ot3 and worms from n single hor.sc. 
An animal that Is wormy can't lielp bntheuEly 
and thin. If your hor?c3 are troiil>l(a wltli 
worms send us your order today. Priic $2 (H) 
for 12 Cans\ile!!. BALLING CUN FREC will) 
4doxcn(8.0O,wlth2dozeD%.'i.00. Poctsge paid. 

Farmer's Hor«» Remedy Company, 

Ospt. OB, sea 7th street. Milwaukee, Wie. 




Our plan is absoluteiy fait to each one 
who takes part. No one Tvill hai/e inside 
information. There is no element of 
chance involved. Write for (specifica- 
tions of car and full particulars of the 
plan. 

Faum, Stock & Homk, Mloneapclis. 

Send me speciflca t ii>ns of the .'into yen will 
irive away April 1, J9I8, and all otter Informa- 
t ion regarding it. 



Name 

P. O 

R. r- .D 

There T»'ill lie loin of I»e«p1»: ■w«B«liUC 
srraln pretty iiaoD. Hmye anyt 
I'cll Mhniit It l» the ClM«l0«-d Mtamna 

of I-., S. * H. 



68 



January 15, 1918. 



AvNiirc Herd Dispersed Jan. 23 

Nothing Reserved! Every Winner and A. R. 0. Animal Goes! 



I 



On account of having to Bpend a large portion of 
my time in Winnipeg taU ingr care of our growing 
Canadian business I will discontinue farming 
and cattle breeding operations. 

On January 23d, 1918, 1 disperse my entire herd 
of prize winning Ayrshires. Every show ring 
winner — every A. H. O. animal — will be sold at 
auction without reserve. Tliis sale will be an 
opportunity for Ayrshii-e breeders and buyers! 
Royally bred, heavy in milk production, and com- 
bined with top-notch individuality, true Ayrshire 
quality and characteristics, this sale affords won- 
derful buying opportunities. The foundation was 
built of the best Ayrshires that money and brains 
would buy. The herd has produced many indi- 
viduals, raised on my own farm, that have gone 
into the show ring against imported competition 
and carried away the blue and purple ribbons. 
My breeder's young herd and calf herds have 
always won more than their share in the show 
ring, being outstanding for uniformity o£ type, 
straight backs and superb quality. , 

47 HeadV Breeding Herd 
nvaun of Famous Ayrshires 

Every snimal goes under the auctioneer's 
hammer without reserve I I extend special invi- 
tation to Eastern and far Western buyers to 
come and inspect this cream herd of Ayrshires. 
I have started many young herds in Iowa. Without 
exception every one of my customers are friends 
and boosters, because my starting them in busi- 
ness has founded their herds right and made 
them money. It has helped them earn big profits 
on high priced land, which is not possible with 
grades! What they have done you can do! 



1 never owned 

Auchenbrain 
in this Bale, has 
Nona Spencer 
Gift's Nona 41534, 
Champions of the 
and '17 seasons. 



or bouRht a cheap herd bull. 

Good Gift 15487, included 
proved his ability, siring i 
.39923andGood 
Grand 
1915-16 



My Catalog Telis 
tiie Wliole Story! 

Frae For tho Asking I 




EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. 

ATTKNTION To Farmers— Wo can supply yon with 
" tirst-class farm bands. Married cuuplcs our 
specially, Unitbd Kmi'I-OYMKnt Co., 11)5 8. 2nd 
au Minneapolis. Tel. Nic. 1147, Auto. 8.s O;i7. 

CAKM Uolp furnished free of charRe to farmnrs. 
' Phone or address Amkrican Lauou Agjknoy, 
131 1st Strce IHo.. M inneap olis. 

CAKM Uolp furnished free ol cbariro to farmers. 
' Phone or address. National Umploymbnt 
Co ., 115 IstSt. 8o., M lnn ogpolts. Minn. 

HELP WANTED. 

TH0USAN1>8 U. S. Government War Jobs now 
' open to farmers — Men, women, 18 or over. $75 to 
$150inuntb. Pleasant work. Write Immodlalely 
for list positions open. FRANKLIN Institute, 
Dept. L 20;», Hochester, N. T. 



Also included is Willowmoor Peter 
Pan 26th 16048, Junior Champion 
Panama-Pacific Expo. 1915. His 
sons and daughters will be sold.. wni.Qalloway { 
Positively nothing reserved. You * 
must see these cattle to appreciate theml I 
have not bred a large herd— never more than fifty 
head— but they are all selects— the kind that are 
easy tokeepand thatrespond profitably at the milk 
pail with moderate care and feed. This is largely 
a sale of Ayrshire females— only half a dozen bulls 
ofl'ered. Ask for the catalog now, and if inter- 
ested in Ayrshires plan to attend the sale Janu. 
ary 23d. 1918. — Wm. Galloway. 

Thit aale pretenta Ayrahire buyinte opvor- 
lunitiea unequalled in years. Add a few 
grand animals to your herd, or break into 
the Ayrshire business at your own price 
with rightly bred, high class individuals. 
Remember the date, January 23d. Sale 
will be held at farm one mile from Water- 
loo in heated pavilion. Come withoat fail. 



^''^:tmJWM. GALLOWAY FARrVIS,^WATERLOO, lA. 



for Catalog 

LoDk atth* uniformity of typot Theklndllt 
takes thousands of dollars and yoars of 
breading to dsvelopi Every animal goes In 
my sale* Jan. 23d. Gottha sale catalog now. 




AUCTION SALE 

Will sell on my farm, within the city limits 
of Springfield, on March 5tb, 1918, beginning 
9 a. m., 14 registered cows and heifers. & gr:\.<^e 
cows e.nd heifers bred to my herd sire '-Prince 
Jettine Korndyke" No. 151943. Also one bull 
calf six months — a dandy, His dam is "Nellie 
Olatha De Kol" No. 277005. 

WOOD HILL DAIRY 
F. F. Schwarzrock, Prop. 
Springfield, Minnesota 

pen png 10 THE DU&LPURPOSE BREED, 

IlLU lULLU most efficient and profitable 
to the farmer, in the economical production 
of both beef and milk. Sales list of our members 
and booklet free, MINNESOTA RED POLLED 
BREEDERS' ASS-N, Red Wina, Minn. 

DOUBLE STANDARD POLLED DURHAM 

bulls of serviceable age 

F. B. NICKERSON, Good Thunder, Minn, 

AVD^HIRFC Bred for production, BuU calves, 
Hinoninco some old enouKli tor service. 
J. N. GALiLING£R & 8UN, GLENWOOO, MINN. 



SHEEP. 




CUDnDCUIDCC Of right breeding 
onnurdninco so one and two-yr 
Bams. 40 Ham Lambs. All from Imp 
Prize Winners. New importation Just 
arrived. Few choice ewes Hector fam- 
ily. C. D. NICHOLS. Live Slock Co. 
Mention F.S.&H. CRESCO.iowa, 



DOGS. 




SCOTCH COLLIES 

Best stock, farm and watch dog, Im. 
ported. Registered. Natural heelers 
27 years' experience. Training Book, 
32 pages, 50 cenis. 

ED. McGRATH, • ST. PETER, MINN, 



Pure Rrerf American fox hounds— Suitab'e for 
ruic UlCU Coon, Fox, Wolves and Uabbits. Trained 
and untrained. Also Puppies. Tr.iined dogs sold 
on ten days trial. J. E. ADAMS, herr'CK, ill. 



Classified Adyertising 
Notice Change In Giassified Rates 



Beginningf with the Januai"y 1st issue of 
3918 the rates for Classified Advertising will 
advance to SEVEN CENTS per word per In- 
sertion. Initials and numbers count as words. 
■ No advertisement inserted for less than one 
dollar. Cash with order in all cases. 

Commercial or to Exchange, For Sale, 
Wanted to Buy advertising in this column the 
rate ia 7 cents per word each issue. No ad- 
vertisement for less than $1.00 each issue. 
Kvery word, number, initial (including name 
and address) must be paid for. Cash must 
accompany each order. No display type, cuts 
or display lines will be allowed In classified 
column, and copy must reach this office eight 
days in advance of day of publication. 



No advertisements can be taken for 
this column after the 5th for issues 
of the 15th, or after the 20th of pre- 
ceding month for issues of the first. 

KODAK FINISHING. 

I KT KXPEHTS finish what your Kodak began. Our 
'• liberal ofTer good until Feb. 1st. 1918. We flnish 
one roll (only) six expostire film any .size, furnish 
six select prints for 25owilh order. Better pictures 
from each exposure. Fewer failures from each 
roll or money cheerfully refunded. T. V. MoUEAir 
Co., G2e Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis. Minn. 

OUK yiUVK is only 25c for developing a(i-exposnre 
roll film and malting six prints up to I'osl al size. 
Postal Bizo 10c. Mailed back, prepaid. Cash must 
accompany order. Do not send post3.ze stamps. 
W()H.N''H A HT STUDIO, Proslon, Minn. 

CNLAUGK YOVK KODAK pictures 2 to 3 limes 
^ present size. Special introductory price one-h!ilf 
cent per square Inch, one to customer. Money re- 
funded If not pleased with work. Offer expires Feb. 
1. li)i8. MoiiKAiT'H Kodak Finisuino Seuvicb, 
e26 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 



pOLLlES that are worliers. We also breed Aire 
" dales. State which you want and send 2c stamp 
for list. W. R. WATSON, Box 1604. Oakland, Iowa, 



COB SALE — Blue Merle and English Shepherd 
■ Pups. Best stock and watch dog on earth 

HERMANN BRUESEHOFF, Norwoed, Minn. 



When writing to advertisers always 
mention Farm. Stock and Home. 



FOR SALE. 



FOB SALE — 1000 sets of good second band harness, 
consisting of heavy team and farm harness. 
Prices $25.00. $37.50, $30.00, $35.00 and $37.50. Five 
hundred second-hand collars $2.50, $3.00, $3.50, $4.00 
and $4.50 eat h. One thousand good leather halters 
at 60 cents each or $5.50 a dozen. A large stock of 
new harness. Twin City Hakness Co,, of Mid- 
way, St. Paul, Minn. 



UBAVY NEW Mule skin face case collars, any 
" size, $2.75 each, extra heavy farm collars S3.50j 
New Pinery collars $5.00 each, heavy lined duck 
storm blankets $0.00 pair, good secondhand leather 
halters 6 for $2,75, 4800 set new and secondhand 
harness your own price. Midway Harness Co. 
1953 University Ave,, St, Paul, Minn, 



«51LOS— E. Z. Built Sectional Silo. Erected in a 
" few hours, No carpenter required. Low priced 
and strong. Bock bottom prices on lumber, shingles 
and fence post to make up carload. J.F.JACOB 
SON Lu.mbekCo.i Tacoma, Wash. 



COP. SALE — A brand new Ford, just as it came 
' from the factory, tor $150 down payment and 
terms for balance. Will take work for part pay- 
ment. Address B^oRD OWNER, 416 So. Sixth Street, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



TKADEorsoU Gas Tractor 30-60 Altman-Taylor. 
• Used three years. Also eight bottom P. & O. 
Plow with breaker bottoms; 500 gallon tank. Ed. 
liANDWHJCK, 503 Tth St. South, Minneapolis, Minn. 



PBUCIKIED, stigmatized, Anne Oath. Emmerich 
" and her splendid Visions, Nativity, Egypt, Cana; 
i books UOc. Ki.KiN Co., Brandon. Minn. 



BEES AND HONEY. 



FILMS and Packs Developed Freo. Enlargouients 
free. No excessive charge for prints. Write. 
"Bii.L'H," Northfleld, Min n. 

LUMBER. 

IT'S UP TO VOU whether you will take this oppor- 
' tunlty to buy Fir Lumber, Bed (;edar Hlilngles, 
etc. direct from the mills at inonoy-savlng prices, 
Ask LanhdowN, Box«0»G, Kv<!reil,, Wash^ 

HIGH KMT GBADH) lumber and mlllwork shM>pe(l 
direct from mill to l hose who are going to liu i Id. 
Wrllo for prices. Wellh, Box lOlOO. Everett, 
Wash. 



U/LilTE Clover Chunk Comb Honey, lOlbcanslOo 
" pur lb; 5 lb cans 20c per lb. This will please 
lovers of honey for there Is nothing more delicious. 
M. V. FACicy, Preston, Minn. 



U/lSdONSIN White Clover Honey, 30 lb. can, $5.60; 
" 00 pounds, $10.20; 30 pounds Block Swiss choose, 
$11.40; n iiounds Brick cbooso $3.85. IS. B. UOSA, 
Monroe, Wis. 



WUI'l'E Clovor Extracted Honey in CD-lb cans, 
$10.80; 10-lb. pails, $2; B-lh. palls, $1.10. Send 
bank draft or Post Ollico money order. PtHTiuoH 
& ViOK, Grace City, N. 1), 



PATENTS. 



PATUNTS Wanted— Write for list of Patent Buy- 
ers and inventions wanted Including those 
needed on farms. 11.000.000 In prizes offered for In- 
ventions. Send sketch for free opinion as to paf 
entablllty. Onr Four Books sent free upon request 
Patents advertised Free. We asslf t Inventors to 
Hell their Inventions. Virroli J. HVANS & Co., 
60U Ninth 8t„ Washington, D. 0. 



FARM HELP. 



lUANTKD — A good steady young man on a small 
" stock farm by the year. A good home and a 
good place to Ic.arn tho hog and cattle business. 
A German or Swede preferred. State wages and 
age. W. J. Graham. Howard Lake, Minn. 



UIANTED— Single man 30 to 46 years old to work on 
" farm. Will not hire a d-inker or cigarette 
smoker. M. L, Peurt, Slonx Falls, S. D. 



SEEDS. 



fiUAEANTKBD Genuine Grimm Alfalfa Seed. 
" Most economical and profitable to sow as it 
produces plants which do not winterkill like other 
varieties, larger yield, blgher feeding value. Book- 
let "How I dlscov<'rod tho Grimm Alfalfa" with 
testimonials and seed sample free. A. B. LVMAN, 
Grimm Alfalfa Introducer, Alfalfadale Farm. 
Excelsior, Minn. 



pUBB Grimm Alfalfa, Timothy, Clover Seeds, 
' seed grains, etc. Early seed corn and fodder 
corn. Bkckman's Seed Fahm, Cokato, Minn, 



RBIMM Alfalfa seed for sale. Purity and germin- 
•* ation guaranteed. Thoroughly acclima'^ed. 
SIOBAHT JoHN^soN, Brandon, Minn., R. 1, Box 46. 



HOTEL. 



* NICE clean hotel for women, under the manago- 
mentof Woman's Christian Association; 60c a 
day. No. 122 Hennepin Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 
XAsk matron at the railroad stations for directions) 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



CLABX MILLING CO., Minneapolis, want to buy 
fifty thousand bushels buckwheat. Will pay 
highest price in either car lots or less. CLAliX 
Milling Co., 402 Flour Exchange, 



I PAY THE highest market. Want Poultry, Furs, 
' green hides, pelts, veal, rabbits. Get my price 
list. S. L. McKay, 7 3rd St., St. Paul, Minn. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



SALESMEN Wanted — Owing to conditions brought 
about by tho war wo have a few well worked 
territories open and will be pleased to hear from 
interested persons. Applicant must be exempt 
from draft. MCCONNON & COMPANY, Dept. M. 
Winona, Minn. 



WE PAY $100 monthly salary and furnish rig and 
expenses to introduce guaranteed poultry and 
stock powders. Bigler Coisipany. X 606, Spring- 
field, 111. 



SCHOOLS. 



JCTOMOBLE School — Complete instruction courses 
" in suitable day and evening classes. Everything 
mechanical and electrical about automobilos. In- 
dividual instructions and unlimited priictical repair 
experience. Complete course $50.00 tuition. Write 
for booklet, Coi.pmbia Adto COLLEGE, 410 Sixth 
Ave. South. Minneapolis, Minn, 



YOUNG MEN — Young Women — Learn Telegraphy, 
Shorthand or Bookkeeping. Pleasant work, big 
salaries, great demand, free catalogue. BAltRY'S 
Telegraph Institute, Minneapolis. 



TELEGBAPH — Morse and Wireless. Positions 
secured for young men and women. Can earn 
board. Free catalog, American Telegraph 
College, 608 1st Ave. N., Minneapolis. 



BECOME AN AUCTIONEEE. Term soon. Circular 
free. SARGENT'S INTERNATIONAL AUCTION 

SCHOOL, Sioux City, la. 



POULTRY. 



LEGHORNS. 

HIGH CLASS B. C. Brown Leghorn Cockerels. 
Early birds go first, at $1,25 to $2.00. MRS. C. 
CrrNNiNGHAM. Pipestone, Minn. 



SC. W. LBGHOBN Cockerels, the heavy laying 
• strain, $1.25 each, the best $1.50. Geo. W. 
Hartman, Eose Creek, Minn. 



SO. B. L. cockerels, matured, 1st prize winners 
$1.50. April hatched $1.00. Eemember best 
not too good. Nort-HbnFarm, Northome, Minn 



CHOICE pure Single Comb White Leghorn cocker 
els, $1.25 each, John Stenstrum, Dunnell, 
Minn. 



WYANDOTTES. 

her sex. $2 and up. 
'inn. 



nOLUMBIAN Wyandotts, eith^ 
*' A. P. TAYLOR, Elk Elver, M: 



BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 
DABBED and White Plymouth Bocks. Young stock 
" and yearlings. Farm raised with size, color and 
quality. M, McCottrtney, LeSueur Center, Minn. 



SEVERAL VARIETIES. 

BBBD from First Prize winner Mammoth Pekin 
Ducks $1.50, drakes $1.75; Embden ganders 
weight 20 lbs. $3.50; geese $3.75; Wliito Holland 
Turkey hens $3.00. C. E. DBBVVS, B.l, Fergus Falls. 
Minn. 



BUFF White Barred Bocks, Light Brahmas, Black 
Langshams, B. C Brown Leghorns, Houdans, 
Pekin, Fawn, Eunner Ducks. Minkel Co., Maple- 
ton, Minn. 



pUEE BEBD Barred Plymouth Bock cockerelsof 
' the famous McPherson strain; reasonable. Also 
pure bred Mammoth Bronze Turkeys, toms $5; 
hens $4, Martin J. Moe Underwood, Minn. BouteZ. 



DBIZE Winning Mammoth Bronze Turkeys, toms 
• $6, hens $4. A year old torn for sale. Golden 
and Bull Wyandotte cockerels $1.25 each. White 
Pekin drakes $1.75. Bern. Holsen, Brooten, 
Minn. 



RHODE ISLAND REDS. 

PURui liliKD Eose Comb Bhode Island Beds, large 
dark rod, farm raised; $1.50 each; 6 for $7. Eggs 
in season $.75 per doz; $5 per 100. Postage extra. 
MilH. S. K. DVRDAnL, Ogenia, Minn. 



pOHE COMB Bhodo Island Beds Cockerels and 
Bourbon Bod Turkey Toms. Cockerels, $2; 
turkey toms, $6. Walter Beibhcs, Cottonwood, 
Minn. 



TURKEYS. 

FOE SATiM— Pure bred Bronze Turkeys, toms $8 
to $8, hens $1 to $6. Barred Rock rockerols $3 to 
$4. AliTlHTK ElIOH, E. 1, MiinliM k, Minn, 



ponilllON Bed Turkey gobblers, pure-bred. May 
^ hatched, extra good stock, G. U, JouNSUN, 
Bt. 2, EvansvUlo, Mlnn.- 



LAND FOR SALE. 



MINNESOTA. 

JUST WHAT You Want— A gvod farm at a rnaHon 
^ able price, whore you win make money. Where 
clover Is a weed, ii to 5 tons per acre, 8 to 8 bUKliclB 
of seed per acre, oats up t,o 80 bushels, wlieai 25 to 
85 bushels, potatoes up to 400 bushels. This Is good 
soil, lays well, easily put under cultivation. In 
Hubbard and Cass counties. Cass has won tho 
highest score on farm products at the Slate Fair for 
the past th-ee years. In 1016 and 11117 highest prize 
on corn. Tho couni ry for cattlo, hogs, grain. clover, 
grasses and potatoes. One of these plocosot land 
would niako you a good f.arni. 100 aero Improved 
farm $40 per acre; 320 unimproved $20.00; 200 unim- 
proved, $20; 120 unimproved $17.50. Two eighties 
unimproved, $20. I own the above andean make 
terms to suit you. Address B. B. Millard, Little 
Falls, Minnesota. 



[OMK to a Newer, Growing Country. You miglii 
just as well take advantage of this, as to wall 
mil the best lands are gone. There Is a difference 
1 Aitkin County Lands, just as there Is anywhere 
ise. Wo have some great bargains in our own 
lands. Literature free. Arnold, Land Agent, 
Bock Island Ballway, 124 Wolvln Bldg., Duluth. 
Minn. 



COB SALE— 160 acres Clearwater County land at 
' $12 per acre. Nine miles from County Heat; 80 
rods from consolidated school. Can cut three hun- 
dred thousand feet of pine and tamrack lumber 
besides a quantity of oordwood and posts. Contains 
soMio Improvciuents and 16 acres of good hay 
nie:idow. AUGUST BERGL0ND, llouto 3, Fosslon, 
Minn. 



TUia Iron Bange Ballway Company Is offering 
' actual hnmobcekers only, choice lands In moder- 
ate quantities aUmg its Lines near Duluth and 
invit<^s your inquiry so that maps, illustrated 
literature, special prices and terms may be sent. 
Aknold, Commissioner, 603 Wolvln Bldg., Dulutb, 
Minn. 



pOEN ANDCLOVBE LANDS In Ottertall, Todd 
" and Wadena Counties, Minn. Good soil. Easy 
terms. Write for list while prices are low. H. W. 
FttBEMAN, Wadena, Minn. 



yuHEBE the Cattle are In Clover." Central Mlnne- 
" sota Lands. Send postal for free list. Address 
MtTRBAY's Land Office, Wadena, Minn. 



WISCONSIN. 
lANDOLOGT, a magazine giving the facts in re- 
'' gard to the land situation. Three months* 
subscription freo. If for a home or as an iovesl- 
ment you are thinking of buying good farm 1 ands, 
simply write me a letter and say, "Mail me 
Landology and all particulars freo," Address 
Editor LANDOLOGY, Skidmohb Land Co., 803 
Skldmore Bldg., Marinette, Wis. 



CALIFORNIA 
1 SMALL California farm earns more money with 
less work. Baise the crops you know about— 
alfalfa, wheat, barley, etc., also oranges, grapes, 
olives and figs. Ideal for dairying, pigs and chick- 
ens. No cold weather, rich soil, low prices, easy 
terms, good roads, schools and churches. Enjoy 
life hero. Now comers welcome. Write for our 
San Joaquin Valley, also Dairying and Poultry 
Baising Illustrated folders, free. C. L, Sbaghaves, 
Industrial Commissioner A. T. & S. F. By., 1861 
Ballway Exchange, Chicago. 



NORTH DAKOTA. 



CLAX PBOPOSITION— Weownallof Sec. 21 and 
' S. 14 Sec. 35, Town 139, E. 68, Stutsman county. 
No. Dakota, 960 acres rich wild land. Great oppor- 
tunity to break and sow to flax. Would also sell 
land on crop payment plan. STATE FINANCE Co., 
1007 Soo Line Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

(B SALE — Stock farm, 100 acres under plow, 100 
acres meadowhay land, 120 acre rolling pasture; 
fine buildings, at $55 per acre. Write for particulars. 
Box 37, Eoulo 2, White, S. D. 

MONTANA. 

COB SALE— ICOO acres stock and agricultural lands. 
' partly irrigated; in Musselshell Valley. Address 
Box 116. Musselshell, Mont. 

~ TEXAS. 

DIO GBANDB Valley. For sale, a small farm, well 
" improved. One-half mile from post office. 
Owner, T. Thomas, Harlingen. Tex. 

CANADA LANDS. 

VOUB CHANCE is in Canada— Bich lands and 
' business opportunities offer yon independence. 
Farm lands $11 to $30 acre; irrigated lands, $:J5 to 
$50 ; Twenty years to pay; $2,000 loan in improve- 
ments or ready made farms. Loan of live stoclc 
Taxes average under twenty cents an acre; no 
taxes on improvements, personal property or live 
stock. Good markets, ehtirches, schools, roads, tel- 
ephones, Excellent climate— crops and livestock 
prove it. Special homeseekers' fare ceniflcales. 
Write for free booklets. Allen Ca m eron. General 
Superintendent Land Branch. Canadian Pacific 
Bailway, 17 Ninth Avenue, Calgary, Alberta. 

SOUTHERN LANDS. 
COB SALE — Four splendid farms in Albemarle 
' County, Virginia, and one in Louisa county, 
Virginia, on account of owner's death. For book- 
let address B. B. Chappin & Co., Inc., Richmond, 
Virginia. 

FARM WANTED. 

U/OULD You SeU Your Farm If You Got Your 
" Price ? SeU direct — No commissions. Particu- 
lars Free. Charles Benich. 0.^2. Woodstock, 111. 

U/ANTED— To hear from owner of farm or unim- 
" proved land for sale. O. Hawley, Baldwin, 
Wis, ^ 

FARM TO RENT. 

CABM FOE BENT- Farm of 320 acres. 200 acres 
' under cultivation. Good opportunity for live 
farmer. For particulars write to Carl M. Lynn, 
Osceola, Wisconsin. 

NURSERY STOCK. 



OLAOK Hills Evergreens— Trees that will grow, 
" Prices are half and over half lower than others 
charge. Write for circulars and prices. M.J. 
ANDERSON, Box 402, Bapid City, S. Dak. 

CBUITTEEES, Berry Plants, Evergreens. Orna- 
' mentals. Write for price Itst. South Kbnyon 
Nursery, Kenyon, Minnesota. 



CATTLE. 



OTOCK WANTED— Four young registered Perch- 
" eron Mares, in foal; six registered Shorthorn 
Heifers, and thirty high-grade heifers, all bred. 
Also one yearling Shorthorn Bull. Give full Infor- 
mation. Address Bloin B. Shbpard, Averrill, 
Minn. 



COB WALE — Guernsey bull, JoweKs Master, (378ot;), 
' dropped Dec. 8, ISM5. Starlight Excelsioi. 
Marshall breeding. Will exchange for registered 
holfer calves or a bred belfor. V. E, & F. D. BAILEY 
Elver Falls. Wis. 



COB SALE- Twenty registered Aberdeen Angus 
' bulls and holfers from eight to twenty month-, 
old. P, AiiRAUAMSON, Lanosboro. Minn. 



HORSES. 



COB SALE— Extra good puro bred Belgian Stallion 
' forcash or would conslderono good work train 
ond farm equipment for part of pay. Peteh W. 
Anderson, Madison, Minn. 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



69 



GrindihgCosts Cut In Two 



I Neighborhood 
I Welfare 

Minnesota. 
— The Oakwood Farmers Club, of 
Dodge County, held their annual 
meeting December 5th, with a good 
attendance. After the meeting was 
called to order a good program was 
given. Election of officers followed, 
and five new members joined, after 
which supper was served. At the pre- 
vious meeting in November a number 
of families joined the Red Cross and 
some $25 was obtained for the Red 
Cross. ■ 

* * * 

— The annual meeting of the Porter 
Co-operative Livestock Shipping Asso- 
ciation was held the first week in De- 
cember. The report of the secretary 
showed that $114,182.36 had been net- 
ted the shippers on 444 head of cattle 
and 2,987 head of hogs, after a total 
handling and shipping expense of 39 
cents per hundred pounds on cattle 
and 45 cents on hogs had been de- 
ducted. 

+ 

— The buttermakers and dairymen of 
central Minnesota will hold their an- 
nual convention at Melrose, February 
5th and 6th. This takes in seven 
counties: Stearns, Todd, Otter Tail, 
Mom'son, Benton, Pope and Stevens. 
One of the main features will be the 
butter contest. 

* ^ ^ 

— The matter of having a County 
Agricultural Agent for Watonwan 
county has been settled and an agent 
will be secured in the near future. 
This was decided recently when the 
soliciting committee for 300 members 
for the Watonwan County Farm Bu- 
reau Association reported. With the 
guarantee of the 300 members neces- 
sary in order to make the county, state 



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money, time and labor. Neither hard 
ground, long hours nor hot weather 
holds us back. W« are the modern 
mechanical power hands known as 

Plow Boy and Plow Man 
All Standard Tractors 

We furnish plenty of power for all 
purposes. Use kerosene. Every work- 
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Write for price and full 
details today. 

Interstate Tractor Co. 

2533 E. Fourth St., WaUrloo, Iowa 





The 
Right 
Start 

A crop well-started is half-grov/n- 
A moist, smooth, firm seed bed is 
essential to a right start. For big- 
ger yields use the 

" Acme" Pulverizing Harrow 

' The Coulters Do the Work." They 
cut the soil easily, crushing, pulver- 
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ICgn Wettt 
Carroll Ave 




and national appropriations available, 
it was decided to organize at once the 
farm bureau. This was done by the 
election of officers and the adoption of 
a constitution and by-laws. R. E. Olm- 
stead, of the University Farm, was 
present and addressed the meeting, 
telling some of the things a county 
agent can do. 

* * * 

— A national poultry show for the 
Northwest will be held in Minneapo- 
lis, Hennepin county, from .Tan. 3rd 
to the 7th, 1918. The Rhode Island 
Red Club of America will give an ex- 
hibit of 500 birds from all parts of the 
country; and there will be a market 
display of poultry and eggs, and pos- 
sibly a pigeon show and exhibits of 
water fowl and pet stock. Special 
prizes amounting to $250 or $300 in 
addition to the regular prizes will be 
given. 

* * 

— The annual meeting of the Wa- 
basha Farmers' Shipping Association, 
Wabasha county, was held at the Wa- 
basha auditorium the first week in 
December. The annual report shows 
62 cars sold the past year, with total 
receipts of $121,781.46, and expenses 
amounting to $4,679.09, leaving $117,- 
102.37 paid to members for shipments. 

* * * 

— The Brown County Poultry Asso- 
ciation, recently organized, will hold 
its first annual poultry show in Sleepy 
Eye on Jan. 18, 19, 20 and 21st. Com- 
mittees have been appointed and ar- 
rangements are now under way for 
making this a model poultry show for 
Minnesota, which is famous thruout 
the United States for its poultry 
shows. An appropriation of $400 has 
been secured for premiums from the 
state. 

— Directors of the Livestock Ship- 
ping Association of Crow Wing Coun- 
ty held a meeting in Brainerd in De- 
cember. In checking up the member- 
ship they learned they had 160 mem- 
bers, and they were well pleased with 
the prices received. One member re- 
cently bought a steer at a sale and 
shipped it thru the association and 
realized . $20 more than he had paid 
for it. 

North Dakota. 

— A number of live farmers have or- 
ganized a Holstein Breeders' Associa- 
tion in Morton county. 

* * * 

— Attractive premium lists have 
been issued for the fourth annual ex- 
hibition of the Missouri Slope Poultry 
Association, to be held in Bismarck on 
Jan. 9, 10 and 11th. The Bismarck 
Commercial Club is co-operating with 
the association in an effort to make 
the 1918 show even bigger and better 
than the last exhibition, which was the 
largest held in the Northwest. Corn 
and alfalfa will be an important part 
of the exhibition. 

* * * 

— A shipping organization is to be 
organized in Stark county around Tay- 
lor, and a number of the farmers of 
Dunn county, living near that point, 
also expect to become members. 

* * * 

— January 15 and 18 are the dates 
officially announced for the annual 
poultry show of the North Dakota 
Poultry Association at Fargo. The 
show will be held the week of the Tri- 
State Grain Growers' convention. 

* * * 

— The county agent of Morton coun- 
ty recently went to Hebron to confer 
with the farmers in that community 
who are interested in starting a Hol- 
stein Breeders' Circuit. There are 
about 100 Holstein cows in that vicin- 
ity and more are planning on pur- 
chasing Holstein cov/s. The circuit 
will probably be managed the same 
as the New Salem circuit. 

— A meeting of the North Viking 
Farm Club, Benson county, was held 
the middle of December. A good pro- 
gram was given, and one of the speak- 
ers was Senator Kirkcide. 

South Dakota. 

— Articles of incorporation have 
been filed for the Colton Shipping As- 
sociation with a capital of $10,000 to 
handle livestock at Colton. 

* * * 

— The Day County Poultry Associa- 
tion has arranged to hold its annual 
poultry show at Webster, .Jan. 21-25, 
inclusive. There are many poultry 
fanciers in the county and a splendid 
exhibition of birds is expected. 

* 4: 9f: 

— Late In November a meeting was 
held by 40 breeders and farmers of 
Miner county to perfect a county live- 
stock breeders' association. Officers 
v/ere elected and it is expected that 



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load of grain in one hour at a cost of 15 
cents. The modern, scientific roller process 
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have been on the market for 
a quarter of a century and 
are replacing thousands 
of other mills every 
year. The corrugated 
rollers shear the grain 
instead of crush- 
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draft, less power 
and no more heat- 
ed meal. Built 
like custom mills. Will grind 




Graham 
and Rye 
flour as well 
as feed. 



Made in 13 sizes — ^any capacity— 
a size for any engine. 

R. R. HOWELL & CO., 

18 Malcolm Avenue, S. E. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 



FREE 

Our complete 
catalog and the 
Famous Howell 
Roller Mill Puzzle 
will be mailed to 
you on receipt of 
your name and 
address. 

Write today. 



BIGGER 



CROPS 




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Have been on the market for more tlian 50 years. Any farmer vho has 
ever used a Farmers' Favorite Drill will tell you that it would be impossible for 
any Grain Drill to do better work; that the seed is covered right; that it is excep- 
tionally well built; strong, simple, easy on both man and team; that repair cost is small; 
that it does all claimed for it. 

The Greatest Yield from Any Field. 

Farmers' Favorite Drills v/ill work in any soil under any and all ground conditions and 
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Favorite Disc Bearings are guaranteed for life of the Drill. These bearings insure lively 
free ixinning discs, which means light draft and perfect seed trenches. The clearance 
is ample for clods and trash and the discs will work in sticky gumbo, wet or dry soil. 
Farmers' Favorite Drills have many labor and time saving features. 

Send for Farmers' Favorite Catalog. Read it. Then go to your implement dealer 
I insist on seeing the drill that is sold under a warranty that means much to you. 



/?;eAmericanSeedin^MachineC^.wM^ 



Turn Hop' Losses Into Profit 




Many young piga die for lack of Bunahine. They haven t a_fair chance m 
damp, chilly, unsanitary hog houses. Prevent such losses by installing O-K 
SUN-LITE WINDOWS. They make the most of every bit of sunshine — 
,\\\"V','V-. -:V::-,-;' '\dircctit3 rays into every nook and corner, keep the hog house dry, warm, 
eanitary and disease-proof— and the little pigs grow into big, healthy, profitable porkers. 

Orr C..~, I \h/twtAMiTtf are easily and quickly installed in either new o» 

JjUn-Lill-© VV inaOwS old hog houses. Galvanized iron frame and four« 
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No puttv nectlcil LaKtallfellmo. RcQulrono paintorrepalrs. Glass easily removed. 
O-K Sun-Lite Window No. 2 cioca away with cupolas and ventilators. VcuUlalioa 
can be regiilatod. Tlie only patented aunliglit window that can be opened or cloaea 
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tri9I7P — Complelo iilans anfl Bpeciflcatlona of modern bog houses, also cataloff. 
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We mnko a compli to lino of hog feeders, guaranteed noa-lrC2«aWe stoels watcrcWi 
cupulaa, chlcKcn watcccrs, etc. tiuld by all good dealers. 

Phillip Bernard Co., 2814 Floyd Ave.,Sioux CHyJowa. 




70 



FARM, STOCK 



AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 



an association sale will be held next 
spring. 

* * «■ 

—The Baltic Farmers' Club of Min- 
nehaha county held a meeting in De- 
cember. The Federal agent of the 
county was present and various topics 
along agricultural lines were dis- 
cussed. 

Iowa. 

— Preparation for a great war-time 
short course is under way at Iowa 
State College for the week of Jan. 28 
to Feb. 2. A year ago this annual 
meeting was attended by more than 
3,800 men. women, boys and girls, and 
It Is hoped this year to bring together 
a still greater number. Many agricul- 
tural conferences will be held during 
the week and the annual state corn 
show will be on at the same time. 

* « * 

— The third annual poultry and corn 
show and the community short course 
were held at Columbus City Dec. 17 
to 22. The subjects under instruction 
were about the same as those of last 
year. 

* * * 

— The annual poultry show under 
auspices of the Waterloo Poultry As- 
sociation will be held Dec. 30 to Jan. 
5, 1918. An entry list of from 1,000 
to 1,200 birds ia expected. 

Wisconsin. 

— A number of farmers in the county 
of Sheboygan have organized the Ho- 
wards Grove Co-operative Cow Test- 
ing Association, to test the cows of 
members, determine the quality of 
their milk, eradicate any bad features 
and suggest any steps of benefit to 
dairy farmers. The association com- 
menced work Dec. 1 and is to continue 
until Dec. 1, 1918. 

* « :|c 

— The Wood county asylum has been 
built and occupied for the past five 
years. During that time the inmates 
have cleared up and put under culti- 
vation over 300 acres of land, built 
two barns and other buildings. The 
county owns over 600 acres of land; 
75 head of cattle, 15 horses and about 
100 head of hogs, besides chickens, 
ducks, etc. The asylum has a fine 
herd of pure-bred and grade Holsteln- 
Friesian cattle, and pure-bred hogs. 

* * * 

-^The work carried on by the coun- 
ty board of Barron county has been 
mainly along the lines of livestock, po- 
tatoes, corn and seed grains. During 
the fall of 1916 they helped organize 
livestock shipping associations at Al- 
mena, Barron, Dallas, Canton, Poskin 



Save IjOOO Steps 
A Day 

The old-fasKi;oned 

method of pumping and 
carrying water is a great 
time and labor waster. Put 
in a water system and save 
1,000 steps a day— 365 ,000 
steps (or nearly 100 miles) 
in a year. The 






handles water BY MA- 
CHINERY— tons of it 
for house, bam and yard. 
Nothing to freeze. Water 
comes "Direct from the Well" 
absolutely fresh — no stored 
water. Supplies hot or cold, 
hard or soft water anywhere 
you want it, At'orda Sjplei- 
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you a modern bath room. 
Reduces feeding costs. Sim- 
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The best investment you can 
make. 

FREE CATALOG and In- 
formation Blank tell 
the whole story and 
enable you to learn 
the cost of a MU- 
. waukee W ater System 
for your place. 
Write today. 
MILWAUKEE AIR POWER PUMP CO. 
873 Third St., Kllwaiikee, Wis. 



9 CORDS IN ao HOURS 





and Hillsdale. Some of these organ- 
izations, besides handling livestock, 
have bought mill feeds co-operatively. 

4 « « 

— Burlington will, on Jan. 8 and 9, 
entertain the annual convention of the 
Wisconsin Holstein-Friesian Breeders' 
Association. This meeting will be es- 
pecially notable as it is a sort of pre- 
liminary for the national convention to 
be held In Milwaukee in June. 

What Others 

Are Doing 

Minnesota. 

— Edward Palmby, of Todd County, 
recently purchased a full-blooded Hol- 
stein bull calf from M. E. Gutches, who 
has a fine herd. Mr. Palmby is rapid- 
ly building up one of the best herds of 
pure-bred iriolstein cattle in the north- 
ern part of the county. 

* * * 

— Two of Fillmore County's leading 
farmers recently went to Wisconsin 
and purchased 25 first-class Holstein 
females and an excellent sire as "seed" 
stock for their herds. Hellickson Bros, 
bought ten head and T. H. Turbenson 
15 2-year-old heifers. These men were 
accompanied by R. L. Olson, Agricul- 
tural Director, who assisted them in 
selecting the stock. 

•K * 1): 

— Halvor Larson. Jay Volden, T. Hult- 
man and the Moller Bros., of Chippe- 
wa county, have recently had their 
homes wired for electric lights. 
» * * 

— R. W. Christie, of Redwood county, 
has a fine herd of Hereford cattle. In 
December about 70 head of these Here- 
fords were shipped to Sioux City, Iowa, 
where they were sold. 

North Dakota. 

— Nels Anderson, of Lamoure coun- 
ty, has installed an electric lighting 
system on his farm, besides the lights 
he will have the washing, ironing and 
pumping of water done by electric 
power. 

* * * 

— What is said to be a new record 
price for a Holstein grade bull calf 
less than one year old, was established 
in the sale of grade Holsteins at the 
Lilac Hedge Farm of J. D. Bacon in 
December. A bull calf was sold to 
Senator Hemingsen for |160. 

South Dakota. 

— A. B. Tyler, of Lyman county, own- 
er of a fine herd of Hereford cattle, 
sold 12 bulls and 5 heifers to Geo. Ma- 
son, who is spending a great deal of 
money in the purchase of pure-breed 
stock. 

* * * 

— Case Noteboom, of Walworth coun- 
ty, has installed an electric light sys- 
tem on his farm and has now an up- 
to-date modern farm with all conveni- 
ences obtainable. 

* * * 

- — Frank Dressbach, of Erown coun- 
ty, who has been making a success of 
the dairy business for the past 4 or 5 
years with high-grade Holstein cows, 
proposed to gradually exchange his 
grade herd for a herd of. registered 
Holsteins. He recently purchased a 
fine bull calf and has started his foun- 
dation herd with a daughter of King 
Korndyke Sadie Vale. 

Iowa. 

— Roscoe Samuels, of Kossuth coun- 
ty, purchased two fine Shorthorn cows 
at a large stock sale at the fancy 
prices of $185 and $165 a short time 
ago. J. M. Shirk bought a fine bull 
at the same sale for $152.50. 

* * * 

— Earl J. Buckland, 15 years old, of 
Monona county, has been declared the 
winner of the Iowa Boys' baby beef 
club contest for 1917. He got as his 
reward for being state champion, a 
free trip to the International Livestock 
Exposition at Chicago and a handsome 
trophy liesides. 

— George Cullen, of Buena Vista 
county, purchased a tractor this fall. 



nomirAii. n'» eiko op the woons. nar«>nmi<^/«ii« 

hMkMli*. Hcti'I lur rllUK uUIiiK No. V|9 sbowiuK tuw iftiot 

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"On The Anzac Tr.Til with the Fiprht- 
inji AustraliaiLS in Ksypt" is the title 
to a collection of j^torios by a New 
Zcplandcr who tells of "Jlell Let Loose" 
(iurinijr the charge of the Australasians 
in an open liatlle with the Turks. It 
is ;i story of a liayonet charpre apalnst 
the lVlohfiiTmie<lraiH pushing them "Over 
tho Hl(]!;e — Into the Sea." Sen<l ?1.00 
toilay and Rft six hooks, "True Stories 
of the Great AVar," a one year's siili- 
Berlptlon to Ileview of Reviews and 
I luce years' sii t)t ion tt) I'^iirni, 
.Stock & Home. Besides tho first dol- 
lar, you will pay $l.on each month until 
$0.50 has been sent us, 




I 



Soft Corn + Protein 
Makes Good Feed 



Soft corn alone is not good pork producing ] 
feed because it l^zks protein; but when com- 
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It Becomes Heal Pork Making MateriaL 
It Makes Stronger, Healthier, Heavier Hogs. 

Reduces feeding costs — wards ofF disease by building up vital. 
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Decker's Protofod is hinh-grade, thor- 




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It is truly tankage plus. The special Decker 
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Decker's Protofod supplies the extra 
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than grain only. Jt should be fed to growing 
pigs because It builds bone and muscle. 
vVhenever so/t corn is fed. Decker's Protofod 
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lR»IOF0D 

^ 60>Pro/t>n} ' ^ 




I 



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King Trademark 

for Guaranteed Bam Ventilation 

BY guarantee we mean that we 
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This guarantee goes with every 

KING 

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The size of the building, floor and eleva- 
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head of stock, position of doors and win- 
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The King ventilating engineers study these con- 
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Writm for our catalog 

KING VENTILATING COMPANY 

tl7S Cedar Street Owatonna, Minn. 



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inu Bystetn— c&n be ufied Wita 
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Earn Big Money Cutting Wood 

WithaHvwell Driia Saw IVI.»chlno. Puin your tliiilHT Into oaaU, His coal short- 
ftKo Tlio itcmaiiil :uia iirli cs for rirr wuod an; ciciit'T (.hall ovor. Our UriWJ 
cula inoro wood in l<wa tlniu and at Wstt ii\\m\»o than any uiaobluc built. Smj nw" 

lot our FREE MtaluK Kill pricu. R.R.Howell & Co., Mfrs., Mlnneapollff Minn. 



January 15, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



71 



Dispersion of Gailoway's Famous Hoistcin Herd— Jan. 29 & 30 



n BREEDERS' AHD BUyERS'OPPORTUniiy!-EVERyAHIMnLGOES!-HOTHir»i RESERVED! 

On account of having to spend a large portion of my time in Winnipeg in order to take care of our growing Cana^ 
dian business I will discontinue my Holstein breeding and farm operations. This sale of Holsteins is a genuine 
breeders' and buyers' opportunity! Every animal on the Galloway-Messer Farms goes without reserve — will be told to the highest bidder! 
Positively nothing reserved, as I am forced to go out of the Holstein breeding business. Resolve now to attend this grand dispersion. These 
dates Jan. 29th and 30th, will be lucky ones for Holstein-Friesian buyers because they present rare opportunities to get the kind of Holstein 
cattle' that breeders ordinarily will not sell. The foundation of this herd cost thousands upon thousands ol_ 
dollars, but they will be sold at your own price by Auctioneers Kelley and Haeger on the above dates. 

A.R.O.Cows6H€ifcrs 



/ mean eoeru word of it I 
Every one of my Champion 
Holsteins enters sale-Tina 
Jan^9-30,'18.'' 
Wm.GaUowauk 



92 ni:AD SHOW RING WINNERS 

This sale presents the greatest Holstein values in milk and 
butter production and showring individuality. I havealwaya 
bought the best and bred them better. The Stevens 
Bro3.-bred."'King Segis Pontiac Combination 94710, high- 
est priced bull calf sold west of the Mississippi River up to 
1912, has been bred to careftilly selected dams, and pro- 
duced a herd of heavy milkers and an outstandingshowherd 
that is the marvel of the Holstein breedingfratemity! Con- 
sult Bhaw ring records foryourself. They prove every word. 

NOTE THESE FAMOUS CATTLEs 

At the right is my undefeated Grand Champion Ki n g Segis 
Johanna Orm»by 163801. He goea in this sale and positively 
will be sold — a wonderful Holstein individnal — a Holstein 
standard for type — straieht, eqoare, well marked, extra large i 
This bull will be the foundation of some lucky buyer's fortuae. 
Jewel Walker Gerben of Cedaiaide 214099, Grand Champioa 
>t many fairs and dairy shows; holds the rare combination of 
being a heavy producer as well as an outstanding show cow. 
The right kind to own if yon want to socceed in the Holstein 
business and make big dividends. _ , „. 
Nellie Segis Pontiac ^1918, Junior and Grand Champion at 
many fairs and dairy shows, including Junior Ohampion of 
the National Dairy Show 1916. 

These and others as important, all given ia the free cataloe- 
AuetionsAPS i B. V. KELLEY En Box 

AUCuen«er5{,{,s.iiAE6ER s.t.wooo 





Paste ihis Ad In Your Hat! 

Reserve These Dates I 

Never before have daughters 
of King Segis Johanna Orms- 
by been offered ! His sons have been 
sold as fast as bom. This sale con- 
tains some wonderful quality in females 
or the man who wants to add superb specimens 
to his herd, or establish a breeding herd that will 
make his reputation as a Holstein breeder. These 
Holsteins are large, wide, loose-hided, straight-backed 
animals — every one of them worth three of the ordinary 
kind ! Come and see for yourself, and by al I means ask for 
a catalog now, while you think of it. A post card gds one b; KtuiD Dii). 

CATALOGS NOW READY! 

It tella the whole story, describes and gives the breeding of 

every animal offered. 92 head in all! Plan to be at this great dispersion sale 
both days — Jan. 29-30. Sale held in warm pavilion, right on the farm, 
just one mile from outekirta of Wateiioo. Get your catalog now I 

Address 

Galloway-Messer Farms ^"^TIwa*^' 



SWINE. 




40 



BIG TYPE POLAND CHINAS 

inn September pigs. Sired 
by the JIOOO boar Big 
Price, three times Grand 
Champion. Weight 1050 
lbs at 2H years old. And 
I from 800 pound sows, 
pairs and trios. Not rel- 
ated at farmers prices. 61 ribbons won at Minne- 
sota and Booth Ihtkota State Fairs and the National 
Bwine Show in 1917. Pedigree furnished. 

W.J.6RAHAM. - Hflward Lake, • Minn. 
BRED DUROO G-ILTS 

April gilts sired by Long King 180615 who won 
1st prize at Minn, and Wis. Etato fairs 1916 and 
Fonrtionso Illustrator «lla41 wiunerof flrstinclasis 
and futnrity Minn, state fair 1916. These gilts will 
be bred lor April and early May farrow to Foor- 
house UluBtrator and Model Wonder 229t;51, 1st 
prise winner, Minn, slate fair and National futurity 
Omaha 191V, Averaee weight Dec. loth. 200 lbs. 
Price 176, each recorded and crated for shipment. 
Shipments from Tyler via C. & N. W, and from 

Bntbton via (i. N. Address 

FOUKHOL'SE FAKMS, TTLER. MINN. 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING FOR SALE A 

Few tried sows, some yearlings and a good bunch 
of spring gilts all will be bred to good h .r-i 
of the most popular blood lines. Also have a 
spring boar left at $40, and a bnnch of early 
snmmer boars, large enough for service at $30. 
Pedigrees famished. Write for prices and des- 
criptions. 

HONEBRINK BROS., 



Atwafer, Mise. 



SMOOTH, E»SV FEE0IM«,tAR6E TYPE WITH LOTS 
OF QUALITY. March and April Pigs, sired by 
champion boar bir Kobert 235Sd5, first in class, first 
in fntnritj, and Jr. champion of Minnesota State 
Fair In 1915. Somo of the pigs are sired by Match- 
less Expansion 257S21, They have bone, length, 
wide backs, nice shaped heads. At bargain prices. 
Write for description and photographs. 
W M. WIE8T LE SUEUR. MIWW. 

0(% Bin TVDC Poland China Gilts with all kit^s 
CO DIB lire of quality. Big. smooth and easy 
feeders. Get some i.f Williams' kind, they always 
satisfT. They carry the most royal of blood and 
are bred to one of the graat»st youngsters in service. 
Tbey weighed up to 270 lbs. Dec. 10, in breeding 
condition. Also a few select boars. Pedigrees 
furnished, satistaction cuarantectl. Com© or write. 
FORREST Ij. WII.LIAMS, EJysian, Minn, 

BIG TYPE POLAND CHINA ^SsHia'np'r,^ 

to farrow in April. These gilts are sired by 1000 lb. 
boars and are bred to a son of second prize winner 
at Minn, and Grand Champion at N. D. Buy these 
Bllts if yon want, b!g litter families. Write to 
E. r. BANDAS, BI.SUAY. MIKN. 



BIQ nPE POLANBS 



Choice March and 
April Boars for 
sale. Sired by Mouws Orange 6th, Smooth Big 
Bone, Chief Prize and Mouws Black Boy. We 
are booking orders for bred Gilts. Pedigrees far- 

S^rwri^'^ J. ». 018H*H £ SON, 



BIG TYPE CHESTER WHITES 

Hired by King Best 2'ib'Mj. a 1000-pound boar, and 
White Star :i{(22i. a Wjij-pound yearling. Corres- 
pondence promptly answered. Visitors welcome. 
L. A. HOW?:, ST. JAME8, MINNESOTA. 



Improved Chester Whites. 

stock Utt sale of the highest of breeding. 
Pedigrees fumifihed. £,iid safe arrival at destin- 
ation gnaranW'J. Write 

0. H. MURPHY, CaietioRia, Minn. R. 6 

I arrfo Ynr^thims Choice Aoiil pigs of eithersox. 
Ldlge IUiK»llllt:» Alwchoic* fall pigs. Satis- 
faetion guaranteed. W. D. CLOW. St. vincant, Minn. 



aCnirClll9B bren for a prll farrow, ^]^m 

BCnKOninC f'-w boars reajiv for serviic 
ROY J5. CXKPPKK, HIVF., -MINNKSOTA, 

CHESTER WHITE PIGS 

IRfl Phalli* OHESTER WHITE PI<1S FOR SALE. 
■ •W wnVIVV (})M<i enough f hip to yon C.O.D. 
Address J. FISHER a son, Eaalman, Wit. Box a 

imVI^K KOOT H«)<lS-r;fKKl sKXjk of .spring pigs, 
alW) niinif. fs:i plgi on hari'l: write for booklet. 
OMAR MILL HOf FARM, Wlllmar, MInnaaola. 



HORSES. 



HORSES. 



Perciieron - Belgian - Shire 

stallions and Mares. 

As a {vodncer of Champions this herd has no superior. 
My 6 yr, old 2250 lb. Blact won FIB.ST and GRAND CHAM- 
PIONSHIP stalUon over all ages at the 1917 Nebraska, So. 
Dakota and Iowa Inter-State Fairs, My customers in Min- 
nesota and adjoining States have many of his half-brothers 
and sisters from my herd making money and winning prizes. 

Men who are careful in their investments and know that 
the best are cheapest, find this a most dependable place to 
come to for young stallions to grow into money, mature 
2000 and 2200 lb. stallions ready for heavy stand; registered 
Allies, and young registered mares is foal to Champion 
sires. 

Coming here you have the advantage of large selection ; 
singly or by the carload. 
See my exhibit at the Chicago International. 

FRED CHANDLER, R. 7, GHARiTON, IOWa. 

Below St. Paul. 





J. W. i'fierson 



J. W.& F.T.PETERSON 

Grove City, Minn. 

Importers, Breeders, Pereheron, Belgian and Shire .Stall- 
ions and Mares. May be touud here in larger numbers than 
on any place in the Northwest. Our guarantee Is the best 
and prices the lowest, quality considered. Our 50 years ex- 
perience in the same business on the same farm should be 
worth much to buyers of our stock. Have 50 Galloway 
bnlls for sale. 




F, T. Peterson 



LIVE STOCK. 



LIVE STOCK. 



One of the greatest herds of Bolstein-Friesians in the world today. The home of 

Beauty Girl Pontiao Segis and Jewel Pontiac Segis, 

THE WOKLD'S GREATEST HEIFERS. 

Fiebe Liaara OUie Homestead King. 
Sir Ormsby Hengorveld KomdytLe. 
Write for Service Fees. Bnll calves from these sires out of high record cows. Also 
Females for sale. Freedom from tuberculosis guaranteed. Write or call on 

J. M. HACKNEY, Owner, 404 Hackney Building, St. Paul, IVi'mn. 



Rllll< in oarvlpp (.^'"S Segis Pontiac Count, 
DUIi;> in serVlUB j^King Abb^lierli Foutiac Segls. 



Nicely nui.-ked high grade Heifer Calves *20 
crated for shipment anywhere. Kegislered Bnll 
Calves tSl) and up. Registered Heifer Calves 1100 
and up. CEDAR HILL STOCK FARM, Plymouth, Wis. 



Nicely i^^ed high grade heifer Calves *20 lOakwood Farm Holsteins 



Registered G ^eriisey 
bulls from 3 to 10 roonihs old; One Ki gisiered 
(iiiemscy heifer one year old. Gov of the Clime 
and Mashfir Sequel breeding. Herd tested by live 
Etocic sanitary b'lard and found free from diseasa. 
T. C. NOK.MAN, take Crystal, Minnesota 

HOLSTEIN BABY BULLS 

of the best of breeding and individuality, at reason- 
able price-i. Ono or two ready for service this 
winter. Call on or write 

H. * R. 8. OOOOHUK, • DENNISON, MINN. 



When wrlttDK to advertisftrs 
rn«Dtlon Farm, Stock and Hooml 



aivaya 



months old. Ex- 
cellent material to build up your herd. A few 

females. L09GFIELD STOCK nm, 



FHR fiAIF '0 I*<5d Polled Bulls from 3 

run «HLC niontjis to 15 months old. Good 
.slr*>ng animals rained in nortbcrn Minnesota. 
Call on or write CRNEST FLEMMIHQ, Bona, Minn. 

<!t{nRTUnRII<t BULL CALVES, COWS and HEIFERS 
onuninunno f^cotch and red in color. Ad- 

ore..?; A. E. RICKABV. ANOKA. MINN. 



.*TaA!N— Pcd. Polled Durham and Short- 
riljujf serviceable nsre for sale. Keason- 
.. M. H. HAHSOH, Mur4eek, Minn. 



I AKESHORE HOLSTEINS One extra fine well bred 
bnll ready for service. Gnaranteed to please or 
roonoy refunded. E. J. OPPLiasR, Fore«« Lake^MInn 



HO STFIH Rill I <J v/eeks to year old. Kt- 

nULOICm 0ULL4 cellent breeding. SCO le S7S. 
AddreBS PINE HILL FARM. BUFFALO LAKE, MINN. 



How about the old bnllT Had him 
abont nn long or you can nae hlmT 
Weil, fhere'n another fpllovr In the 
name fix. Find ont who and where he 
In hr nntng the P., B. A H. ClaaalBed 
advertiainB, 



Junior berdsire, Datchlnnd Colantha Emperor, 
sonof Colantba Johanna Lad, sire of 107 A. R. O. 
daughters, 13 abovo SO lbs. butter and 23 above 600 
lbs. milk in V days. Average of dam and sire s dam 
32.97 butter in 7 days. 

Two bulls ready lor service and a few bull calves. 
6EO, H. ELWELL, Prop'!-. LEW J. Sr^lVH, Milgr. 

Minneapolis, Minn. New Bns^hton, Minn. 



CARIBOU GUERNSEYS 



We bred and own 
First Prize two year 
old bull and First Prize senior bull calf, and junior 
championship at the Minnesota .State Fair, 1917. 
Young bulls from advanced register cows for sale. 
Slal-e Accredited Tuberculosis Fi-co Herd. Write 
for sales list. 

CARIBOU FARP^S ''T^J^^i^^' 

Farm, Bartlett, D. W. & P. Ky., St. .;.r>uis County 



Red Polled Cattle 

WilhouJ an equal as profit producers of both milk 
and beef. Sales list free. MINNESOTA RED POLLEO 
CATTLE BREEDERS ASSN.. Red Wing, Minnesota. 

GRANDVIEW FARM 

OtTers choice pure bred Poland China gilts (bred 
oropon) Shorthorn Bulls, Cows and Heifers. Bour- 
bon Ked Turkeys, W. Wyandott, S. 0. W. Orpinston 
Cockerels at bargain prices for the next (!D days. 
Every thing guaranteed to please ov money re- 
funded. Phone 10 J 13. 

JNO. SMALL, - St. Charles, Minn 



AVALON SHORTHORNS 

Choice young Ktock. both sexes, lor sale at all 
times. Inspection invited. 

J. S. BILLINGS « SON 

B. F. D. 3 Fergns FallH, Minn. 

G4 SHORTHORNS Wt. 1250 1bs.: 60 Angus, wt. 1250 
Ot Oliuninunno n,g.. 70 Herefords, wt. 940 lbs.; 
68 Herefords, wt. 7B0 Ills.: H5 Shorthorns, wt. 620 
lbs.; 2 loads young cows. If wanting some choice 
native steers, dehorned, good color. Write me 
yonr wants. HARRY l. ball, fairpield, iowa. 



Breeders' Directory. 



look Over the List Wlien Yoa Want 
to Boy Live Stock. 



RATES — For listing under one Isind of 
stocli, $10.00 per year, payable quarterly in 
advance, or less 5 per cent if the full year 
is paid in advance. Listing under two head- 
ings $18.00. Listing under three headings 
$16.00 per year. All listing under more 
than three headings will be at the rate of 
$4.00 per year per additional listing, pay- 
able as above. 

One year's subscription to Farm, Stock & 
Home included. No orders taken for less 
than full year's run (24 times). 

CATTLE. 



MOLSTEIN-PRESIANS — 

B. H. Fniten, New Ricliraond, Wis. 
N. 1'. HsiFson, Weatbury, Minn. 
The Wilcox Co., White Bear, Minn. 

JERSEYS — 

C. R. Brackett, Lnn^ Lalie, Minn. 
l.h« "Old Home" Farm, Audnbon, Minn. 

HEREFORDS — 

Herman Pfnender, Rontc 1, Nevr Ulm, 
Minn. 
RED-POLLED — 

H. E. Jones, Lake Wilaon, Minn. 
GUERJVSEVS — 

Boy F. Backer, R. 4, New Uim, Minn. 

Caribou Farms, Twlfir, Mlun. 

Tiie "Old Home" Farm, Andnbon, MiniL 
M. M. Williams, Meadow Farm, Little Falls, 

Minn. 
GALLOWAYS — 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfleld, 
Minn. 

HORSES. 

PERCHERON S — 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, LltchBeld, 
Minn. 
BELGIANS—. 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 

H. Lefebnre Sc Sons, Fairfax, Iowa. 
SHIRES — 

J. W. & F. T. Peterson, Litchfield, 
Minn. 
CLYDESDALES — 

J. VV. & F. T. PetersoBk LStchfleld, 
Minn. 

SWINE. 

CHESTER WHITE — 

B. H. Fuiten, New Richmond, Wis. 

Dakota Stock Farm, Arlington, S. D. 
DUItOC JERSEY — 

Roy W. Jacobs, Wadena, Minn. 

E. \V. Smith, Parkers Prairie. Minn. 

Wm. J. Waterman, Sanborn, Miuu 

G. L. Bennett, Wadena, Minn., R. K. 5. 

Tlie "Old Home" Farm, Aadobon, Minn. 
LARGE YORKSHIRES — 

Caribou Farms, Tivig, Minn. 

TlTe Wilcox Co., White Bear, Minn. 



SHEEP. 



SHROPSHIRES— 

Caribou Farms, Twig, Minn. 

~ SHETLAND PONIES. 
A. G. Godwin, Alc:xnndrin, Minn, 



POULTRY. 



WHITE rLY.lIOlTH ROCKS — 

B. H. Fniten, New Richmond, Wis. 
BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCKS— 

Roy W. Jacobs, Wadena. Mtnn. 

E. W. Smith, Parkers Prairie, Minn. 
WHITE HOLLAND TURKEYS — 

Roy W. Jacobs, Wailena. Mtnn. 
BLUE ANDALUSIAN CHICKENS — 
RHODE ISLAND RFDS— 

T!ie Wilcox Co.. Wliite Bear. Minn. 

G. L. ISennei.l, "tVadcna. >linn., JR. R. 5. 
BOURBON RED TURKEYS— 

Mrs. E. R. Bnrtlett, Box 60, B. Z, Good 
Thunder, Minn. 

G. L. Bennett, Wadena, Minn., R. B. 6. 



Yon can Sfef somebody to sell yoO any 
thins- you nnnt, if yon one F., S. A H. 
Clafislflcd advertising. 



72 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



January 15, 1918. 





Outfit No. 42 

Latest model concealed horn in- 
etrument. Finished in beautiful 
fumed oak — elegantly polished. 
Price, with 12 Blue Amberol Inde. 
Structible Four-Minute Records, 
On I y $42.20. (See terms in cou> 
poa below.) 



3^ 



A Remarkable 
Special Offer 

On This Great Outfit 
OutlilNo. 54 ^,''l',?°r„'J'^'{7„"^.°„'3 

handsome record cibi/iet cfnuplcto — X pieces. 
An entir* Dhonori-ai^h ootlit, junt like the 
VOTT biifhent prlc.d InBtrumcnta and at ons^ 
/l/ih Iho priet/ Cjibinet rioinhed fa dull browo 



fumed oak. Csttocliy 9G records, frico for 
pnonoRTopb ond cabinet comDlet«» with 12 
IB Itluo Amberol IndPBtxactibI© Foar-Minnta 
I Kucorda. only $84.20« iHoQ ternnrlo coupon) 



ilnet comoleto* with 12 



Only$122 

After Free Trial! 

Free trial firsL Then only $1 down, 
balance in small monthly payments. See coupon behto, 

AN astounding offer — your choice of these 
two outfits of the New Edison Diamond Amberola 
' — Mr. Edison's great new phonograph with the new 

Diamond Stylus Reproducer, and 12 brand new Blue Amberol Indestructible 
Four-Minute Records sent to you on absolutely free trial. These records are 
included with the outfit 

Send no jnoncy— just fill out the coupon below and send it to 

us at once. We will send you the complete outfit, which you choose, imme- 
diately. Entertain your family and friends with the latest song hits of the 
big cities. Laugh at the side-splitting minstrel shows. Hear anything from 
Grand Opera to Comic Vaudeville. Then, if you choose, send the whole 
outfit back to us at our expense. 

Remember, the 12 brand new Blue Amberol Indestructible 

Four-Minute Records are part of the outfit 

If you wish to keep Mr. Edison's superb new 

instrument after the free trial, send us only $1.00. Pay the 
balance for the complete outfit which includes the 12 brand 
new Amberol Indestructible Four-Minute Records, in small 
monthly payments. (See terms in coupon below.) 

Think of it— a $1.00 payment and a few dollars a month to 

get an outfit of Mr. Edison's new phonograph with the Diamond Stylus 
Reproducer, the life-like music, the wonderful Blue Amberol Records. The 
^nest, the best that money can buy at much less than the price at which 
imitations of the Genuine New Edison Diamond Amberola are offered. 

Convince yourself first. Get the New Edison Diamond 

Amberola in your home on free trial. See for yourself how much you need 
it in your life. See how much happier it will make your home. Just fill out the coupon 
and send it in. No money down, no C. O. D. You pay U9 nothing on the instrument or 
records unless you decide to keep the outfit. Send it back if you wish at our expense, or 
pay only $1.00 after the trial, and the balance in easy monthly payments as explained 
in the coupon. Send the coupon today. 

Flf'* D A DC^M Edison Phonograph Distributor* 
, J\.. lj/\DDv/i^ 4071Edison Block — Chicago, Illinois 
Canadian Office: 3SS Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba 



Send No Money! 

-—Just Sign This Coupon! 

p. IC BABSON, Edison Phonograph Distributors, 4071 Edison Block, Chicago. Illinoia 

Dear Mr. Babnon : — As per your offer, 1 ehoald liko to hoar Mr. Kdison'a wonderful now Btylo phonograph with the newDfuaond Stylos reprodaecr In my own home on free trio!. Sand 
eheckod below, including tlio twelvo Illuo Amberol IndcHlrucliblo Four-Minuto Ri cordB which oro purt of thooutnt. If 1 decide to keep the outfit, I will hnva the rrivilt'KO of tho rock-bottom prit o direct from you on year 



.vaaaau^ 



■pedal terms. I aRreo merely to tuko tho oullit promptly from tho deriot, pay tho Bmall f rciRht or expreaa chnrfres, lud if I do not find it thoroughly Baliafoctory, 1 roservo tho riRht to return tho ootflt at once at joae 
ezpenae. OtborwiBe, I will 8«nd tho (Ir-it payment of $1 .00 within forty-ciuht houra nf tcr tho free trial or as Boon aa poBsible, in do ease exceeding one week, and will make monthly paymente thereafter of (CKtet 
thtmuar* bcUno to (he Uft of thr nui/it u tnrh ynu uiuih In huva vs ahip.) Thu outnt iaTo remain yuor property until tho InBt payment has boon made. I'beUMew blue Amburol Indestmctibie t'oar-Miaute Becorda ar 

: use, I will have my parents or suardian fill out the coupon, aa yoa do Dot ship to boys and sirla under ZL 



□ nntfit Nn A9 for 11 monthn and 12.70 for tho 12th month. 
VUUK ilV. til Complete price with 12 records 



□ Outfit No. 54** 



60 for 11 months and tS.TO for the 12th month. 
Complete price with 12 records 164.20. 



Uy name.. 



..Address or R.F.D.No... 



..City... 



Bute „ Sblppintr point. Ship by B«pre89. Occupation. 

Age Married or Slogla If steadily employed at salary please slate « •• 

How lone a resident In your n«iifliborbaod and TiclnltyT - ">» posslbiUty of ebangtnc 



your address dtirinc th^ itust year, whui will be yoar next address? . 




The Northwest^s Foremost Farm Paper 



EgtabiUhed 1884. 
Vol XXXIV. No. 3. 



NOTICE TO READERS. 

Whf>D yon Gnisti rradin^ this mB§> 
uinf |>lnr« ft onf^ent Htnmp on this 
nntire, hand same to an}' pONtnl em- 
ploye, and it will lie plfte^d in the 
hands of nnr inldiers And sailors at 
the front. So wraffpinQ — »iw atidrexs 
A.S.BCIILESON, Fostmnstfr General 



Minneapolis, Minnesota 



February 1, 1918 



An open Letter to Congress 



Gentlemen of the Senate and Mouse of Repre- 
setitatives: 

THE wheat fieids of America are the hope 
of the world. 

If these fields do not produce our boast- 
ed help to the Allies becomes a lie. 

If they fail our part in the war is over before 
it is begun. And they are failing to meet the 
demands expected of them ! 

It is time we look the facts squarely in the 
face. Look at the map below. It shows where 
the wheat of the nation is grown. 

Three little spots — little compared to the ex- 
tent of the United States — are our national 
bread basket. 

Two acres out of every three are in the win- 
ter wheat belt. Neither the acreage nor the 
present condition of the 1918 v^anter wheat crop 
allows a hope of the increased yields essential 
to our war requirements. 

TTie burden of meeting the situation falls on 
the spring wheat growers. 
Can they meet the situation ? 
The answer is — They cannot! 
More farmers must get into the wheat-grow- 
ing batde. 

The wheat growers of Ajnerica are now work- 
ing up to the limit of their man, money, and 
horse power. 

The idea that there are I 3,000.000 Ameri- 
can farmers producing essential foodstuffs, and 
especially wheat, is a dangerous fallacy. 

The fact is that the total American wheat 
crop is grown by the combined effort of an ag- 



ricultural army equivalent to only 300,000 men 
and 1 ,200,000 horses. 

Two-thirds of this army has shot its bolt — 
and the result is but an average acreage and an 
under-average condition of the crop. 

The Last Hundred Thousand — the spring 
wheat growers — cannot make up the measure. 

They will do their utmost to increase the acre- 
age — but depending on an army of One Hun- 
dred Thousand to avert a world famine is sheer 
madness ! 

More men must grow wheat or the world will 
go hungry ! 

How can wheat growers be recruited? By 
making wheat growing a preferable business — 
preferable to the growing of the less essential 
crops in the production of which farmers are 
now fully engaged. 

How can this be done? 

TTiree things are necessary — things all with- 
in the power of Congress to do: 



gram 



1. Establish reasonable 
grades. 

2. Raise the fixed price for 1918 
wheat to a preferential figure. 

3. Guarantee harvest labor. 

The Federal Grain Grading Act has proved, 
in operation, to be discriminatory and unfair to 
the farmer. It compels him to sell grain of high 
milling value at a low grade and at low-grade 
prices. 

The two-dollar-a-bushel price set by Congress 
for the 1918 crop is too low. This is proved by 
the limited increase in winter wheat acreage. 
Two Dollars a bushel mil not turn men from 



other profitable crops to the dangerous specula- 
tion of a one-crop system of farming in sufficient 
numbers to meet the situation. A minimum 
price of $2.75 a bushel is necessary, not to 
maintain present production, but to divert pro- 
duction from other profitable lines to wheat 
growing in sufficient degree to secure the in- 
creased 5neld needed by the Allied world. 

The wheat grower stands by the draft. But 
he wants Congress to understand that if men 
are taken from the wheat farms for military 
service the wheat factory of the nation wall have 
its output curtailed for lack of skilled labor, and 
Farm, Stock & Home urges, as a matter of na- 
tional necessity, that men not immediately need- 
ed for over-seas service be detailed to agricul- 
tural duty, and that immediate steps be taken 
to mobilize, out of the classes not yet called, a 
sufficient body of men to care for the harvest. 

The wheat grower is not whimpering. He is 
not asking favors. He is doing — and will con- 
tinue to do — all he possibly can. 

But backed by a national agricultural policy 
that favors instead of hampers wheat produc- 
tion, others will engage in the business, the 
wheat grower's labor problems will be met, and 
he will have reason to feel that his part in meet- 
ing the world-crisis now at hand is not unappre- 
ciated. 

This program should be adopted in its en- 
tirety, without delay or faltering. Already the 
teams and drills of the Last Hundred Thou- 
sand are being made ready for the last possible 
1918 drive against hunger and the possible de- 
feat of world democracy. 

Increased wheat production waits upon your 
action. 

Harry N. Owen, Publisher. 




Ortly Fifty Million acrea of wheat to feed the two Hundred Million Allied people. 

wheat producers or we stand to lose the war. 



More men must become 



February 1, 1918 



Averqize' lbiirRirm'Warit 



There isn't any question any more 
the only question now is — which 

When you Averyize your farm you can be sure you have made 
a wise selection. When you get an Avery Tractor you are getting 
a tractor that is long past the experimental stage. You are get- 
ting a tractor that has been put to every kind of a test known. 

We proved our faith in the Avery design by introducing Avery 
Tractors on a sold-on-approval policy. We have proved the 
success of the Avery design by entering it in every important 
motor contest and demonstration held in this or any other country. 

And the strongest proof of the success of the Avery design is 



about the success of tractor farming — 
is the best tractor for you to get. 

that men who bought the first Avery Tractors years ago are 
buying more Avery Tractors — sons, brothers, cousins and 
others of every relationship to the first buyers are placing their 
own orders for Averys — and neighbors who have watched 
their work are buying them in large numbers. 

Avery Tractors are built by a company having over thirty years' 
experience in building power farming machinery with tens of 
thousands of Avery machines in operation all over the world, and 
by a company ownin;? a large factory with branch houses and distributers 
covering every State in the Union and over 60 foreign countries. 



A Size for Every Size Farm and Every Kind of Work 



Yon can do 'practically every kind of work on 
every size farm with Avery Motor Power. There 
are six sizes of Avery Tractors from which you can 
pick exactly the right size tractor for doing your 
heavy traction and belt work. 

There's an Avery Two-Row Motor Cultivator for 
doing your cultivating and other light traction and 
belt work. Then you can get an Avery Plow and 
an Avery Thresher to fit any size tractor, and 
you have an equipment of Tractor Farming Ma- 
chinery that will enable you to raise a larger crop 
at less expense and save it after you raise it. 

What You Get in an Avery Tractor 

The five sizes of Avery Tractors — 8-16, 12-2S» 
18-36, 25-50 and ^0-80 h. p., are all built of the 
same design. They are the only tractors with a 
double carburetor and duplex gasifier that burns 
ALL the kerosene. They have a patented slid- 




ing frame that eliminates the intermediate gear 
used on other tractors, which saves expense 
and increases the power. 

They are the only tractors with renewable in- 
ner cylinder walls, crankshafts one- half or 
more in diameter than the diameter of the 
cylinders, adjustable crankshaft boxes, no fan, 
fan belt, governor belt, fuel pump or walerpump. 

They are the most easily adjustable and acces- 
sible tractors built and are light in weight per 
drawbar efficiency. We also build a smaller 
5-10 h. p. Tractor, especially for small farms 
and lighter work on large farms. 

The Wonderful Avery 
Motor Cultivator 

The Avery Motor Cultivator is truly a wonder- 
ful machine. It plants and cultivates any crop, 



such as corn, beans, cotton, etc. With it one man 
can handle 100 acres of crop or more than double 
what one m;in ordinarily handles with horses or 
mules. It is also a handy machine for harrowing, 
drilling, harvesting, hay cutting, hay raking, feed 
grinding, pumping, sawing and other work. 

Light and Heavy Tractor Plows 
Small and Large Sized Threshers 

You can also get an Avery Power-Lift Tractor Plow 
either light or heavy, in any size from 1 to 10 bot- 
toms, and an Avery Thresher in any size from a 
small 19x30 inch for individual use up to a large 
42x70 inch for commercial threshing. 

Avery Plows are guaranteed to scour in any soil 
where any other plow will scour. 

Avery Threshers will thresh any kind of grain or 
seeds and are guaranteed grain savers. 



The 1913 Avery Motor Power Book is Ready for You 

It shows all Avery machines in their natural colors, both stationary and actual work- 
ing scenes. It has unusual detailed illustrations of tractor construction. Write for 
free copy and ask for special information about the size machines you need to meet 
your requirements. Address ' 

AVERY COMPANY, 7205 Iowa Street, Peoria, III. 

Branch Houses and DisiHbuters Covering Every State 
in the Union and B/lore Than 60 Foreign Countries 




6et a Guaranteed Avery Grain Saver 
Thresher in any size you need from a small 
19x30 inch individual machine up to a large 
42x70 inch for commercial threshing. 
ThBVB's a sSxe Avory Tractor 
fof Bvopy sizo fm*m 
and every kind of 
workm 



Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 



MINNEAPOLIS. MINNESOTA. FEBRUARY 1, 1918. 



T'ttr'na^^^ '5 Cents a Tear. 



MamberB. 



Prepared Excressly for Farm, Stock ANif Home. 

Chopped Feed — Mess 742. 

—If the machine can, make it ! 

— The biggest and best is yet to be. 

— The apple tree's bark is no worse than its blight. 

- The four-handed man is only a monkey, after all. 

—Is the seed com supply assured? If not, where 
i>i it coming from ? 

—Saving for UncieSam is putting money from one's 
}>ocket into one's sock. 

— (iive the boy a pig and see him skin Dad at the 
game of "build-a-porker". 

-Buckwheat is a crop that makes both honey and 
the cakes that Honey makes. 

— The man who tries to make money by skimping 
the stock is not a farmer, he's an embezzler. 

— The silken threat of temptation, yielded to, is 
pretty sure to become the iron chain of habit. 

— Playing politics has nothing in common with 
playing the sert of ball that must win the war. 

— Placing the machinery and equipment orders for 
early-aa-poss'We delivery is simply good .sense. 

— One liag— the American; one party — the Ameri- 
can; one ideal — Democracy for the whole world. 

— Just to prove its efficiency Kultur starts in by 
pulling all the "nots" out of the Ten Commandments. 

— Plowing up the old pasture for flax has one draw- 
back that must be considered — it may make the feed 
problem harder to meet. 

— Tiy keeping the plow lays "keen as a razor" this 
spring. 'Twin make a one-horse difference in the pull 
and a lot of difference in the oat bin. 

— As to price fixing, if Uncle Sam puts up one pal- 
ing he might as well plan on putting up the whole 
fence. This len^t a hurdle race; it's a war. 

— A well-calculated campaign of production ought, 
ne.xt season, to result in an increased acreage and 
yield at a lower cost for man and horse labor. 

— Militarism's cloak of kultur is getting so moth- 
eaten that CTcn the German peasants can see the 
glitter of steel and the dripping of blood beneath. 

— Encourage the handy youn^ mechanic to stay on 
the farm by giving him plenty of macluKery with 
which to work, and a good repair shop in which to 
take care of it. 

— "Every Scout to feed a soldier !" is a worthy slo- 
gan for America's boy legions. Good luck; may the 
sun shine, the wind blow, the rain come, and the har- 
vests of 1918 be abundant I 

— It is entirely littmg that the looting of the tomb 
of the Saviour should have been done by the same 
moralists that were responsible for the crucifixtion 
of Canadian soldiers in Flanders. 

— Germany knows— exactly as the bank robber sur- 
rounded by a po. se of angry citizens knows — ^just 
what the intent of the Allies is. Its pretense of ig- 
norance is camouflage intended to delude the dupes 
at home and to aid the dupsters abroad. 

— Next year the world will eat quite as much as 
this, and of about the same things. Wheat and meat 
and potatoes, ciioese and milk, fruit and vegetables. 
Plan an early and trood garden along with the other 
planning. It will save money and add to the joy of 
living. 

— The dear women who have picketed the President 
succeeded in aaak Wig a holy show of themselves by 
getting into jaB o/id by bringing their cause into disre- 
pute; in retarding klie very movement — the enfran- 
chisement of women — they were supposed to be labor- 
ing for. 

— A buahelof wheat is worth, for eating purposes, 
four bushels of potatoes. This means that for every 
four carloads of p'/tatocs allowed to go to waste bc- 
;ause (jf imptctp^T shelter or farmers to get them onto 



the market the Allied nations are deprived of one 
carload of flour. 

— When you hear a man knocking the government 
for its autocratic methods in fixing prices and con- 
trolling the industries of the nation, look him over! 
Ten-to-one he's the same identical fellow who was re- 
cently bragging about the efficiency obtained by our 
quondam friend, Germany. 

— A wheat grading system that pretends to be based 
upon the milling value of wheat, but allows the grade 
to be knocked down for any one of several reasons 
that in no wise affect the milling quality is not merely 
a sham, it is a lie! — a scientific farce, to be gotten rid 
of without parley ani without too tender a regard for 
the feelings of its supporters. 

— Tying a cheese cloth over the spout of the pump 
in order to keep the "bugs" out of the water is rec- 
ommended by a city chap who thinks he can write 
for the farm papers. Being naturally averse to "bug 
juice" F., S. & H. declined the manuscript and the 
c. c. will no doubt wonder why. Confidentially, F., 
S. & H. prefers its water straight. 



Australian Wheat Prospects— Due chiefly to a short- 
age of labor at seeding time, the new wheat crop in 
South Australia is estimated at 26,000,000 bushels as 



Recompense. 

Jiist to leave the world a little better than 
you found iti 
Just to sing a song of cheering as you go; 
Just to find the Truth and throw your 
arm around it 
Won't bring fame — but you'll be happy 
living so! 

Just to even up the rough and rugged 
places 

Over which your fellow mortals daily go; 
Just to set contentment glinting in their 
faces 

Won't bring fame — but you'll be happy 
living sol 

Just to see the hidden beauty in the com- 
mon; 

Loving life, but fearing not from it to go; 
Having Jaith in One who loves and leads 
the human. 
Won't bring fame— but you'll be happy 
living so! 



compared with last year's crop of 43,000,000 bushels. 
Harvesting of the new crop has already commenced. 
Official reports received by the United States Food 
Administrator show 120,000,000 bushels of Australia's 
old wheat still in reserve but much is liable to damage 
from improper storage nor can it be marketed in 
Europe because of insufficient ships and the great dis- 
tance. The conditions prevailing in one of the world's 
most important wheat-growing countries increases the 
responsibility of the United States for producing a 
large wheat crop this year. 



French Potato Prices. — Scarcity of food in France 
has resulted in advanced prices for potatoes beginning 
.January 1, 1918, and continuing to the next harvest. 
Prices to growers range from $2.87 per 100 pounds for 
the fourth quality, to J>4. 76 per 100 pounds for best 
quality, Wholesale dealers are allowed a profit of 92 
cents and retailers a profit of $1.84 per 100 pounds of 
potatoes. Before the war the total retail price paid by 
consumers ranged from -SLDO to $2.C0 per 100 pounds. 



Oust Latent Agricultural Resources. 

OPECIAL writers for the daily and magazine press 
frequently put their stufl* under scare headings 
by announcing with calm finality that America is 
about to starve because the limits of her productive 
capacity have been reached. 

As everybody knows, the soil of the United States, 
both in quality and adaptability for working, compares 
very favorably with that of any like section of land on 
the globe. There is, to be sure, the large Rocky 
Mountain area, the major part of which must be 
counted out as non-productive in the true sense of 
that word. There are other areas, as for example the 
Apalachian Mountain system and scattered timbered 
areas North and South, that are non-agricultural, but 
instead should be in forest. 

In fact the true relationship of forest to the total 
area of country call for about 25 per cent in timber. 
This to supply necessary demands for timber in its 
various manufactured forms and to make productive 
those lands which are not agricultural in character. 

After we have cut out of the reckoning all of the 
forest and mountain lands of the country, all the 
distinctly non-agricultural lands, we still have a very 
goodly stretch of country equivalent to the entire 
area of the United States from the Atlantic to the 
base of the Rocky Mountains, suitable to agricultural 
purposes. 

How much of this is used? The latest figures show 
that only 46 per cent of the entire land area of the 
United States is productive, and that is but 15.4 per 
cent, or slightly less than 300,000,000 acres, is in 
crops. In other words, 500,000,000 acres is devoted 
to pasture and the various forms of farming outside 
of the raising- of the main crops of the nation. 

Obviously our land efficiency is very low. Compare 
with these figures those for Belgium, where 88.5 per 
cent of the land was productive and 49.2 per cent was 
in cultivated crops prior to the outbreak of the war, 
or compare our land efficiency with Germany where 
94.6 per cent of the entire area is productive and 47.7 
per cent is in field crops. Even when compared with 
European Russia, which embraces Finland and the 
vast wastes near the Arctic Ocean, and the United 
States fall short. 54.7 per cent of the European Rus- 
sian is producing agriculturally and 19.2 per cent is 
under the plow or in tame grasses. Even Great 
Britain, a nation that we are taught to think of as a 
country of parks and forests, is considerably ahead 
of us with 86.2 per cent of its area productive and 23.2 
per cent in cultivated crops. 

To one who knows the immense capabilities of 
American soil and the extent to which the soil is 
lying idle even in the most intensely cultivated sec- 
tions of the country, these figures indicate but one 
thing, namely, that the agricultural resources of 
America are not exhausted, and are not even worked 
to one half their reasonable acreage maximum. 

Looking again at the situation from the standpoint 
of production per acre, the figures are even more im- 
pressive. The United States could not only double its 
productive acreage, but it could increase its acre 
efficiency by at le.ist 50 per cent. In other words, we 
could maintain without external help a population of 
300,000,000 without letting anybody go hungry. 

But in order to do this profound economic and 
social changes must come about. There must be a 
recognition of the fact that the farmer is a manufac- 
turer entitled at all times to returns sufficient to pay 
for the cost of his raw material, his labor, his mana- 
gerial profits, together with a fair margin to cover the 
element of risk. With this principle accepted the 
alarmists can go hang. They will find that the idle 
acres of the nation will be brought into production 
j ust as soon as the food requirements of the peoplt^ 
may demand. 



February 1, 1918 



WHAT DOES WHEAT COST? 

BV ANIlllKW BOSS. 

No one should undertake to grow 
wheat without considering the factor 
of cost. We farmers have not in the 
past been very businesslike, and be- 
cause we have been unbusinesslike, we 
don't Icnow definitely the cost or just 
what it ousht to be in Minnesota, and 
when we have been asked what it cost 
to grow a bushel of wheat or an acre 
of wheat it was almost impossible to 
tell. Cost is based on a number of 
different things, such as horsepower, 
man power, land rental, twine, thresh- 
ing, machinery, seed. The space be- 
tween each bar indicates the present 
cost of each of these factors, making 
up the total cost of producing a crop 
of wheat. We have eight different 
factors: 

The Rerrt Item Must Be Reckoned. 

Land cost, as you know, comes first 
of all, as it is necessary to have the 
land, and if the producer doesn't own 
the land he has to rent it. The land 
cost must be considered whether he 
owns it or rents it. The percentages 
are based on the present prices of 
labor and present price of wheat. Note 
first that the cost of land rental is 
24.-5 per cent, or nearly one-fourth of 
the total cost is to provide a place 
to grow the wheat on. If a man wants 
to make money, he must figure around 
to get land that will cost him less. 
This land is figured at $100 per acre 
and interest is figured on it. If a man 
is on a western prairie where land 
is worth only from $25 to $30 per 
acre, that particular cost would be 
less; so if one wants to make a "har- 
vest" this year in growing wheat, in- 
stead of locating in southeastern Min- 
nesota, he would do better to locate 
toward the Red River Valley, where 
land is worth from $30 to $60 per 
acre. One of the first things to do i;; 
to secure cheap land, land easily 
worked, for the production of wheat. 

How Much to Horse Power? 

Horse power. Next is horse power 
22.2 per cent — nearly one-fourth again. 
That figure can be reduced by the use 
of the tractor; the amount of the labor 
is not less but the place of the horse 




Dry Feet and 
Warm Feet 

are simply a matter of rubber 
and wool. For the best pro- 
tection and the longest wear 
buy "Ball -Band" Vacuum 
Cured Footwear which is 
practically one solid piece. 
The Red Ball Trade Mark is 
on every " Ball - Band " boot, 
arctic, and rubber. Look for it. 

Worn by nine and one-half 
million people and sold by 
55,000 dealers. Write for book- 
let, " More Days Wear." 

MISHAWAKA WOOLEN MFG. CO. 
377 Water St., Mishawaka, Ind. 

"JAe Uuw.e Tluit Ifayi MMlunafurQuaUtt/" 



is taken by the tractor, but, of course, 
the less horse labor used, the higher 
will be the machinery cost. There is 
also a possibility of reducing the cost 
of horse labor by economy and elii- 
ciency in its use, and while something 
might be saved, it should not be saved 
by the omission of any of the proc- 
esses of putting the land in good 
shape, but machinery adapted to use 
with horse power is quite a factor In 
reducing the amount of the cost. 

Twelve Hours Man Labor to the Acre. 

Man labor. Man labor amounts to 
14.7 per cent. In actual production of 
an acre of wheat it will require about 
12 hours of man labor, we would be 
told in the Red River Valley; in south- 
eastern Minnesota some men may 
produce it with eight or nine hours. 
The people who use labor efficiently 
can produce It with 14.7 per. cent of 
total cost. 

Wheat vs. Corn. 

Contrasting wheat growing and corn 
growing. Corn growing was on the 
increase in Minnesota. If it had not 
been for the frost in 1915 and frost 
again this year the acreage of corn 
would have increased largely, but I 
presume this will cause a reversal and 
the increase of corn acreage will not 
come so rapidly. This year wheat 
was a keener competitor for two rea- 
sons: Wheat at $2 per bushel is a 
profitable crop to grow, and farmers 
have assurance of that much. 




In the second place wheat calls for 
less man labor than any other crop — 
a good deal less. Wheat is going to 
be a favorite crop. It requires 12 
hours labor to grow an acre of wheat 
compared to 26.3 hours required to 
grow an acre of corn, with the chances 
that an acre of wheat will be just 
as valuable as an acre of corn, while 
it requires less man labor and but 30 
hours of horse labor while corn re- 
quires 34.6 hours. 

What Seed Costs. 

Cost of seed. In arriving at seed 
cost, we used 1.5 bushels to the acre, 
figured at $2.50 per bushel, tho wheat 
is selling at $2.17. Screening waste and 
labor of treating for smut has to be 
expended upon it, and we place it at 
18.4 per cent of the cost. 

Other Expenses. 

The twine, threshing and machinery 
cost altogether 12.9 per cent of the to- 
tal. General expense amounts to 7.3 
per cent of the total cost and includes 
things that cannot be easily separated 
such as materials, taxes, insurance, 
storage. Some of the machinery can 
be used in other work, reducing cost. 
If you will make all this to represent 
a dollar, every dollar of cost is divided 
in this proportion: 

Horse power 222 

Land rental 245 

Twinp OlS 

Threshing 05-5 

-Machinery 055 

General 073 

Seed 184 

Man labor 147 

1.00 

V/hy Good Yields Pay. 

That dollar's worth of cost is es- 
sentially the same for 12 bushels of 
wheat as it is for 20, the factors of 
cost excejit the ones of twine and 
threshing would be only very slightly 
increased. 

Use of cheap land, efficiency of 
labor, proper preparation of land to 
receive the seed, are all factors in 
the cost of production. Do not at- 
temi)t to save cost in seed used, and 
it is most important to prepare the 
land well to receive the seed. Nine- 
teen seventeen h.is been a good year 
for bringing out the farmers who han- 
dle their land well. It was not diffi- 
cult to i)Ick out the good farmers, who 
prepare their land well, handle it well, 
and thus secure a good crop. No 
chance should be taken in the prepa- 
ration of seed for tho 1918 crop. 




We Must "FoUowUp" 



The story of the Gallipoh with- 
drawal is a tale of inadequate sup- 
port. Like Salamanders clinging 
to the red-hot bars of a fiery fur- 
nace, the boys of Australia and 
New Zealand clung to the slopes 
of Anzac. Desperately, heroically 
they clung. No troops under any 
circumstances ever displayed 
greater soldierly qualities or upheld 
more sacredly the best traditions of 
England's Army. But they had 
to withdraw because the "follow- 
up" was not there. 

To some of us it has been given 
to march with the columns of 
troops that go to France. And 
to others it is given to wave God- 
speed. But he who marches and 
he who stays is equally a citizen 



of the world's mightiest republic 
and equally responsible for its suc- 
cess in this greatest of undertakings. 

Then let us at home turn from 
our flag waving and consider how 
necessary we are, how useful we 
must be. Those who go to fight 
cannot hope to win by naked 
bravery and we cannot hope to 
win unless every individual at home 
does all he can. We must have 
no Gallipoli. 

The Bell System is only one 
of the myriad great and small 
industries which are co-operating 
that nothmg be left undone to keep 
a constant, efficient st^m of men, 
guns, ammunition, food, clothing 
and comforts flowing to the front. 




American Telephone and Telegraph Company^ 
And Associated Companies 



One Policy 



One System Universal Service 




Wonderiul One -Man Puller 

Sent On 30-Day FREE TRIAL! 



Labor scarcity no longer prevents ANY man pulling stumps! One man 
alone handles, operates, this famous Kirstin Drum Type Puller! No 
help needed! No horses! Leverage principle gives man giant's power- 
enables you to pull stumps, big, little, green, rotten. low-cut, tap rooted! 
—or brush! Pulls them quickly! EASILY ! CHEAPLY I A record- 
breaking 30-day free trial offer to prove astounding superiority.' 

Kirstin Stump Pullers 
^■■■■■■■i Drum Type — 3 Speeds and Reverse 



Clears one acre from one anchor! Patented 
Take-up does away with winding slack cable — 



Three speeds — when 
crease speedl Saves 
position. Reverses under 

Greatest One-man 
DRUM Stump 
Puller In America 



stump loosens — m- 
time! Works in any 
Btrain. Big, broad 




wheels make it easy to move! All-steel con- 
struction—unbreakable. A 3- Year Guarantee 
—flaw or no flaw. But write for ALL the facts! 
And forno-money-down, 6ix-months-to-pay OFFER. 
Grand SPECIAL offer to one man in a conunanity. 



WnnHorfiil BAok FRFE! Explainseverything— all about one- 
WOnaerrul book ritCE, manstyleand horse-power pullers. 
Reproduces letters from scores ofKirstin users, solves all 6tump-pullin(;r 
problems. TeUs all about our SPECIAL offer to AGENTS, etc.— is val- 
uable, instructive, tremendously Interesting and 
free. Write for It today. 




A.J. KIRSTIN CO., BOTLudlngtonSi., Escanaba, Mich, 



— A good deal is heard about the 
tuberculin test. Some cities require 
that milk can be sold only from tuber- 
culin tested cows. The tuberculin test 
is a method used for finding out if 
cattle have tuberculosis. A specially 
prepared substance called tuberculin 
is injected into the animal and a rec- 
ord is kept of the animal's tempera- 
ture taken at intervals of two hours. 
If the temperature goes up a certain 
number of degrees it is an indication 
that the animal has tuberculosis, and 
such animals are removed from the 
herd. — N. D. Agr. (College. 



"All Ali"iit SlIoH " WrlttKn by Tnv(inli)r. Adilress 
Hcwitt-Ua-FunckCo.,HewittBldg.,Suniner,Waih, 



1\ 

ress 

Mh. J 



When writing; to advertisers always 
mention Farm, Stock and Home. 



Paint Without Oil 



Remarkable Discovery That Cuts Down 
the Cost of Paint Seventy-five 
Per Cent. 



A Free Trial Package is Mailed to Every 
One Who Writes. 

A. L. Rico, a proniiiiout. ni:imi£a<'turer of Adams. 
N. Y.. has discovered a process of making a now 
kind of piilnt wiihout tho «se of oil. }lo calls It 
Towdrpaini. It comos In tho form of a dry povrder 
and all tbat is rcqulrod is cold waiur to malso a 
piilnt woniliorproof, tire proof, .sanllary and durable 
tor onisldo or Inside painlinK. It Is the cement 
principle applied to paint. U adheres lo any snr- 
faco, wood, Kionos or briclj, spreads and looks lllie 
oil paint and cost about one- I'ourl li ns much. 

Write to Mr. A. L. Kloe, Manufacturer, 70 M North 
Street, Adams, N. Y., and ho will send you a free 
trial pnckaKe. also color card and full Information 
showInK you how you can save a good many dollars. 
Write today. 

(Mention this Dap«r 1 



February 1, 1918 



FARM. STOCK AND HOME. 





Six1:een §§ai^^^c 
concrete storage 
tanks. Capacity 
112.000 bushels 
of Seed 
Grain 

The ^rain 
is umoaded 
from cars 
■bymacliinei::/ 
and conveyed 
to the tanks. 



Many ofik^e 
gravity chutey 
throughout the 
building insure 
speedynandlin^ 
of bads of ^ 

seeds {rorn 
storage floors 
toshippingroom. 



Eight Acres of Floor Space Are De- 
voted to Modern Machinery, Storage 
Tanks, Bins and Equipment for the 
Selection, Cleaning and Prompt Distri- 
bution of High Quality Seeds. 

THOUSANDS of farmers and gardeners have depended on 
this institution during the past thirty-four years, to sup- 
ply them with reliable seeds. By buying the well-known Nor- 
thrup, King & Co.'s brands, they have found that they can be 
sure of getting seed that is tested for purity and germination. 

This mammoth new plant has recently been completed and put 
into operation. It makes possible better service to every user of seeds 
in the Northwest. 



Baitery ' 
of diant Grain. 
aruTGrass Seed Cleaners 
assurin^clean.plump seed soldunder these 

Three Reliable I^rands 

W W w 



WorldrWide Sources 

From the best seed-growing local- 
ities of the world, seeds of thous- 
ands of varieties are brought to the 
plant of Northrup, King & Co. 
Bulk carloads are unloaded by the 
use of electrically-driven conveyor 
belts into enormous bins and tanks. 
Bags of garden seeds are trans- 
ferred to special storage rooms. 

Seed Purifying 

So that seed can meet the high 
standards this Company has set, 
it is thoroughly recleaned and puri- 
fied by special machinery of latest 
type. 

Testing for Purity and 
Germination 

Before this recleaned seed is 
ready for shipment, each lot is test- 
ed in a laboratory in charge of an 
expert analyst. Purity is deter- 
mined by the use of microscopes 
and delicate scales. The seed is 
sprouted to show percentage of 
germination. 



Packet Seed Department 

Millions of packets are sold from 
the attractive Northrup, King & 
Co. seed cases which dealers dis- 
play in their stores. These packets 
are filled and sealed in the new 
plant by delicately-adjusted m.a- 
chines which insure full measure. 

Speeding Up Shipments 

Seed is sent from storage floors to 
shipping room, by the use of electric 
truck, gravity chutes, and special 
bag and box elevators. Freight 
cars on three lines of tracks are 
shifted by cables, pulleys and elec- 
trical machinery. They are rapidly 
filled from long loading platforms 
and then shipped to nearly every 
community in the great Northwest. 
Orders Handled Promptly 
When an order is received, it 
starts through an efficient office 
system where it is recorded and 
forms are made out for shipping 
and invoicing. The latest electrical 
equipment, from letter openers to 
tag addressing machines, speeds the 
process. 



NORT 




In this mammoth new plant, 
Northrup, King & Co. is working 
at top speed to make it easy for you 
to obtain reliable seeds of the hardi- 
est, and most productive varieties. 
Because of the immense amount we 
supply, we can distribute them 
most effectively by placing on sale 
in dealers' stores. Thus it is pos- 
sible for users in nearly every local- 
ity throughout the Northwest to 



obtain our reliable brands from 
nearby merchants. 

Plant dependable seeds this year. 
STERLING, NORTHLAND and 
VIKING brand seeds will help you 
raise better crops and increase food 
production for war-time needs. 

Order early before stocks are sold 
out. Names of dealers in your 
locality handling our seeds, fur- 
nished promptly on request. 




New warehouses of Northrup, King & Co., Seedsmen, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota—the largest and most effi- 
ciently equipped plant of its kind in the Northwest. 




78 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



February 1, 1918 



Farm, Stock andHome. 

Founded by SrONEY M. and HORATIO B. OWEN. 



ISSUED THE 1st AND tSth OF EACH MONTH. 



FARM. STOCK «l HOME PUBLISHING CO.. 
— PubUshers,— 
412-414-416 Sixth Street South. 
Minneapol is, - Minnesota 

(BNTBKED AT TUB POSTOFPICK AT MiNNBAPOLIS 

AS Skoonb-class Matter.) 

Publisher 
- - - Editoh 

ASSOeiATB KDITOR 



Uaury N. Owkn, 
HuQH J. Hughes, 
Mary L. Bigelow, 



SUBSCRimON RATES: 
ITntted SIntes and Possessions, 76 cents a 

yenr in advance. 

Minnpnpolis, Canada and Foreign, $1.00 

per J ear in advance. 



I)ispontlnaInB or ChanRrlns Advertisements. 

' — Owing to the fact that t'oi ms begin Bolng to 
press on the 18th for issues of the first of the 
month, and the Srd for Issues of the 15th, we 
shall not be responsible for failure to omit, 
discontinue or change an adx-ertlsement un- 
less ordered to do so twelve (12) days in ad- 
vance of dato of paper. 

NEW YORK OFFICE: 1 Madison Ave- 
nue, A. H. BIMIngslea In charge. 

^•i'^;^?® OFFICE: 1119 Advertising 
Building, J. C. BllllngsSea In charge. 

ST. LOUIS OFFICE: Third National 
Bank BIdg., A. D. M cKlnney In charge. 

Minneapolis, Minn., February i. 



CONTKNTS OF THIS ISSUE. 

Kdltorial Comment. 

Democracy's Xew Vision 80 

Fix the 191 S Potato Price 80 

The Meat Problem 80 

Is the War a Side Issue? 80 

Retailing War Time Gos.sip 80 

Why Not "Corn Juice"? 80-81 

Corn, Pats and Victory SI 

A Slam From the Elevators 81 

Neither French Nor Canadian 81 

The Individual and Democracy 81 

The Tri-State Meetina- 81 

Cooper Goes — Randlett Comes 81 

The Milk Indictments 81 

Strangling Publishers 81 

The Farm. 

What Does Wheat Cost? 76 

How Is the Seed Corn? 84 

Correspondence. 

Seed Corn and Livestock 83 

Farming- No Longer a Speculation 87 

Tax Dojrs and Protect Sheep 8.9 

Championship Appreciated \ 89 

No Smoke Without Fire 89 

Wheat Prices 89 

Farm Power. 

Tearing- Out Foundation S.S 

Automobiles and Farm Implements.... 87 

Ignition Relay 10 G 

Scored Cylinders lOii 

The Old Question 100 

The Mo.«t Common Question lOfi 

Cold Weather Starting lOi; 

Winter Oils lOi) 

Overhauling the Engine lOG 

livestock. 

Save the Breeding Stock 90 

The Sheep Situation 91 

Winter Care of the Farm Flock 91-92 

Sheep and Wool Prospects 92 

The 1917 International 92 

State Meeting of Livestock Shippers.... Ill 
Dairj- Department. 

In the Wake of the Testers 93-94 

Poultry Department. 

Winter Eggs 98 

Use Care in Operating Incubator 98 

Ten Rules for Raising Chickens 98 

How to Get Eggs in Winter 99 

Wheatless Days for Chii-kens 99 

Veterlnai-j-. 

Ailing Cow 107 

Ringworm 107 

Ailing Cow 107 

Sick Chickens 107 

Feeding Hogs 107 

Dog Out of Condition 107 

Ailing Sow and Cow 107 

Lice on Cattle 107 

Our Homo Council. 

What Our New York Shopper Sees 100 

Crocheted Hungarian Portieres 100-101 

Pin Money Papers 101 

Handling the Family Money 101-1U2 

Our Question Box 10 2 

Corn Meal to the Rescue lO." 

A Handy List lO.'j 

Contributed Recipes 103 

Fashion Letter and Patterns 101 

.Short Talks. 

Canada Thistle 109 

Flax After Flax Doubtful 109 

Basis of Hog Prices 109 

Green Feed for Poultry 109 

Why Are Headache Mixtures Harmful. 109 

Waste of Food 109 

Frozen Potatoes a Dead Loss 109 

Potato Prices — What's the Matter?.... 109 
Belgian Neutrality — How Agreed To.... 109 

Oat Straw for Feeding 110 

Bringing Up Run Out I,and 110 

Legal Departmenl. 

Deed for Homo!;toad 110 

Buying Land 110 

MiscellMiconH. 

An Open Letter to Congress 73 

Chopped Feed, Mess 742 ''5 

Recompense (poetry) 7.T 

French Potato Prices 75 

Our Latent Agricultural IleHourres 75 

Binder Tw'nc tinder U. S. Control 97 

Tho Potato Price Outlook 82 

Making Good Thru F., S. & H 84-85 

Heed Law ProtectH Farmer From I,ohs. . 8i) 

Oscar Anderson. Renter ^^'H 

Wheat and the Making of Bread 88 

Wheat and the War 88-89 

Js Your Seeil Corn Safe? , 89 

Grain firadew on Trial 95-97 

Neighborhood Welfare 10> 



GUARANTEE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 
— Farm, Stock and Home will not ad- 
mit the advertising of condimental 
stock foods, investment schemes, pat- 
ent medicine for internal human use, 
or any announcements of any adver- 
tiser who will not live up to his agree- 
ment! with subscribers. The usual 
guarantee made by publishers simply 
covers the filling of the order by the 
advertiser, so that they can, and many 
do, advertise almost any thing offered. 




Potato Market Prospects. 

SO serious has the potato price outlook become that during Farmers' Week 
the Minnesota Potato Growers' Association, the wholesalers of the Twin 
Cities, and the retailers, held a joint conference under the chairmanship 
of A. D. Wilson, State F'ood Administrator. At this conference costs of pro- 
duction and distribution, the fact of a lessened de>nand on the part of the con- 
sumer, the free movement to market of eastern and western grown potatoes 
were all talcen up. 

A committee of eight, consisting of two from the State Food Committee, 
two from the growers, two from the wholesalers, and two from the retailers 
were appointed to formulate a plan that would stimulate greater market 
activity. 

This committee met in St. Paul and formulated the following recommen- 
dations : 

1. That it is tlie .iudgmenfc of the coiiimiltoo that fartucrs be advised to 
start marketiriK' potatoes at once. 

2. That the food adniinislration use its iiillueiice iiationall> to eneoui-a};e 
greater consumption of potatoes: 

(a) By greater use in hotel,'? and r(>stauraii(s witli the recommendation 
that potatoes be served with meat ordeis without extra cliarge. 

(b) Dy encouraging- the greater use of potatoes in the home both as a 
vegetable and in bread niaivlng-. 

(c) Bj' re<onimendii;.t;- that all pot.Ttoes he graded as per government grades 
and culls be fed on the fann or converted into starch. 

3. That potatoes are now selling- at too high a price based on supplies 
and food value and that thciy must bo sold at lower prices at the point of 
production and handled on narrow margins so that they may he g:otten to 
the consumer at lower piices. 

4. That retailers be urged to make a leader of potatoes using attractive 
displays, reasonable advertising- and encouragement to consumers to purchase 
more potatoes. 

Signed: Hugh .1. Tlughes, Oliairman, and Harry Ealtuff for the State Com- 
mittee Food I'roduction and Conservation; W. IT. Ferroll and J. E. Beggs ft)r 
the Minnesota ^\■holesale I'otato PcalerM' Association; CI. ■ Oiddings, Anoka, and 
ID. W. .Smith, Parkers Prairie, for the Minnesota I'otato Growers' As.sociation ; 
C. F. Trettiu and .\. C. lilkeltind for the Minnesota Ketail Giocers' Association. 

Independent Hai^restei" Co.'s Affairs. 

IT will be remembered when the original iiromoters of this company were 
busy selling stock to farmers, F., S. & H. Avarned its readers to let it alone. 
It was roundly abused by some of its subscibers for "knocking" a farmers' 
company. Events proved the knock was justified. The old gang was thrown 
out and competent management installed. The co-operative idea was aban- 
doned, as it was found impracticable to allow stockholder discounts on ma- 
chinery. No treasury stock of any kind has been sold in the Independent 
Harvester Co. since 1913. An honest endeavor has been made by William 
Deering Steward and his associates to pull the company out of the hole and 
save the stockholders' investment, but lack of working capital to finance the 
rapidly growing business has made it necessary to liquidate the company. 
Practically all the working capital has been furnished on the personal credit 
of Mr. Steward. He does not feel justified in continuing to carry this burden. 

Stockholders are now given the opportunity of surrendering their com- 
mon stock and receiving one share of common in a new company for each 
two shares surrendered, and subscribe for their proportion of $1,000,000 in 
preferred stock. To make this plain, if a man has two shares of common 
stock in the Independent Harvester Co. he would get one share of common 
in the reorganization on the payment of forty dollars, or at the rate of twenty 
dollars on each share of the Independent Harvester Co. If this is not done 
all he would get would be his proportion of the proceeds from the sale of 
the Independent Harvester Co. as a going concern. No one can say what 
this would be. 

Therefore, the question is, will it pay to send more money after the original 
investment and taking a chance of sometime getting ail your money back, or 
losing the additional money, or taking a loss now on the money put in and 
forgetting the whole deal? 

A Suggestion in Neighborliness. 

WHEN the history of the present years comes to be written the historian 
is going to record the fact that the American farmers bore a large 
part of the labor and sacrifice necessary to victory. We will be out 
in the sunlight of a new world — a world free from the menace that now grips 
us. We will have new conditions to deal with, new forces will surround us. 
It will be Co-operation's day. 

Do you ever stop to take note of how very closely F.. S. & H. is watch- 
ing every drift of the current — how close it is to the forces that are creat- 
ing the Good Time coming? Are you reading its editorial pages and its 
special articles carefully in order to find out in an authoritative way how 
the currents of progress are setting? 

If you are of those who really keep informed on world-wide events 
of direct moment to the farmer you already are reading the First Page, the 
editorials and the specials. You simply can't get along without them. And 
I wish that you would do one neighbor the favor this winter of getting him 
lined up as an enthusiastic reader of these "mental outlook" pages. He'll 
appreciate the neighborliness of the introduction. 

Another and Different Prize Story Contest. 

IN every neighborhood from the Great Lakes to the Rockies there are men 
who love their job, women who carry the sunshine of happiness in doing 
along with them. They are the Big Dynamos in their neighborhood — the 
folks that make "Joy" the middle name of daily living. If you happen to be 
one of these folks, as you undoubtedly are, here's luck! — and may you win in 
this new contest. 

Farm, Stock & Home wants you to write the Editor an intimate, personal 
letter telling him just what you like best about farming. Make the letter short 
or long, as you prefer. Be wise or foolish, as pleases you. Chooi^o anything 
you please as a subject, but put into your letter — -you can do it! — that one big 
reason that is ketiping your eyes liright and your heart young. Letters mailed 
up to and including the last day of March will bo considerod for the prizes, 
which are: 

First, Fifteen Dollars; Second, Ten Dollars; Third, Seven Dollars; Fourth 
to Tenth, Two Dollars each. Letters not receiving a place in (he contest will 
\)v paid for if published, or if not published will he returned to the writer, 
provided return postage is enclosed. 



— Preventive rather than therapeutic 
measures will help farmers to con- 
Rorve more livestock, says O. P. Fitch, 
head of (ho veterinary division, Minne- 



sota College of Agriculture. Any ani- 
mal should be segregated as soon as 
any symptoms of illness are noticed. 
If the trouble appears nt all serious a 
veterinarian should be called. 



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put oti more flesh or get moro 
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Cupolas 

make your stock more productive. 
This means $ $ $ to you. 

Bird, rust and rot-proof. Made 
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Shipped ready to install. Easy 
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ordinary kind. 
There's an 0-K dealer in 
your to\TO — if not, write us 
for particulars of our full 
line. 

FinUP BERNARD CO. 
2206 floydAve. 

Iowa 



IROMASE 

F*nn, Cardeo unl Orchard T<oU 

Ansn-(2T the farmer's big Questions; 
How can I grow cropa with Ich« 1 
expense? How can I >ave in plant- 
ins potaeocs? How make high-priced 
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IRON AGE Potato Planter 

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the best use of htgh-prlced seed. 
MeanB$5to$50cxtra profit per acre. 
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Chicago. 111. 




February 1, 1918 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



78 




Ko Knife 

Is Better 
Than 
Its 




No Tk*actos> 

Plowing Outfit 
Is Bj^t^?niaii 



Get These Books 

Write today for our free booklet de- 
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156 pages describe a full line of labor 
saving implements — tells how to adjust 
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To get these books, indicate the im- 
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IN the all-important work of making seed beds your tractor will 
furnish only power. Your plow will apply this power. The 
direct work of making the seed bed — the source of your profits — 
will depend upon the plow. You need, above everything else, 
the best tractor plow you can get. John Deere Tractor Plows, 
for use with any standard tractor, have a special attraction for you 
as you consider the importance of plow value to tractor power value. 

Eighty years of the most successful experience in plow-making is 
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John Deere Bottoms Insure Superior 

^ed Bed Making 




In a particular way, John Deere Tractor Plows offer an attraction to you 
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quality. The distinctive bottom quality that features John Deere Tractor 
Plows is secured by using only highest grade materials and extreme care and 
skill in adapting these materials. 

You will find this superior bottom quality evident in the exceptional service 
that John Deere Tractor Plows give— in long life, in scouring, in pulverizing 
the soil, in covering trash, in turning the furrow-slice with the least possible 
resistance and in making uniformly deep, roomy, compact seed-beds. 

Save Time, Labor and Upkeep with 
John Deere Tractor Plows 



In addition to their direct advantages for 
better seed bed making, John Deere Tractor 
Plows co-operate fully with the tractor for 
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or no watching. Their extra clearance and 
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easily. Their perfect balance and bottom 
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John Deere Tractor Plows are used suc- 
cessfully with any standard tractor. If 
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carrying two or three bottoms. 



John Deere, Moline, Illinois 




— It Is not the man who does without 
thlngH, neceHsarJIy; tut the man who 
makes good m'^ of tUngs during war 
time, who Is rr;iJIy th-i patriot. There 
are certain arUcJos, however, which 
hould ha uged sparingly, and these 



comprise practically all food products 
and certain articles of clothing. In 
foods use the cheaper and more com- 
mon things and the same is true of 
clothing. Eliminate all superfluous 
and fancy articles and confine your 



wants to plain and durable ones. We 
favor a uniform style, including all 
sorts of wearing apparel, shoes, cloth- 
ing, etc. Following modern style in 
war time is a crime which every one 
recognizes. It is only slightly less 



so in ordinary times. In food we all 
use more than we should and doubt- 
less of a higher quality. As far as 
possible use home grown foods and 
those which are not readily transport- 
able or exportable. 



Democracy's New Vision. 

NO mistake about it, this is revolution! We 
are in it up to the neck. Every nation on the 
globe is before the bar of judgment. Where 
does America stand? 

The federation of German princes that own the 
German people have braided them into a national 
cat-"o-nine-tails with which to scourge the earth. 
They thot they could blend science and murder and 
make it pay. They thot slavery could be re-insti- 
tuted. And they guessed a lot better than we are 
willing to admit. 

They failed only because, deep in the hearts of 
men, the love of justice is still strong. 

The German guns at Liege opened the age of the 
Brotherhood of Man. 

Men saw the selfishness in which all alike 
crawled visualized for the first time as a great 
slave-driving Power. 

And the nations of the earth rose up to cast aside 
the shackles of that Power. 

Doing so, they have broken their own chains. 
We are making democracy rtemoc! 
We are getting hold of the fact that governments 
are the people. 

We are taking whatever we need for the people's 
use. 

We have conscripted men. 
And also the railroads. 

We have put the dollar of the farmer and of the 
millionaire into the sam^ melting pot. 

And we can't tell which from 'tother. 

We are setting ourselves on rations. 

And we are putting business on rations. 

We grumble at the "autocracy" of all this. 

But we, who now know that we are the govern- 
ment, obey our own orders. 

We rub our eyes and look at ourselves — the rail- 
roads, shipping, private fortunes, business in gen- 
eral directed to move at the will of the government. 

Surely this is socialism! 

Nothing of the kind. It's democracy democking 
— proving conclusively that the old engine of Free- 
dom designed by the Fathers of the Republic can 
make the grade without blowing up its boiler. 

Simply proves that German socialism, which de- 
nies and destroys democracy by its secret control, 
is wholly out of place among us. 

Proves that whatever freedom we want we can 
have without tearing down the House our fathers 
built. 

But we are going to make the House modern 
from cellar to garret! 

For instance, a new heating plant of social jus- 
tice, so that rich and poor can each live in comfort. 

New windows out of which we may look and get 
acquainted with each other. 

A living room big enuf to include the women as 
full members of the family. 

A sunny kitchen and pleasanter rooms for the 
workers in the House. 

A great big roomy nursery in democracy for the 
children. 

But no demijohn for father! 

These changes may occasion the missing of a few 
meals, but the American national family is going to 
accommodate itself readily to the new order of 
things — government control or ownership, co-opera- 
tion, federation of business, best of all a growing 
sense of brotherhood — these things are at hand, are 
taking shape even as the guns in France beat out 
the death of political despotism. 

Industrial despotism is dying! 

Freedom is alive, victorious, all-conquering! 

The machine our fathers built functions. 

The House of a thousand years is still safe, its 
tlrabers sound. 

The Family is intact; the strongest and the weak- 
est knowing well that each protects the other. 

Be of strong heart, we who rebuild the House 
8hall live to enjoy its shelter! 

And the glory of the House shall be justice, and 
the law of the House peace. 

Fix the 1918 Potato Price. 

THE unsatisfactory market situation of the po- 
tato crop leads one to wonder what will be 
done next spring by the producers. 
Many farmers acted against their judgment in 
paying the enormous prices asked for seed potatoes 
In the spring of 1917, and planted potatoes, to help 
solve the food problem, with the result that many 
growers are not going to Break more than even on 
their summer's work. 

If the usual procedure follows, next spring's acre- 
age of potatoes the country over will be very much 
curtailed, and a short crop can easily be the result. 
With the world almost on a famine basis for wheat, 



a short potato crop in the United States this year 
will be close to a calamity. 

There is no assurance that the 1918 wheat crop 
will be big enough to relieve the strained wheat 
situation. 

It is, of course, dangerous to predict wheat har- 
vests in February. We must not overlook the fact 
conditions are not favorable for a bumper crop. 
The winter wheat started the winter in about as 
poor a condition as we have ever had. 

In, the spring wheat territory we are in the grip 
of a drouth, that owing to the time of year is prac- 
tically unnoticed. Unless we get an unusually 
heavy rainfall in the spring and early summer, a 
light wheat crop is sure. 

On the assumption that the war will continue 
thru 1918 we cannot safely take a chance of a 
short potato crop, coming at the same time as a 
short wheat crop, and it would seem as tho a 
large acreage of potatoes the country over is of 
absolute necessity. 

There are two ways of getting it. One by a 
strong appeal to the patriotism of the farmer again; 
the other by fixing a price at terminal markets that 
will assure a fair profit to the grower. 

The latter is the surest method of producing the 
desired result. It is none too early to start agitat- 
ing the question of the proper potato price. We have 
established the precedent by fixing the 1918 wheat 
price and there can be no valid reason for not do- 
ing the same with potatoes, corn, oats or any other 
product that we must grow that is essential to the 
successful prosecution of the war. 

Understand, F., S. & H. is not abandoning its 
position that price fixing is of itself wrong. Price 
fixing has given the wheat grower the worst of it, 
but for that very reason the farmer has a right to 
expect and demand that prices on other products 
that he is commanded to raise shall be fixed at a 
point that will secure him from loss. 

The Meat Problem. 

IT was made very apparent during the hearings 
of the Trade Commission at St. Paul that the 
South St. Paul stockyards is practically a closed 
market. There is no real competitive buying, and 
the shipper is absolutely at the mercy 61 the buyer. 
This, of course, is nothing new. Every livestock 
shipper has been sure that this was the case, not 
only in St. Paul, but at every stockyard in the Unit- 
ed States. It is this condition that has brot about 
the present meat shortage. The farmer and rancher 
has seen his stock go to market and sold at a price 
that allows him a small profit or an actual loss. 
Many have simply dropped out of the game. 

With the continual cutting down of the range, 
raising meat must become more and more a farm- 
ing operation. The cost of production will, of 
course, be greater than range cost, with a conse- 
quent chance for greater losses to the producer 
unless he can get a free open and competitive mar- 
ket for his animals, or a guaranteed minimum price. 

The matter of introducing competition into the 
stockyards of this country is a great problem. Co- 
operative packing plants up to date have proven 
failures. The large corporate plants with their 
perfect selling organizations for the finished product, 
with every facility for utilizing every bit of by prod- 
uct, — two things the co-operative plant cannot in 
the nature of things possess, — make it practically 
impossible for such plants to survive. This being 
the case, co-operative selling organizations at ter- 
minal markets will always be faced with practical- 
ly the same situation as the individual shipper, 
that is a close, restricted market that will dictate 
the price to be paid. 

We are moving so rapidly toward state socialism 
that no one need be surprised to see the whole 
packing industry taken over by the Government, 
for the duration of the war at least, just as the rail- 
roads have been. If this is done, the Government 
will have a difficult situation to face. If it pays 
the farmer what his animals are really worth, based 
on present conditions of supply and demand, the 
city consumer will think he is being robbed-. If he 
satisfies the constfmer, the farmer will certainly 
and beyond question have to face a loss on his 
meat production. 

Is the War a Side Issue ? 

THE snarl of bad temper into which the politi- 
cians "a buttin' an' a boundin' " at Washington 
have tangled themselves comes with a distinct 
shock to the average American, who conceives it 
to be the job of this nation to whip the daylights 
out of Germany before kaiserdom gets a chance to 
do the same to us. 



The management of the war could have been 
improved upon — everybody sees that now. 
Hindsight is easy. 

But mistakes are not occurring twice In the same 
direction. We are building a navy, raising an 
army, feeding our allies, making up at breakneck 
speed for the refusal of Congress to provide ade- 
quate defensive measures before we actually got 
into war. 

This speed and action means mistakes — a lot of 
them. 

Nobody is defending them. Mistakes cost money 
— lots of money. 

But the delays by which mistakes may be avoided 
must be measured in thousands of young American 
lives, sacrificed to bureaucracy. 

F., S. & H. prefers speed, mistakes, and money 
loss to the wastage of human life the general speed 
program will prevent. 

Build ships. 

Get our troops over to France! 

Rush the war program of the Administration! 

Here's something, Mr. Politician, you need to get 
wise to: Bill, John, Olaf, Pat, Herman know just 
as well as you do what we are up against. Their 
boys are moving toward the trenches. And they 
will damn to everlasting oblivion any man or clique 
of men who lengthen by the shadow of a hair the 
time it takes to whip Prussianism Into decency. 

Your stay at Washington depends npon your 
"playing the game." Folks back home don't care 
a whoop who wins the war. Everybody's doing it. 
And the spectacle of men trying to crawl Into the 
limelight causes disgust and profanity. 

If you are not going to help, at least get out of 
the road and let the nation go by! 

Retailing War Time Gosa^. 

ALOW-DOWN form of German prapaganda is 
starting false rumors of American losses 
abroad; of suffering in cantonments in this 
country; of graft in the distribution of Red Cross 
money; of treason among government officials and 
many others of like nature. 

These reports are all started by German sym- 
pathizers, but are unfortunately passed on in many 
cases by good loyal Americans who would not in- 
tentionally do or say anything that wlU hamper or 
injure their country. 

It is human nature to gossip. Things ihat do not 
appear in print seem to have an irresistible appeal 
to the great majority and passing on bear-say is a 
fascinating occupation, especially if one can think 
of something to add to the story that wiH improve 
it. 

There is just one way to stop this sneaking cam- 
paign of lies. It is simple and effective. Let every 
one consider themselves in duty boaad not to repeat 
any rumor that comes to them by word of mouth. 
Ask every one who tells you anything like the 
stories referred to above their authority for their 
statements. In every case they will be unable to 
give you any except "I heard it" or "they say" or 
"Bill Jones' third cousin, who is the fourth assist- 
ant waste-basket emptier in the war department, 
was told it by the fellow that was going with a 
stenographer that works in the Agricultural De- 
partment" — if the retailer of these lies eren gets it 
back as far as Washington. 

It is granted that all the news is cot being print- 
ed. It cannot be in war or peace times, but noth- 
ing but harm can result from either wilfully or 
thotlessly spreading stories that will disturb, dis- 
courage or create suspicion in the minds of our citi- 
zens. To do so is to play directly iato onr enemies' 
hands. Unfortunately things have not been moving 
as smoothly and speedily as they should in this 
country in equipping our army or in building ships 
to take the place of those destroyed by submarines, 
but the facts bearing on this condition are public 
property, showing that the government does not 
intend to deceive us as to actual conditions. Un- 
fortunately again, there are grounds for disappoint- 
ment in these conditions, but not for discourage- 
ment. England did worse with the enemy at her 
very doors, but she made herself efficient. The 
United States will do likewise. 

Why Not "Com Juice.'* 

NEVER were our national problems so personal 
to each of us as at the present hour. The 
biggest corn crop in history last Season pre- 
sents a difficult problem in marketing. Price and 
quality do not, seom to bear the proper relation to 
each other. From one-third to one-half of the en- 
tire crop is soft, and In serious danger of spoiling 
as soon as warai weather comes. Undoubtedly the 
best way is to market the crop through steers and 
hogs — when one has or can buy the hags or steers. 



80 



The silo suggests itself forcibly — for next year. 
Local redistribution can help to a very considerable 
degree. A comparatively small percentage of the 
crop can safely be shipped. And this is the crop 
about which our pencil agriculturists have boasted 
for the p&st six months. Isn't it about time \/e 
quit our aational habit of bragging long enuf to 
look for a solution or a sufficient number of solu- 
tions to help us out of our soft corn muddle with- 
out loss? Why, by the way, could not the distill- 
eries Unele Sam has closed down be opened up to 
capacity iot the distillation of com into denatured 
alcohol? 

Cora» Fats and Victory 

THE battle for fats, so essential to the nation 
and t« the allied cause, must be fought and 
won in the corn-cribs of the Northwest within 
the next few weeks. Corn is the fat-maker, and in 
a like degree it may be said that fats are the vic- 
tory maker. Our seed corn situation is desperate. 
We must g© to the cribs and ear test, patiently, 
until out of a lot of worthless material we get a 
few bushels of passable seed. And this year any- 
thing better than fifty per cent germination is go- 
ing to be passable. The bin that shows better than 
one ear in ten of strong germination is a gold mine, 
and should be worked accordingly. Surplus sup- 
plies of seed should be distributed first in the 
neighborhood, or if local needs are all met report 
the surplus to C, P. Bull, University Farm, St. Paul, 
or in the caee of subscribers outside of Minnesota, 
to your home state experiment station. 

A Slam from the Oevators. 

THE Price Ctm-ent-Grain Reporter, the organ of 
the line elevator and grain trade interests, adds 
its bit to ^e condemnation of the Federal 
Grain Grades: 

"The criticism is pertinent that the wheat rules 
are too aciulcinic to l>e practic«illj' satisfactory, as 
a farmer euKt'f^sta in an arti-;le in F., S. & H. 
They are based rather on what is ideal than on what 
is. They suit the millers but no one else. The 
farmer is not going to grow wheat to fit the rules 
unless it pays to do so, and thei e is nothing in the 
rules coverimg the great mass of wheat grown in 
this country that up to now has met the genuine 
approval of any one, much less the farmer. Perhaps 
this lias been due to the character of the season. 
Under presc-Bt conditions of the purchase of wheat 
from the fanner, at any rate, the rules are little 
short of coBtiscatory of considerable of the farmer's 
property ot £ul>stantial value, for which he now 
realizes, it he did not before this, that he has al- 
ways been getting paid." 

Yet the Agricultural Department seems inclined 
to fight the repeal of this law. Does the Depart- 
ment represent the farmers or the millers? 

Neither French Nor Canadian. 

CANADA has said, emphatically, that in the 
war for freedom there are to be no slackers. 
Now Quebec talks, just as South Carolina once 
talked, about taking her dolls and going out of the 
union. As a witty writer says the French-Canadian 
is neithw French nor Canadian. He is against 
France for ecclesiastical reasons and against Can- 
ada for racial reasons. He has been a war slacker. 
It was to line him up to his national duty that the 
vote on con.sf!ription was taken. If he thinks that 
the race of which he is an eighteenth century sam- 
ple and the nation under which he has prospered 
will spend aiid be spent for him, and that he can 
dodc;e duty by sece.ssion, let him study the Ameri- 
can war of Secession. His debt to civilization can- 
not be repudiated at will. He should — and ulti- 
mately will — permit the Teutons to possess a mo- 
nopoly of that kind of morality. 

The Individual and Democracy. 

DEMOCRACY is another name for personal re- 
sponsibility. Some day the Russians will dis- 
cover that fact and the Land of the Knout 
will then proceed to progress. America is getting 
a taste ot the fact that one can't both deny his 
democracy and keep It. And we are coming on. 
The way we are getting into team-work is rather 
inspiring. We like to kick over the traces, but at 
the pinch most everybody is pulling his share of the 
load. If he isn't it's because he hasn't yet learned 
v/hat to d*. And the American people are learning 
fast. Witness the acceptance of the fact of war, 
the Liberty Loans, the draft — all studies in democ- 
racy, an* all giving evidence of a rapidly clearing 
vision on the part of Americans as to their indi- 
vidual share in preserving democracy to the future. 



The Tri-State Meeting. 

THE nineteenth annual meeting of the Tri-State 
Grain and Stock Growers' Association was held 
January 15 to 18 at Fargo. This is one of the 
most unique organizations in the country. It has 
no membership, no constitution and no dues. It is 
a people's open forum. From its platform and its 
floor any topic of public interest may be threshed 
out; its pros and cons discussed and its merits or 
demerits revealed. The latitude allowed has at 
times resulted in some pretty lively fireworks. 
However, fermentation feeds life and many of the 
most vitally progressive movements for the wel- 
fare of Northwestern farmers were born in this 
convention. Nearly twenty years ago its first meet- 
ings were attended by the small grain farmer and 
the range stockman. Today, the grain farmer and 
stockman are one. The meeting of 1918 was 
marked by an intense interest in the question upon 
which success or failure of next year's crop de- 
pends, farm labor. Next in interest was the sub- 
ject of farm loans. The farmers of this section 
have gone a long way in knowledge and the prac- 
tical application of the federal loan law since the 
Tri-State meeting a year ago. 

The keynote of the meeting was increased pro- 
duction to meet war conditions. The seed situa- 
tion was shown to be better than in many other 
localities. The livestock outlook is good. Nearly 
all farmers now are reported as holding their breed- 
ing stock and feeding out their meat stock. After 
the precipitate marketing of last fall the livestock 
situation has stabilized. It speaks volumes for the 
good farming campaign carried on in North Dakota 
that the slogan, com, alfalfa and livestock has be- 
come so much a part of economic production that 
even the present stress causes little commotion. 
Farmers thruout the Northwest seem to realize 
fully that to get maximum returns from their acre- 
age and labor and to grow bumper small grain 
crops they must market a certain percentage of 
their produce "on the hoof." 

The women's section was well attended, the au- 
dience being almost entirely farm Avomen. Home 
gardens and young people's club projects came in 
for a good share of attention, but the vital topic of 
discussion was war cooking. 

How to feed the hired man, yes and "the gude 
mon" himself and have him feeling replete and yet 
save wheat, fat and sugar for the boys across the 
pond. The farm women are in the war enthusias- 
tically. They are conserving food and industriously 
knitting for the Red Cross. 

Cooper Goes — Rzmdlett Comes. 

THOMAS COOPER, for several years director 
of the Agricultural Experiment Station and 
Extension Division, of North Dakota, resigned 
the first of the year to become director of the Ken- 
tucky Experiment Station. Mr. Cooper leaves for a 
new field of enlarged possibilities. He goes with 
an enviable record behind him. The better farming 
movement, misunderstood as it was in many quar- 
ters, grew under his guidance into a practical force 
making for more profitable farming. The increase 
in diversified farming thruout North Dakota, the 
war on the gopher, the rapid spread of farm loan 
associations — these are but a few of the many 
visible evidences that a new force for well being 
has come into the daily lives of the people. With- 
out the leadership of a man of clear vision and real 
courage this progress, tho due to come, would have 
been measurably delayed. The movement, once 
started, will now go forward steadily to the solu- 
tion of each new neighborhood or statewide farm 
problem that may come up. 

F., S. & H. has known Gordon W. Randlett, Direc- 
tor Cooper's successor, for many years. He is a 
North Dakota product, a graduate of its agricul- 
tural college, for a time leader of its extension 
work. From his place as head of the extension 
work in South Dakota he comes back to a big job. 
It is a job that must grow greater from year to year. 
His success in his past work gives promise of a 
successful administration — of a carrying out and 
a carrying forward of the unfinished program for 
country life betterment thruout the state of North 
Dakota. 



— The plotters of Potsdom thought to make a 
world subservient to their beck and call. They will 
succeed in hringing democracy to the peoples of 
the earth. 



— According to the Food Administration the con- 
sumption of wheat per capita in the United States 
has gone down since the opening of the war from 
5.2 bushels to 3.8; in France and Italy, respectively, 
from 7 to 8 bushels to 4.1; and in England, from 
6 to 4.3. 



The Milk Indictments. 

FIVE members of the Twin City Milk Producers 
have been indicted by the Hennepin county 
(Minn.) grand jury for engaging in a combina- 
tion in restraint of trade. Of course a grand jury 
indictment is brought on one-sided evidence and 
does not mean that the indicted persons are guilty 
of the crimes charged. 

It will be up to the state to convince a jury that 
the olfense has been committed as charged. 

It is not the province of F., S. & H. or any other 
publication to try this case in its columns, but it 
can say that the actions of the milk producers have 
never at any time been shrouded in secrecy. Every 
move it made was in the open. It openly collected 
the cost figures of producing milk from its mem- 
bers. It got cost figures from the state experiment 
stations and based its price on these data. When 
the Public Safety Commission arbitrarily made a 
price below cost of production the association im- 
mediately found another market for its milk, thirty- 
six cents a hundred over the price set by the com- 
mission. 

This shows conclusively that the price set by the 
association was fair, otherwise it could not have 
found a market for its milk elsewhere. There has 
never been any disposition shown by the producers' 
association to get a price any higher than would 
make its members a fair profit based on actual cost 
of production. 

If farmers are going to jail because they organize 
to get fair profits, this world is going to wake up 
some morning with an empty stomach and will stay 
hungry all day. 

"No production except at a fair living profit," is 
an entirely just platform for farmers to stand on. 
Prosecutions such as the one now under way in 
Minneapolis will drive them to such a decision by 
the thousands. 

The Hennepin county grand jury has started some- 
thing that may be difficult to finish. 

Strangling Publishers. 

DURING the year 1917 five hundred and sixty 
publications were forced to go out of business 
owing to increasing cost of production. It is 
true most of them were small and operating on nar- 
row margins of profit, but the same causes that 
operated to cause actual closing up of these publi- 
cations greatly reduced the profit of old established 
papers. Yet in the face of these conditions Con- 
gress in its last session imposed a further burden 
on all classes of publications by decreeing a 50 
per cent increase in postage, taking effect July 1st, 
1918, and jumping at six months' intervals until an 
increase of 900 per ceni is reached in the case of 
publications of national circulation, being in effect 
the absolute confiscation of properties representing 
large investments of money and the life work of 
tens of thousands. 

On papers such as F., S. & H. the burden is not 
so great, but eventually means a postage bill of 
about $50,000 a year against the $10,000 we are now 
paying. This increase can only be met by an in- 
creased price for subscriptions. 

There was no justification for putting the postage 
increase as high as it was placed. It is entirely 
beyond the actual cost of the service, as proven by 
lower express rates on bulky perishable products 
for the same distances provided in the mailing 
zones. 

As a revenue raiser it will fail because so many 
publications of large national circulation will either 
go out of business or their profits will be cut to a 
point where an income tax will not reach them, so 
from that angle the postage raise is unjustified. 

Now the publishers of the country have their 
backs to the wall. 

They are fighting for their lives. 

Their subscribers and readers can help them if 
they will by letting their senators and representa- 
tives know that they do not want their favorite 
papers strangled. 

Do you want to help. If you do, sign the coupon 
and mail to F., S. & H. 



— Germany seems to have spurlos versenkt her 
popularity in South America. 



I want to see the present second class post- 
age law repealed and have the second class 
postage rates figured fairly on the basis of cost 
of the service. 



Name 

Postoffice 
Kural Route. . 



State. 




81 



82 



February 1, 1918 



The Potato Price Outlook 



What can be done to prevent a col- 
lapse of the potato market next spring? 

By Hugh J, Hughes, ch airinan, Market 'infi^ Division, 
Minnesota State Food Production and Conservation Committee. 



WE are approaching a collapse 
in the potato market. That is 
to say, that if the reports of 
the Federal Government, of the deal- 
ers, of the retailers, of the growers 
themselves are even approximately 
true we are today carrying the largest 
February supply of potatoes ever 
known, and our people are eating 
fewer potatoes per capita than ever 
before. 

Where this situation leads to is 
easy to see. Unless we can practical- 
ly double potato consumption during 
the next four months somebody is 
going to hold a deep and wide bag. 

Three guesses as to who that some- 
body is! 

Right, Bill! Go to the head of the 
class. It's the farmer — as usual. 
What the Situation Really Is. 

What has happened? 

Nothing — and everything! 

Nobody has "cornered" the market. 
The retailers of the big consuming 
centers are literally buying from hand 
to mouth. The bins of the big deal- 
ers are bare. 

Why, then, shouldn't prices go 
jumping? 

Because, for one reason or another, 
folks are not eating potatoes in this 
year of our Lord, 1918, as they are 
accustomed to. 

Why? 

A little history — only a little, to re- 
fresh our memories. 

Last year potatoes were scarce and 
dear — mighty dear! The country and 
especially our section of the country, 
was short and buying. We exported 
a lot of eating stock in the fall. In 
the spring we woke up potato hun- 
gry and potato broke. 

Then prices kicked the ceiling! 



Taking the basic price of 95 cents 
to a dollar paid by the wholesaler last 
fall, there was added to this price the 
necessary freight expenses, sorting, 
sacking, and the like, which, when 
figured and averaged together with a 
marginal wholesaler's profit of less 
than 4 cents a bushel, adds roughly 25 
cents a bushel lo the cost of the pota- 
toes, by the time the potatoes reach 
the retailer. 

The wholesalers' custom is to deal 
only in car lots, and few retailers buy 
in unbroken car lots; consequently, 
men known as jobbers either buy from 
the wholesalers, or on their own ac- 
count, and in either event they sell 
these broken car lots in small quan- 
tities to retailers. The quantities 
may be anywhere from two to three 
sacks and up, and frequently a car is 
broken into 20 or more sales. This 
method of selling involves expense of 
car on track, the labor cost of han- 
dling, the office expenses of the job- 
ber, and adds a margin of several 
cents a bushel to the price quoted By 
the wholesaler. 

It is the practice of the retail trade 
to charge about 27 per cent more than 
the price which it pays for stock. 
This charge includes cost of delivery, 
storage, waste and all the incidental 
costs of the trade. There is a con- 
stant waste in potatoes from the time 
they leave the field until they arrive 
at the table, and this waste must be 
taken up by the grower, jobber and 
wholesaler in turn. Whatever losses 
each sustain are actual losses which 
decrease the number of bushels which 
may be turned over to the next man 
in the link connecting grower and 
consumer. 

Giving the farmer 97 cents, by add- 



still potatoes at 95 cents afford a good 
margin of profit to the grower on the 
average, even when the extraordinary 
high prices of seed and labor of this 
season is taken into account. 

In other words, assuming a 100- 
bushel yield and $70 as the cost of 
production, both of which estimates 
are within reason, the grower made a 
profit of about $27 an acre — a profit 
which must take into account the ex- 
traordinary risks involved in growing 
a heavy acreage at the high price of 
seed and labor in the spring. It was 
a risk not to be taken lightly, one 
which requires extraordinary good 
sales values in order to make the 
farmer break even. 

The wholesaler has worked this 
fall on a margin of profit averaging 
3 cents per bushel over and above his 
actual outlay for freight and labor and 
office charges. The margin of profit 
of the jobber and retailer over and 
above the actual labor and office ex- 
penses are not so easily figured, but 
they are indicated in the statements 
above. 

How Matters Stand Today. 

Now the immediate situation is 
this: The United States today has 
155,000,000 bushels more potatoes, ac- 
cording to government estimates, 
than it had this time a year ago, and 
at least 80,000,000 bushels more than 
the preceding five years averaged. 
Careful investigations in the Twin 
Cities show that the cut in consump- 
tion is anywhere from 25 to 50 per 
cent. 

Reckoning 30,000,000 bushels lost 
by frost and other damage during the 
fall and early winter, we still face the 
uncomfortable fact that this loss is 



in food value to approximately 20,- 
000,000 bushels of wheat. In order 
to do our share in ah.sorbing the po- 
tato crop it is necessary for the aver- 
age man to consume practically 13.^) 
pounds of potatoes in the next four 
months. 

Taking the Bull by the Horns. 

Last fall the price was too high, 
the big crop and small consumption 
considered. Now the question is 
whether we can make a price to the 
consumer that will induce him to sit 
up nights and Sundays eating pota- 
toes. If he can get them at around 
a dollar a bushel laid down in the 
kitchen he'll do his best — probably. 
But that best won't take care of the 
overhang now apparently on our 
hands. 

What then will? 

Here are a few suggestions: 

1. W© can all use potatoes in our 
bread, thus directly saving wheat. 

2. We should sell only the best, 
as the sale of inferior stock means 
reduced sales by the retailer. 

3. The inferior stock can be fed at 
the farm at a price to the grower of 
around 30 cents a bushel. This is far 
better than letting it go to waste. 

4. The Food Administration, act- 
ing on the suggestion of the Minne- 
sota committee, is urging display 
sales, potato use as a substitute for 
other foods. Help it along in your 
town. 

5. Use the Starch, factories in Min- 
nesota — ten of them ready for busi- 
ness and capable of making 2,000,000 
bushels into starch, to the limit. 

6. Begin to market now, at the 
best bidding price, and market stead- 
ily, consistently, without panic. 



To tJic Groitve.i*' — 60,8 Ct^. 



^ N 



Se<^d JS.9 

ilm&s the, 
Mot^e^l cost. 



CM 

I 



1? 



Os 

s 

y 

I 



rro/j't J ^0 

hased oh 
OctrNov.I9!7 
price, to Groivef^ 



Wholesaler; J7.si 



S til 



Mb 



er 



Storage 
Delivery 
W&ste. 

SortJHSl 
Profit 

Total 



Retailer -8/.7<i^ 



Thx&s 

Book-keepiyis 
Bad ficcoHHts 



From figures on potato prices for|Ocl;oDer, i9l7. sciitliered by the Marketing Division of the Miunesota Food Conservation Committee. For that month the price to the 
favmi'r in the well-estaljlished potato districts of Minnesota averaged 97 cents per biishel: the wholesaler got aa average o£ ll.23; the jobber took from 5 to 10 cents; 
the retailer paid $1.27 to $l.bO and sold to the consumer at an average Of ijl.63. 



Remember that? Sure, you do? 
And you remember how everybody 
grew just a few more potatoes than 
usual — not only farmers, but the 
preacher had a patch, and the lawyer 
grew his'n and the track-walker 
plowed up a part of the right-of-way. 
Everybody doing it! 

And the crop prospered. 

Down in my cellar are potatoes 
enough to last until April. They cost 
me at least $1.50 a bushel to grow, 
but I've got 'em. Same thing true of 
thousands of others usually in the 
market week by week. 

Then we were told, a year ago, to 
cut out potatoes and eat substitutes. 
Today the hotels and restaurants 
charge you for the noble spud — and 
you eat rice, rutabagas, carrots, all 
perfectly good foods — but not pota- 
toes. 

So the market is dead — dead as a 
salt mackerel, and noboily in particu- 
lar and everybody in general to blame. 

Last Fall's Market. 

Last fall the farmer was receiving 
for eating stock an average of be- 
tween 95 cents and a dollar. It la 
this stock which is still moving on to 
the retailer. This price was paid by 
the wholesalers because of two main 
facts — the entire prospectivn yield 
and the abnormally high prices which 
cocisted prior to the coming on of the 
new crop. 



ing 25 cents to the first cost we get 
$1.22 as the price which the whole- 
saler turns the crop over to the job- 
ber or retailer. As the bulk of the 
Twin City trade is in the hands of 
the jobber, we may safely add an- 
other 5 to 8 cents as the cost of broken 
car handling, making a fair average 
price to the retailer of $1.28@1.30. 
Adding to this $1.30 the 27 per cent 
customary selling charge of the trade, 
brings the price of potatoes to the 
consumer at $1.C1, which is two cents 
below the price which is found to be 
the average charged in the leading 
stores of St. Paul and Minneapolis 
during the month of October for 
Northwestern grown eating stock. 

About 10 cents of this retailers' 
charge may fairly be set against de- 
livery. It would be difficult for the 
retailer to itemize all his bill of ex- 
penses, but it is safe to say that waste 
thru disease and rot is one of the 
largest of these. 

What the Crop Cost the Farmer. 

Coming to the other end of the line, 
the farmers' actual costs of produc- 
tion are not far from $70 an acre. 
Perhaps $65 would be a fair figure. 
The yield, considerably cut In many 
instances by the close screening of the 
present season, is around 100 bushels 
of marketable potatoes, tho the yield 
in indivifliiul cases will range all the 
way from 50 to 200 bushels per acre, 



probably covered up to date by the 
decreased demand and that there is 
right now in the United States some- 
where from 75,000,000 to 100.000,000 
bushels "of potatoes, the equivalent in 
value of from 18,000,000 to 25,000,000 
bushels of wheat that must either be 
consumed within the next four months 
or lost to ourselves and to our Al- 
lies. 

Out of last fall's entire output of 
potatoes about 60 per cent is still to- 
day in the hands of the farmers of 
the country, while in the hands of 
the wholesalers operating in the Twin 
Cities there is only a little over 200,- 
000 bushels of eating stock. The re- 
tailers do not make a practice of stor- 
ing any large amount. Some of the 
largest retailers buy from time to 
time in as small as 25 to 50-bushel 
lots. In other words, the high-priced 
potatoes of last fall are cleaned up 
and there must be a new deal on if 
the tremendous overhang of the crop 
is to be consumed by the time the new 
crop arrives. 

After all, the solution of the whole 
problem is up to the consuming pub- 
lic. We now use about 200 pounds of 
potatoes per capita a year. This 
means that in the next four months 
the average man will consume 70 
pounds of potatoes. If we do not 
speed up our potato consumption we 
shall waste from 80,000.000 to 100,- 
000,000 bushels of potatoes, equivalent 



Our Gravest Danger. 

Here lies our danger — in our lack 
of organization. The Colorado grow- 
ers are marketing, the eastern grow- 
ers are marketing, both at prices low- 
er than any at which we had sold up 
to Jan. 15. If we continue to hold the 
demand for potatoes will be met with- 
out our assistance. The result will 
be that Minnesota, Wisconsin and 
Michigan growers v/ill be the holders 
of the nation-wide surplus of pota- 
toes. 

This is not an agreeable story to 
write. I'd prefer to tell you rosy 
things, but with all the information 
possible to obtain before me I am try- 
ing to tell F., S. & H. readers the real 
spring price situation as I see it. 

I hope I am dead wrong. 



— Manitoba will produce hogs this 
year to the value of $5,625,000 as a 
result of the camp:iign which has 
been carried on by the provincial de- 
partment of agriculture, according to 
the estimate made by J. H. Evans, 
deputy minister of agriculture. As a 
result of the campaign the hog pro- 
duction of the province will be in- 
creased by 250,000. These hogs by 
next fall will weicfh on an average 
150 pounds each, making a total of 
37,500,000 pounds. A conservative es- 
timate of the price is 15 cents per 
pound. This would make a grand 
total in value of $5,625,000. 



February 1, 1918. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



83 



SEED CORN AND LIVE STOCK. 

To Farm, Stock and Home; 

Just a few lines to show what is be- 
ing done with corn and live stock by 
one of the up-to-date farmers of Lac 
qui Parle county. 

Joseph Kemen, of ■\Iadison, Minn., 
has recently built a seed lorn house 
in co-operation with his brother, Jacob 
Kemen. These men realized the im- 
portance of having home grown seed 
corn, not only for their own tree but 
also for distribution among their neigh- 
bors. Even tho materials and labor 
were high, Mr. Kemen decided that no 
time v.as better than, the present, so 
the house was built. 

The house is 16 by 18 feet and will 
hold about 400 bushels when its full 
seed corn holding capacity is utilized. 
At present Mr. Kemen has 225 bushels 
of corn stored in the house, about half 
of which belongs to his brother. More 
coru is going in every day. 




Hear view of Joe Kemeu's seed corn liouse 

The main door is located in the mid- 
dle of the east wall of the building. 
In a space just inside this door there 
is a coal stove. Shelves are located 
around the v,-alls, there being four 
shelves. The walls are 8 feet to the 
plate. These shelves are made of 2 
by 4 frame with poultry netting bot- 
toms and slats in front. The corn is 
piled on the shelves in thin layers. 

There are tv-'O ventilating doors in 
the back wall, consisting of wide 
boards running tho entire length of the 
wall and hinged on the upper edge. 
These doors are located so that the 
openings came between the sfielves, 
thus permitting the air to travel be- 
tween the shelves. 

These doors are always left open, 
except when the temperature is below 
freezing. The main door is also left 
open, and in this way good cross drafts 
ai-e secured over the corn. If thought 
necessary, doors like this could also be 
put into the end walls. 




Unlike 

other cereals 

Crape-Nuts 

reauires only about 
hafr the ordmaiy qua.- 
rvtiiy of rwlk or cream 
Likewise because of 
its natural sweetness 
it requires no sufear. 
Grape-Nuts the 
ready cooked food, 
is an all-round sat^ec 




Without ventilation it is useless to 
try to get dry seed corn, a.s the mois- 
ture in the air around the corn has to 
be removed constantly in order to keep 
from molding. Artificial heat is neces- 
sary in cold weather to keep the corn 
from freezing and to drive the mois- 
ture from the corn. 

This house cost $100. If it adds 
$1.00 to the value of every bushel of 
corn stored in it, then it will pay for 
itself in one year. 




Inside view of seed com hou.^e. 

No germination test has yet been 
made of this corn, but it is mature, 
plump, bone dry, and shows every in- 
dication of being good seed corn. 

In the pure bred live stock line, Mr. 
Kemen has made a promising start. 
He is specializing in Hereford cattle 
and Belgian horses, but also has good 
Duroc Jersey hogs. 

A j'ear ago, about, he and his broth- 
er clubbed together and bought the 
j"o\mg Hereford bull. Standard Lad the 
Gth, an exceptionally well built ani- 
mal — broad, lov, set, wiih straight 
lines and well filled in the round. 
This bull vvill head both herds. 

Mr. Kemen also has five covv's and 
six calves, all of the Standard and 
Columbus breeding. There are two or 
three calves by this herd bull and Mr. 
Kenien will soon be able to sell young 
bi\?eding stock. He recently bought 
one of the best cows sold at the Soren- 
son sale at Balaton. This cow is Fair- 
view Actress 357279, by Young Albany 
290216 and out of Lady Donald 265933. 

There are several other good begin- 
nings in Hereford cattle in Lac qui 
Parle county aild in time buyers will 
be coming here to get their breeding 
stock. 




Rear view of .«eed coin house s)\owing 
corn on shelves 

Mr. Kemen has two imported Bel- 
gian mares, and two colts. The first 
colt, Florence de Charmante is sired 
by Lenny Hemelveer (6361), by Ideal 
De Fosteau. The dam of this colt is 
Charmante de Wattines (3184) by 
Mouton des Aulnes (43148). The sec- 
ond colt, Duke, is by Marquis de Lil- 
lois (7531) (81792). The dam is Folie 
(80299), sired by Hallali du Fosteau 
(29012). This mare is now owned by 
Mr. Kemen, and was formerly owned 
by Francois Haelterraan, of Schendel- 
beke, Belgium. Mr. Kemen intends to 
dispose of one of these colts in the 
near future. 

Mr. Kemen follows a diversified sys- 
tem of farming: raising corn for seed, 
hog feed and silage, and oats instead 
of a large wheat acreage. 

The fields are rotated with clover 
which is allowed to go to seed in 
favorable seasons. Last season a con- 
siderable amount of clover seed was 
shipped out of the country, and some 
will be for sale again this season. 

Mr. Kemen is a substantial farmer 
who owns his land and farms because 
he likes it and can make it pay. One 
of the principal factors contributing to 
his success is Joe Kemen. 

J. L SWEBEERG. 



Tearing Out Foundation. — A neigh- 
bor of mine wanted a stone founda- 
tion taken out. Furthermore he want- 
ed it done in a hurry. It measured 9 
fret in height, was 6 feet long and 2 
feet thick. He asked me if I could 
blast it down. I disposed of it with 
13 pounds of 40 per cent dynamite. 
Tho charges were placed in the 
ground under the foundation. They 
wore spaced about 18 feet apart on 
each side of the wall. Ten charges 
were made out of 26 tickets. There 
were ten caps and 18 feet of fuse also 
used on the work which consumed four 
hours of my time. The total cost was 
about $5.00.— Henry Ruzok. 



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PABM, STOCK AND HOME. 



February 1, 1918 



How Is the Seed Corn? 



T HE com crop of 1918 is in most 
serious danger from a sliortage 
of seed. The early frosts, the 
misty weather, late ripening, the No- 
vember snb-zero temperatures all com- 
bined to hit the seed corn supply of 
the northern states and to all but elim- 
inate it. 

This holds true for such widely sep- 
arated states as Michigan and Ne- 
braska, North Dakota and Indiana. 

Not only Minnesota, but South Da- 
I'.ota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois are all 
nuffering in the same way from the 
name causes. In each of these states 
the known supply of seed corn is in- 
sufficient. In some of them it is practi- 
cally non-existent. North Dakota, as 
an example, can plant but one acre 
out of five of her normal corn area 
unless she gets seed to make U]) the 
lack. Northern IMinnesota and North- 
ern Wisconsin are in an equally un- 
fortunate situation. 

What can be done? Southern seed 
will not answer. We have tried that 
again and again, and know definitely 
that save for the iiroduction of an in- 
ferior quality of ensilage it is a failure. 
The seed houses have a little seed, 
but frankly throw up their hands in 
face of the demand. 

There is, apparently, but one thing 
to do, and that is to go out to the 
bin and ear test one's corn for seed 
that will grow, and if by chance one 
ear in ten grows, showing from 50 
per cent germination and better, keep 
right at it, testing out, not merely 
enough seed for one's own use, but as 
much of good quality corn as can 
be secured. 

The matter goes beyond one of or- 
dinary business, and calls for unusual 
efforts to meet the shortage. There 
is little need to stop and inquire 
Avhether seed found to test 75 per cent 
or better will find a market at a fair 
price. 

Where to Write. 

Any doubt in that direction can eas- 
ily be settled by writing to any one 
of the following, according to one's 
location : 



C. P. Bull, University Farm, St. Paul. 

W. R. Porter, Agricultural College, 
North Dakota. 

a. W. Randlett, State College, Brook- 
ings, South Dakota. 

M. L. Wilson, Agricultural College, 
Bozeman, Montana. 

These men are in charge of the seed 



corn conservation campaign in their 
respective states, know just what the 
needs are, and can help find a mar- 
ket for any good seed supplies that 
a bin search may uncover. 

Some Surprises Due. 

Here and there in all sections are 



lields that ripened early, or that for 
some reason escaped tho killing frosts. 

S. & M. has seen field tesfs from 
tlie same farm rrnge from .10 to 93 
per cent. Good seod is — when it is. 
The favorite ear — big, solid, close- 
kerneled, full at butt and tip — is going 
to jolt us by Its low germination. It 
didn't dry out easily, and as a conse- 
cpioncc, the germ was killed by the 
October freeze. 

On the contrary, the open-kerneled 
ear dried out better, and germinates 
hetter. The fat-cobbed ear is prob- 
ably dead. Don't waste any time on 
an ear that shows mould. It's dead. 
The knife test will often tell without 
any delay if the germ is dead. 

Get a New Start. 

[iook especially for ears of good 
quality showing even low germination. 
They represent the 1920 corn crop. If 
(n en as low as 20 to .^0 per cent shows 
by the test keep these ears and plant 
with corresponding thickness in a fa- 
vored part of tho field in order to get 
a stand of well-bred seed next fall. 

When the pan or rag-doll germina- 
tion shows around 50 per cent, keep 
the seed dry and secure from rats and 
mice. It will be needed for fodder 
corn. 

Get Ready in Season. 

If you have no seed corn get in touch 
at once with any one of the men men- 
tioned above, with any reliable dealer 
advertising in F., S. & H., or with the 
editor of P., S. & H. State your needs 
plainly, and you will be put in touch 
with the exact situation. Failure to 
do this may very possibly mean a va- 
cant corn field and an empty silo in 
1918. 

In the face of the jiresent feed short- 
age, the dry subsoil that underlies the 
pastures, the unusually early demands 
that will be made on the fields and 
pastures next spring, and the uncer- 
tainty as to next fall's feed supply, 
the importance of a normal corn acre- 
age cannot be overrated. 

Is your seed corn on hand? 




Map showing, by shaded area, that portion of the Northwest In which there is 
more seed corn than Is needed locally. 



Making Good Thru F., S. &H. 



IN the October 1st issue of year paper 
you ask for pioneer stories from 
your old subscribers. You say that 
with the November 15th issue. Farm, 
Stock and Home will be thirty-three 
years old. That is almost exactly my 
own number of years, and thru most 
of them I have knov/n your paper, or 
ever since I was able to read. 

My father started farming near Will- 
mar, Minnesota, when I was seven 
years old, and I have seen the develop- 
ment of American farm life from its 
years of poverty and privation to its 
present days of wealth and comfort. 
My parents surely never will forget 
their early years on the farm. Com- 
ing out here from Detroit, Michigan, 
where father had been working as a 
machinist, they knew absolutely noth- 
ing about farming. They had only 
eighty acres, but when father first 
saw the tract, he wondered if there 
was any possibility of taking care of 
so much land. In his dilemma, he 
asked our only close neighbor if he 
knew how to get the land worked, but 
the fellow had been farming only a 
couple of months and understood the 
business no better than my father did. 
However, he had blundered upon a 
copy of Farm, Stock and Home, which 
he showed to father, with tho result 
that they two subscribed for the paper 
together. And wilh only that paper 
for their guide, they started to de- 
velop their farms. 

The Dark Before the Dawn. 

But transforming the prairies into 
fl :ldH of thriving grain was not easy, 
especially for those who had no mon- 
ey and no credit. The firfit year my 
father could not get a pound of coffee 



Third Prize Pioneer Story 
By Charles Oliver. 



at the store, if he did not pay for it 
cash. And when he had bought a 
team of oxen, a cow, a few necessary 
implements, and some lumber for 
houses, he did not have many dollars 
left, and could not expect any more 
until he had sold his first crop. He 
built a shanty to live in, a square box 
to hold the grain, and as the lumber 
was then used up, he made the barn 
from poles and wet clay, and thatched 
it with long slough grass. 

Except the neighbor I have already 
mentioned, there were no settlers for 
miles around. Looking about, my par- 
ents could see only a trackless plain, 
covered with wild grasses. In the win- 
ter, the snowstorms raged primeval, 
isolating the lonely settlers for weeks 
at a time with white walls of freezing 
snow raised into the air by the ter- 
rific winds that tumbled freely over 
the groveless prairie. Many mornings 
our barn was completely hidden in 
snowdrifts, so that to get into it, a 
tunnel had to be dug down to the door. 
All hay for feeding was outside and 
this, too, had to bo dug out from under 
the snow and carried down the tunnel 
every time the cattle were fed. We 
also used hay for firing. 

Wood was cheap, but we could not 
afford it. All the hay we wanted we 
could get for the taking. One evening 
when iTiy father was carrying in some 
hay for firing, he was lost in the 
snowstorm between the barn and the 
house, and tho hay blew away. Get- 
ting back to the barn again, however, 
he tied up some more hay in a rope, 
slung it on his back and started for 
the house once more. When he got 
halfways there, a sudden blast of wind 
flung the hay against the side of a 



snow bank. Father was going to 
throw himself on top of the pile, when 
it raced away and disappeared in the 
darkness. He says that tears then 
rushed to his eyes, and he made up 
his mind right there that he would 
quit farming as soon as possible. 

Advice In Farm, Stock and Home 
Followed. 

But spring came again with fairer 
days and brighter hopes. Father 
seeded a little more grain that spring 
than the one previous, still our land 
under plow was hardly ten acres. 
When ready with seeding, father, in 
order to earn some cash, started to 
break up some land for another man 
who was soon coming out to farm. 
This land was seven miles from our 
home, a distance that could not be 
traveled morning and evening with a 
team of oxen. When father went to 
work, therefore, he took food with him 
to last during the week. For sleeping 
quarters he had a lumber wagon with 
one wagon box placed upside down 
on top of the first one, so as to form 
a covered space. In there he crawled 
to bed every evening after he had 
tied out his oxen to graze. One night 
there came an awful storm, which 
pushed the wagon across the prairie. 
The lightning flashed blue-white and 
the thunder shook heaven and earth. 
Rain lashed everything fiercely, and 
dripped through the wagon box over 
father's head, until he ' sat in water. 
The weather continued rough all 
night, and when morning came, the 
oxen had broken loose and gone home. 
To get them back was a fourteen-mile 
walk. Wet and cold, father ate his 
breakfast, much discouraged. As he 



packed down the lunch, an article on 
a page from Farm, Stock and Home, 
wrapped around a loaf of bread, at- 
tracted his attention. The article ad- 
vised farmers to prepare for, seeding 
next spring as much land as possible, 
for wheat prices were bound to ad- 
vance. Father decided at once what 
to do. He saw that he was a fool for 
trying to make a few dollars by break- 
ing up land for others, and letting his 
own lie idle. He walked home much 
happier, and the next day started to 
break up his own land. 

When spring came once more, he 
seeded seventy acres to wheat. The 
summer's crop was excellent, and that 
fall he threshed out twelve hundred 
bushels of the finest wheat ever 
raised. The price was a dollar a 
bushel, and the wheat sold brot in 
what seemed to my parents a small 
fortune. It was then that they really 
got started in farming. Father pur- 
chased another team of oxen and a 
new self-binder. Before that, the grain 
had been cut with a harvester on 
which stood two men, who made the 
bundles by hand. With hard labor, 
great economy and careful planning, 
my parents now forced ahead, paying 
off a few more debts every fall. 

Mustard Becomes a Menace. 

However, after a few years, mustard 
threatened to make use'ess all plan- 
ning for future crops. The weed was 
getting a firm foothold in our vicinity, 
and one of our nei?rhbors' farms was 
like a garden of yellow flowers, where 
very little grain of any kind could be 
raised. On our farm, too, the weed 
was getting thick in spots, and father 
\Vimtinuc(l on page Hti.] 



February i. 1318 



MfiKIKG GOOD THRU F., S. & H. 

[Continued from page 84.] 

was awfully worried about it, for all 
his attempts to kill it out were vain. 
Then once more "Farm, Stock and 
Home" came to his assistance. It 
contained several articles describing 
successful methods of eradicating 
mustard. Father carefully followed 
one of them, and the yellow flowers 
soon disappeared from our fields. 

Getting Into Livestock. 

After that we got along nicely for 
about fifteen years. Then our land 
started to become less productive. 
The wheat yield was poor, and the 
price was around fifty or sixty cents 
a bushel. Although we now had 
eighty acres of land more, it looked as 
if we soon would have to be satisfied 
if we could make our living. But 
corn and other feeds could then be 
profitably raised if fed to hogs and 
cattle. Farm, Stock and Home soon 
pointed out the profits to be had in 
stock raising and dairying. It also be- 
gan to show how the productiveness 
of the land could be increased by 
crop rotation and careful fertilizing. 
Following its teachings, we planted 
much corn and oats, increased the 
number of beef steers, and raised 
about a hundred pigs every year. We 
also increased our dairy herd, and 
finally built a silo. 

After thirty years of struggling, my 
parents now have it easier. Modern 
machines do much of our work for- 
merly done by hand; we have a large 
barn, where everything is handy; our 
living house is up-to-date, furnished 
with water and electric light; and we 
ride in a big car. Often, when we 
go car riding, I cannot help but think 
of some of the rides that we had in 
the early days on the farm. Some- 
times when we wanted to go visiting 
our neighbors on Sunday, father 
hitched one of the oxen to the hay 
rake, and we all rode, as best we 
could, on that vehicle. We had no 
lighter rig. How different from now! 



GOOD TOPICS FOR DISCDSSION. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

Now while farm labor is hard to 
obtain and while the world is depend- 
ing largely on the United States for 
their bread and butter, and on the 
other hand, workers in the city are 
paying higher and higher price-s for 
foodstuffs, and competition in trade is 
growing sharper every year; would 
it not, for some of the older and more 
progressive farm communities, be a 
good idea to try some new ways to 
relieve the situation? 

I remember how it was a few years 
back. I used to spend three months 
a year in farm work out in Renville 
and Chippewa counties. 

There would be a rush all of a sud- 
den for the farmers to obtain their 
seasonal help, and if on their days to 
town they could not get the hired 
man, it meant spending unnecessary, 
extra time in finding one. 

I remember the last summer I 
worked, when my time was up, the 
farmer I worked for said: "I wish I 
could depend on having you come 
back next season. It would be such a 
relief to get rid of this worry about 
getting a man every summer, and one 
that you could trust and depend up- 
on." 

I told him I could not promise for 
sure, because a man has to take what 
best fits, and according to circum- 
stances. 

I happened to get married in the 
meantime, and settled down to work 
In the city. 

But there is one thing I have thot 
of since, as a possible relief to farm- 
ers and an opportunity to a lot of toil- 
ers in the city, who would be glad to 
get back to the soil. I remember this 
particular farm in Renville county, 
and several others in the neighbor- 
hood, were of 160 acres and more. 
Too big to be worked alone in sea- 
sons, but not large enough to require 
hired help the year around. I remem- 
ber they hafi pasture of 1 5 to 20 acres, 
good but unfilled soil. 

I have often thouf^ht, if those farm- 
ers would measure off out of this pas- 
ture a 10 a<"re piece of land, build a 
small living house and a barn, and 
sell this at a fair price upon a con- 
tract, with the yearly payments to be 
received In work by seller at going 
wages. 

This system would be enable farm- 
era to handle a family out of the city 
for almost every farm. This would 
settle the labor ciuestion for any farm, 
80 provided, for any future time. Tjc- 
cause even after the place sold off the 




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I want to quote you a price that will cause you to sit right up and take notice on the grandest, best plow 
' ever turned a furrow. I can do it because we are the actual manufacturers, and sell direct to you. 
You buy at the actual factory price when you order direct from us. But that isn't all. You get 
better plow. 1 say to you that the 



Get My 
Free 
Book 



Plow 



Monmouth or^^g 

will prove easier for you to handle, easieron your horses and will do your 
work better than any plow you can buy, regardless of price. It's posi- 
tively the only plow that actually carries the beams on top of the frame. No pressure on 
bottom of furrow— no friction. Single Bail and Horse Lift; and ''Point First" action. I'll 
Kive you a chance to prove e . ery statement I make and will pay the ''damages"— freight 
both ways— if we *'£aJl down" in a single assertion. 

All Kinds of Farm Tools Sold Direct 
from Factory To You. omaS? rn'aTS?!^: 

I want to tell you all about these plows and our other implements— Cultivators, Disc and Spike Tooth Harrows. i m f . l<%nQ... M Q» 

Com Planters, Grain Drills, Mowers, Rakes and other farm tools— all sold at factory prices. Satisfaction IVInnmniirh rInW raOntV ao. iwain jJi» 

guaranteed. Just write a po8t>-l for our complete catalog. It's free. Write to me. The Plow Man, with k ivn >uwi.u>jy Monmouth, Ul, 




Lightest 
Drall 
Plow 
Made 



farm was paid for, it would still leave 
the new owner of the small place in a 
position to go out and work, as his 
ten acres would not require all his 
time. 

It would increase the value of land 
in any community where such a sys- 
tem was adopted, and increase busi- 
ness. 

Well, what do you farmers think of 
It? 

Hennepin Co., Minn. Tn. Waugnes. 



Seed Law Protects Farmer From 
Loss. — The Minnesota seed law 
passed in 1913 required that all seed 
which is to be sold for seeding pur- 
poses be labeled before selling. This 
applies to both farmers aijd seedsmen. 
Kither one of two labels may be used: 
Seed may be labeled as "uncleaned 



seed," or may be labeled with a tag 
giving the following information: 
Kind of seed, percentage of pure seed, 
percentage of germination, date of 
germination, state or country in which 
grown; if corn, county in which 
grown; name and address of dealer; 
if seeds of quack grass, Canada this- 
tle, perennial sow thistle, and fod- 
der are in the lot of seed to be sold 
a statement to that effect must be 
made on the label. 

The label makes possible the intel- 
ligent purchase of seed as it gives all 
necessary information regarding qual- 
ity, etc. A farmer should buy only 
labeled seed, safeguarding himself 
against sowing foul seed and also pre- 
venting loss which may be incurred 
through the planting of dead seed. 



SiSxy Ba^ FREE 



Written by Inventor of H-L F Silo. Address 
Hewitt-Lea-Fonck Co., Hewiit BIdg., Smimer,Wa»li. 



1 

:ss H 




Ponnder Harrows First 

Ask IGO.OnO users- Dealers sell 
or you write for catalug a : ! di^ , 
livery to yon. G. H. Poandcr, ! 
Station n , fort Atkinson, Wis, 



BIG 




PROFITS NOW 



In sawing lumber witft 
our up-to-date saw mills. 
Make your engine earn 
money all year. Stan, 
now when the price o< 
lumber Is highest ever 
known, and (he dcm;iu(l 
enormous. Don't miss 
the i haiicc to make big 
fnoncy. Write for our FREE catalog C and prices. 
tt. R. Howell & Cc.Mfrs., Mlnneapolis,Minn. 
[Mention tbls oaser.J 



86 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



February 1, 1918 



OSCAR ANDERSON -RENTER. 

BV W. L, OAVERX. 

Oscar Anderson, Washington Coun- 
ty, Minnesota, started as a renter in 
l!t09. His farm equipment above 
debts was a team of horses and a 
wagon. In 1917, after eight years 
of renting he has farm equipment 
worth $4,200, and money in the bank. 
For 1916, his account book shows a 
labor income of $1,835. For 1915 his 
labor income was $1,059, for 1914 it 
was $1,089. Here is his business 
statement for 1916: 

Inve.stiucut (Ilesinulug of Year). 

Tjivestock $1,772 

Machinery 7!)!) 

I''eed and seed 908 

Total $3,479 

Recel|><N. 

Potatoes, crop 1916, 361 bu $460 

I'otatoes, crop 19ir>, 405 bu 281 

Wheat, crop 1916, 200 bu 221 

Wheat, crop 1915, 81 bu 138 

Increase of feed and seed inven- 
tory 94 

Cream, from 11 cows 648 

Cattle, including: $543 increase of 

inventory 990 

Hogs 150 

Poultry 72 

Outside work 5.3 

Increase of machinery inventory. 199 

Total $3,306 

Tlired labor $170 

Hoard of hired help 100 

Machinery repairs 72 

New machinery 341 

Cash rent for 160 acres 275 

Depreciation on horses 90 

Thresliins and twine 50 

Feed bougrht 74 

Kuilding repairs 22 

Fence repairs 10 

Seed bought 23 

Unclassified 70 

Total 1,297 

Farm income $2,009 

Interest on $3,479 at 5% 174 

Labor income $1,S35 

In addition to a labor income of 
$1,835, Oscar had his house rent, pork, 
milk, chickens, eggs, potatoes, fire- 
■wood, and other articles that the farm 
contributed to the living of a family 
of six. Oscar kept no record of the 
value of these items, but it is safe to 
estimate that in the cities very few 
families of the poorest classes are 
able to purchase these items for less 
than $600 per year. 

Oscar does not include in expenses 
such items as clothing, groceries and 
medical attendance. He regards these 
expenditures as family expenses 
rather than as farm business expenses. 

Oscar's Bookkeeping. 

Oscar's method of record keeping 
is to make a detailed inventory at the 




ITomen 

whose sensitive 
nerves often yield 
to coffee's harmful 
stimulation^ appre 
ciate the chan^ 
resulting from a 
ten days' trial of 

^INSTANT ^ 

PosTun 

iNSTEAD of COPFEE. 

Such a delicious 
drink nnakes the 
change easy and 
better nerves make 
it a permanent one. 

"Thercs a Reason 



beginning and end of the year and to 
keep a record of cash roreipls and ex- 
penses. It is then easy at the end of 
the year to make a summary like the 
foregoing. Oscar takes the inventory 
in less than two hours, and the record 
of cash transactions Is a matter of 
only two to five minutes each day. 

Will Buy a Farm. 

In about three years, at the pres- 
ent rate of progress, Oscar will bo 
in a position to make a substantial 
payment on a farm, and his financial 
record indicates very clearly that he 
is a man who could pay off a mort- 
gage from the earnings of the farm. 
His experience should be full of en- 
couragement for those young men who 
feel that with the present high prices 
of land there is little hope, without 
financial backing from relatives, of 
acquiring a farm by the successive 
stepb ,vf hired man, renter and owner. 

Oscar and His Landlord. 

Doesn't he have an unusual land- 
lord? Not at all. Oscar, too, has 
his troubles. Six years ago when he 
moved on the place that he now oc- 
cupies, it was badly infested with 
quack grass. Also the barn was far 
from being just what he desired. By 
intensive cultivation, of corn and po- 
tatoes, the quack grass has been early 
eradicated. Thus, -while securing a 
crop for himself he has been greatly 
improving the property of his land- 
lord. Has the landlord shown appre- 
ciation of Oscar's efforts? For the 
first three years with the present land- 
lord Oscar paid $200 cash rent per 
year. At the end of the three years 
the landlord gave him a five year 
lease at $275 per year. Evidently the 
landlord appreciated Oscar's efforts 
to the extent that he saw it to be for 
his interest to retain a good tenant at 
a rental that, after the quack grass 
had been subdued, was somewhat less 
than could have been secured from 
other parties. The 160 acres has only 
57 acres of tillable land. The rest is 
pasture containing light timber with 
some slough and waste land. The 
farm would probably sell readily at 
$55 per acre. 

Landlord's Returns. 

The landlord's side of the ledger 
would then look like this: 
Receipts. 

Cash rent $275 

Taxes, fire insurance and deprecia- 
tion on buildings 80 

Net returns $195 

Interest earned on $8,800 2.2% 

The landlord also had the increase 
in land value. This has doubtless been 
suflScient together with the cash rent 
to make the farm a fair investment for 
the landlord. 

Oscar's Farm Plan. 

Oscar has been handicapped by the 
fact that he has such a limited acre- 
age of tillable land. However, he has 
in part evercome this handicap by se- 
curing big yields per acre. Also, by 
growing about seven, acres of potatoes 
each year and keeping all the live- 
stock that the pasture will carry, he 
has made a business that would fully 
utilize his own time and that of some 
hired help. He averages about eleven 
cows and twenty-five . head of young 
stock. 

In 1916, Oscar raised the following 
crops: 

Yield 

Crop . Acres per acre 

Corn for grain 3 50 bu. 

Corn for silage 8 9 tons 

Potatoes 7 100 bu. 

Oats .ind wheat succo- 
tash 22 25 bu. 

Barley 5 40 bu. 

Clover hay 8 3 tons 

Slough hay 6 li^ tons 

Pasture, farmstead and 
roads 101 

Total 160 

These yields were excellent for 1916 
when the potato and grain crops were 
a near failure with many farmers in 
this section. These high yields per 
acre have been made possible by a 
careful application of the manure, 
careful selection of seed, and good 
cultivation when needed instead of a 
week later. In general, the cropping 
system is potatoes on clover sod, fol- 
lowed by corn one year, then small 
grain two to three years and then 
clover again. 

The Silo. 

Very few tenants have silage, be- 
cause landlords seldom care to spend 
money for silos. Oscar's landlord is 
no (ixception to the rule. However, 
vviien Oscar made the five year lease, 
ho in.serted in the contract, a pro- 
vision that ho might build a silo and 
remove It at the expiration of the 



Farmer's Favorite 
4 Inch 




Grain 
Drills 



This New Type 
Drill operates per- 
fectly under the most 
severe and exacting con- 
ditions to be found m any 
section of tliis country. Sows 
the grain in rows closer to- 
gether than has been custom- 
ary. The same amount of seed 
as Kown with the wider sjiaced 
machine is distributed by thi.s new 
type drill through more rows per acre, 
and thinner in the row, giving each seed 
more root room and a chance for a better stand. 

The discs are so closely spaced that a highly cultivated seed bed is obtained with 
an almost total elimination of weeds. 

Double Run Force Grain Feed 

Positive force feed for both grain and fertilizer. Very accurate; even distribution, 
no bunching. Has two scecf channels or two feeds in one. Different sized seeds 
can be sown in wide range of quantities without injury to the seed. The feed is 
one of the vital parts of a drill as on it depends the accurate sowing of the grain. 
Large Stock of Machines and Repairs Carried at Minneapolis, Minn. 

Ask yoiu' dealer for information on the special features combined in the new type 
Farmer's Favorite 4 Inch Grain Drill or write us for descriptive pamphlet. 

The American Seeding- Machine Co., Inc. 

Springfield, Ohio 





No Bad Odor 
Even in Cold Weather^ 

"When we had the coldest days this winter with everytliing: 
closed up tigrht. there was no bad odor not even when we fed 
ensilajje. My bam is free from frost, aiso the hay mow above. 1 
Bapply Manly with milk and have no complaint on the milit tasting or 
Bmellint; of the odors of the barn." (Signed) H. A. Bartlett, Manly, 
Iowa. Just one of thousands of owners of barns ventilated with the 

KING System of Ventilation 



Juat think of what it means to be able to refer yoa to any King: Sys- 
tem owner, anywhere, and have him nrge you to get a King System 
in YOUR barn. This is exactly what happens when you meet King 
System owners. 

Bach King System is designed to fit the barn it goes Into and our re- 
BDonsibility does not cease until it ventilates the 
building properly. 

Write for This Book 

showing photographs of many different styles 
of bams ventilated with King Systems and 
telling how we can ventilate your building 
the r\ght way for less money than you can 
do it yourself. Write today, 
KING AERATORS are the first unit of 
the King System. Can be used with 
or without the complete system. 

KING VENTILATING COMPANY 
176 Cedar Street Owatonna, Minn. 



-[hMMiiMiiiiiinMiiiinn,mni|ifiiiiiiiiiiini[iiiMiiiMniinii u.'ijr»nMiniiMliiiiiniiiiMi»iiiiMiuMinriM iiiMniiiiMniinii»iiiiiMii Miiii,ii^ 
ni i ii(» i n i iiiiii i iiiiiiniiia ii iu ii HJniMMinuiiuniiiuini»iniuiiuuiii ii»i|iiiuiiiiuiiuiuiiiiinnMi M ii i i i i ii» iiii iMii i iii i in i ii i i\i»ii»i^ 




Grinds a Wagon Load for 15 cents 



In these daya of high priced gasoline, economy in grinding la of the utmost Importance. 
Do not waste your time and money grinding feed with an out of date buhr nml. Cut 
your grindiiie bills In half and put money in your Docket by usioe one of ttte 

^^Qyf^^WlRollei'FPQd Mills 

that will grind twice as fi\st with the same power as the best buhr mill made. 
Have corrugated steel rollers, same aa used in modern flour mills. No parts 
to wear out. Built to last a lifetime. FuUy guaranteed. The only niiir that 
geta tlie wild oats. Made In 13 sizes— rany capacity — a size for any eajjae. 

J^/?£r£'— ^'"Tiplete cjitaloff and the Famoua Roller Mill 
I'uaslo. Wnto tor them today. 

R.R.HOWELL CO., ISMalcolm Ave.S.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 





— that's what thousands of farmers 
say, who have gone from the U. S. to 
settle on homesteads or buy land in West- 
ern Canada. Canada's invitation to every in- 
dustrious worker to settle in Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alborta is es- 
pecially attractive. She wants farmers to make money and happy, prosperous 
homes for themselves by helping her raise immense wheat crops to feed the world. 

You Can Get a Homestead of 160 Acres FREE 

or other landsat very low prices. Where you can buy good farm land at $15. 
to $30. par acre that will raise 20 to 4S bushola of $2. wheat to tha 

acre — it's easy to become prosperous. Canadian farmers also grow 
wonderful crops of Oats, Barley and Flax. Mixed Farming is 

fully as prolUabli' an indutitry as grain rniHintr. Tho excellent ttrassoti. full of nu- 
trition, are tho only food required either for beef or dairy purpoHca. Good schools 
end churches, inarkcta convenient, climate excellent. Write for literaturo and 
[larticulars m to reduced railway rstea to Supt, Immigration, Ottawa, Can., or to 



311 Jackson St. 



ST. I'AUL, MINN. 

Canadian Government Asent. 




February 1, 1918 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



87 



contract. Under these conditions 
Oscar bought a stave silo. 

Summary. 

Oscar's experience shows that de- 
spite its inconvenience there is a good 
opportunity for young men to farm 
profitably as renters. Not every young 
man has sufficient capital to stock 
and equip a rented farm, but one \vho 
is as industrious and honest as Oscar, 
will usually, after he becomes ac- 
quainted in a community, be able to 
find a landlord who will be willing to 
furnish a part of the financial backing 
for the sake of securing a good tenant. 



ADTOMOBILES AND FARM IMPLEMENTS 

BY M. L. CROWTHER. 

In connection with the proposed 
curtailment by the government of the 
output of automobiles, I wonder if 
the Washington authorities fully ap- 
preciate the absolute need of the au- 
tomobile on the farm. Can it be there 
isn't a full appreciation, on the part 
of officials w^ho have this matter in 
hand, of the uses to which an auto- 
motile is put by farmers? Is a deci- 
sion to be made on this most impor- 
tant matter without taking the farm- 
er into account? Will the govern- 
ment differentiate as between auto- 
mobile sales to city people and sales 
to the farmers? 

A farmer uses an automobile far 
less for pleasure than for work that 
makes for increased crop production. 
In selling a car to a farmer the deal- 
er has to be able to talk "utility" and 
not "pleasure." 

Oh a recent tour thru the farming 
sections of Oklahoma I was surprised 
to find the automobile serving the 
farmer in so many different ways. I 
had a pretty good idea that farmers 
would find many uses for the cars 
other than mere pleasure riding but 
I was astounded at the extent to 
which cars Mere being pressed into 
actual farming service. 

During the past two years the gov- 
ernment has permitted its own agents 
and those of foreign governments to 
take many thousands of horses and 
mules from the farms. Good prices 
were paid, of course, but many a farm- 
er let go of some of his good horses 
and mules because he had figured it 
out that the automobile could be used 
on many of the jobs that those horses 
and mules had been doing. Where 
horses were once used on trips to 
town, the automobile now makes the 
round trip in less than half the time. 
And in conserving time on such jobs 
the- fanner has more time for inten- 
sive farming, which the government 
is encouraging. . 

Valuable in Speeding Up Work. 

Many tim€3 this past fall, during 
harvest, when a repair was absolute- 
ly necessary before a certain job 
could be done, the automobile was in 
town and back v.-ith ths repair before 
a horse could have been harnessed 
up and gotten onto the main road. In 
the case of certain crops easily spoiled 
by rain the matter of getting machin- 
ery repairs is a most important item. 
Deprive the farmer of an automobile 
and you will cut his efficiency almost 
in half. And this is no time to be 
cutting down on the farmer's effi- 
ciency. 

Go out into the country today and 
hat do you find on the roads leading 
to the towns and cities? Automobifes, 
farmer-owned, in which is produce, 
garden stuff, poultry and eggs, yes, 
even a calf or two and maybe a steer 
or a few pigs — all going to market. 
Farmers use their cars far more than 
city folks and they use them for very 
necessary purposes. Millions of farm- 
ers will buy automobiles during 1918 
for the purpose of increasing their 
efficiency, to enable them to get their 
products to town as cheaply and as 
quickly as possible. If they are un- 
able to buy cars they will not raise 



9 CORDS IN 10 HOURS 




BT an na, it*! KTCO OV HIF, woods. Rstm mmtj na* 
kMkiehe. Send loi rRKB cataloK No. sli' wlne lovr prlc* 
ind latcit ImprovcrnenU. Fir<;t orrler aecncy. 

Sawiag Macliiaa Co.. 1 81 West Harrison St. Chluso, Ul 



AUTO WxmU 



by the (■;ov«rnm<!i)t M Truck Drivers. 
Mechanics aod EDgineers This train- 
ing may keep you out of the trenches. 
Hisam unH Oa» Engineers and Mechan- 
ic are alw) needed everywhere at home. 

t^Arn in thm b4St «4nicip«<l •chr.ol, 
WRITK FOn BIO CATAUXJ. 
INftlNeeRINO COLI.eOB.Au«Un,MiBit 




as much garden stuff and poultry be- 
cause they will be unable to get the 
stuff to market. 

Thousands of farm boys and girls 
are getting an education this year 
with the help of an automobile. The 
consolidated school is very popular 
in this state. Children go great dis- 
tances to these schools because the 
consolidated schools serve large sec- 
tions. Discontinue the sale of cars 
to farmers and you will put a check 
on the education of farm boys and 
girls that will be staggering in its ef- 
fect. 

Keeps the Boys and Girls at Home. 

Government bureaus have burned 
the mJdnight tungsten trying to find 
out why boys and girls leave the 
farm. The exodus of farm boys and 
girls to the cities has been greatly 
checked since the automobile became 
a farm implement. Farm boys and 
girls do not take many joy rides, but 
deprive them of cars and you take 
away from them many of the joys of 
living on the farm. 

Thousands upon thousands of here- 
tofore idle acres are now being farmed 
due to the automobile. A farmer with 
large land holdings can get over his 
land with his car and superintend the 
work in a manner which was impos- 
sible before the car came. If anyone 
doubts this just let him ask any farm- 
er who is cultivating a considerable 
acreage. 

Just now power attachments to au- 
tomobiles are becoming more numer- 
ous on the farms of Oklahoma. This 
is due largely to the shortage of man 
power and horsepower, both attribut- 
able to the war. Motor cars, with 
power attachments, are running feed 
grinders, windmills, charging storage 
batteries for light plants and a dozen 
other jobs. 

And, as a further argument for the 
uninterrupted sale of cars to farmers, 
tho of minor importance as compared 
with some of the points covered above, 
there is the matter of recreation. 
Farmers, to be efficient, just like city 
folds, must have recreation. How 
else, except thru the automobile, are 
they to get it? There are the commii- 
nity meetings, church services, school 
meetings, and whatnot. 

It may be possible to take the city 
man's car away from him without se- 
rious injury, but it would be a na- 
tional calamity to make it impossible 
for farmers to buy automobiles. Be- 
fore the government takes any such 
step it is to be hoped it will go out 
into the highways and byways and 
find out just how automobiles fit into 
the farmers' working schedule. The 
farmers nov/ own close to fifty per- 
cent of the cars running in the north- 
west, and they will buy, for purely 
business reasons, many thousand cars 
next year. And the Government au- 
thorities must see that they can get 
them, or b^ disappointed with the 
crop returns in 1918. 



FARMING HO LONGER A SPECULATION. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

It has always been incredible to me 
how stupid some people can be on 
subjects like this milk-price question. 
One of the Minneapolis investigators 
declared that he "wanted 10-cent milk 
regardless of what it cost," "that the 
farmer had always lost money as far 
as he could see, why couldn't he go 
on doing it." Perhaps there is no 
more forceful answer to the last than 
that, when Iowa land could be bought 
for ten dollars an acre — as it could 
25 years ago — a m.an didn't need a 
profit to come out on top. All he had 
to do was to live and when he got 
ready to retire sell out for .$150 to $:!C0 
an acre. But for a m^n to buy or rent 
$200 land is a different proposition. 

The government pork policy is very 
wise. By guaranteeing a hi-::h price 
for next yea: they are holding boss 
on the farms and stimtilatin? profli;c- 
tion. I cannot see why the same 
should not apply to beef and milk. 

.lust how any man can expect farm- 
ing to keep up its share of production 
at a bare living wage for the workers 
when factories are paying from $125 
to $600 a month is beyond me. 

The article, "Our Labor Plutocrats," 
in the Jan. 5th Saturday Evening Post, 
should furnish food for thought to 
everybody — countryman and cityman. 
I know a family similar to the one 
described therein whose total labor 
income, all working on a farm, does 
not exceed $1,000 to $1,500 a year. 
And they work far longer than the 
Scotchman's family does for about 
$10,000; besides taking more risk, 
working harder, and doing all the 
managing. They are good average 
farmers. Conditions such as these 




Do Your Plowing Whenever You Want to 

DON'T delay plowing because your ground is too hard for horses to 
break or too soft to support their weight. 

The Huber Light Four gets the plowing done when you want it. 
Powerful enough to pull three 14" bottoms over any field. Light enough 
to work on fields impassable to horses. Works on plowed ground with- 
out packing. , , , , , 

Besides doing the work of four three-horse teams, it operates 
air farm machinery. Gives power for threshing, pumping 
water, running the baler, filhng the silo. Pays its way on 
the farm every day in the year. 

12 h.p. at the draw-bar, 25 h.p. at the pulley. Center draft. 
Direct drive. Turns in a six foot radius. Never runs hot. 
Self-steering in the furrow. Easy to manage. Easily plows 
an acre an hour. Adjusts itself to any field. Speed 23^ to 
4 miles per hour. Burns gasoline, kerosene or distillate. 

"Doing the Impossible" gives the 
proofs. Send for it today, 

THE HUBER MFG. CO. 437 Center St. Marion, OKo 





Mow W^aixit 



i U Mi I MJ i ja ' 



"Some cnsrinestake a team [ 
andcrowbartoznove. ACush- 

I man will do same work and a 14- 
I year boy will move it." 
' D. LINTON. Ransom. III. 









1 "Thia winter am t2sing 4 H. P. | 
1 Cushman to pull a 32-in. circular 1 
H saw. It cuts better than a 10 H. F. big 1 
■ engine becanPe of its speed. ' ' 1 
1 L. N. AMBLER. Cheney. Kansaa. | 


"It does everything on my farm. 1 

Last harvest I cut 235 acree of grain with it Q 
on the binder. Bestinve3tmeDt r, w nr-„™ 1 










Anyone can see the advantage of light 

weight. A3 one farmer puts it: Why pay 
freight on 1000 lbs. of iron, and break your 
neck trying to move it around, whefi 190 lbs, 
of Cushman will pull the load even better?" 

High speed gives more steady 

and more certain power; it keeps the engine from being 
choked down quickly when the grinder strikes the grain 
or the saw strikes the log — giving the throttle governor 
time to open up and supply more power. 

The All-Purpose or Many Job feature pleases 
everyone. AsD. V. Spaulding, Hennessey, Okla., says: "I 
could spare any other machine on the place better than the 
Cushman. I use it for everything." 



8 H. p. 

Weighs only 
320 pounds 




Lightweight 
All-Purpose 



[NQINES 



4 H. P. 

Only 190 pounds 




Cushman Motors may be attached to gram binders, 

corn binders, corn picliers, potato dijjcers and other machines, 
to save horses. We furnish attachments. 

They may be mounted on hay balers, shellers, shredders, Bmall 
threshers, etc. They do all regular jobs, such as (jrindins, saw- 
inff, pumping, elevating grain, etc., more satisfactorily than 
heavy engines. Sizes up to 20 H. P. Book Free. 
Cushman Electric Lighting Plant with 4 H. P. Cushman 
Engine. A woman can start it, with the Cushman Patented 
Self-starter. Ask for circular. 

CUSHMAN MOTOR WORKS 
809 North 21st Street Lincoln, Nebraska 



Before You Buy Any Engine 
Ask These Questions: 
How much does ft weiEh? If It 

weishe more than 60 lbs. per horae- 
power, what 13 the i eason? 

Is it thrcttle-Eovorned? A throttle 
governor inaurca steady, quiet, eco- 
nomical operatioc. 

Has it a good carburetor? The 
Cushman baa the Schebler— one of 
the best_ made. Many so-caUed 
farm engines have no carburetor. 

Has it a friction clutcfi pulley? 
Tho Cuahman haa one that alone 
would cost $16. QQ. 



msu ' tt"Br M l y Mil ai' 



cannot continue to exist among edu- 
cated people of otday. Farmers are 
not a class of ignorant peasants as 
some city people seem to believe and 
v/isli them to be. It may be some 
time before they find it out, but they 
must find it out if we are to continue 
to grow as a nation. 

Thos. W. Barnard. 
Dunn county, Wis. 



— Norw is a good time to repair the 
farm machinery, so as to have it in 
readiness for next spring and sum- 
mer. Better results are usually se- 
cured when the spring work and har- 
vesting is done promptly and it saves 
labor. The day or more spent in 
waiting for extras or in having a ma- 
chine repaired when it should be in 
use causes considerable loss in crop 
as well of time. — North Dakota Agri- 
cultural College. 



THESELF-OBUia. WINDMILL 

has become so popular in its first three years that 
thousands have been called for to replace, on their 
old towers, other makes of mlils, and to replace, at 
small cost, the gearing of the ear'.ii 
Aermotors, making them self-oU- , 
ing. Its enclosed motora 
I keeps in the oil andg 
keeps out dust and 
rain. The Splash Oiling 
System constantly 
floods every bearing with oil pre- ^ 
venting wear and enabling the 
mill to pump in the lightest bree 
The oil supply is renewed once a year. 
Double Gears are used, each carrying half the load 
We make Gasoline Engines, Pumps, Tanks, 
Water Supply Goods and Sleel Frame Saws. 

Write AERMOTOR CO.. 2500 Twelfth SL, Chicago 




FREE 




TRIAL 



Lstussend thi^ fin^t li.izor for30dayfl free trial. When 
Batistled after UBinir, seTui Jl.8.5 or return razor. Order 
Toda;. JONES MFG.CO., Dspt.2..4, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Have you anythlne to sell? Use tke 
Classified columns of F., S. A H. 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



February f, 1918 



mm AND THE MAKING OF BREAD. 

BY C. H. IIAILKY. 

The production of wheat has long 
liorno an important relation to the 
welfare of mankind. Wheat growing 
lias been a fair measure of civilization. 
We find in the ruins of the oldest civ- 
ilizations evidences of wheat being an 
important crop. In the tombs and 
temples of Egypt, we find evidences 
of a great civilization, and in the dec- 
oration of the Egyptian and Roman 
tombs the wheat symbol received con- 
siderable attention at the hands of ar- 
tists. In Pompeii, destroyed some 50 
to 70 years B. C, milling had received 
some attention, and we have further 
evidence that wheat has long been of 
the greatest importance, as we find it 
in practically all civilized countries 
and in all climates in the new world 
and the old, from the Arctic to the 
Antarctic circle; from the snows of 
Canada to the plateaus of South 
American. 

Why Wheat "Beat Out" Other Grains. 

It has the quality of making a light, 
porous loaf, which is one of the rea- 
sons why wheat has been so largely 
cultivated. There is another reason, 
the ease of converting the raw mate- 
rial into a product, which can be baked 
— a product easily manufactured into 
human food. 

The process of grinding wheat de- 
veloped very slowly. Indeed, down to 
practically the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, there was little change 
except in the form of applying the mo- 
tive power. The inverted mortar and 
pestle and the mill-stone developed in 
modern times. These important 
changes were probably owing to the 
initial development and the inventive 
genius of millers, and became known 
in Budapest, and in Switzerland, and 
rapidly spread over continental Eu- 
rope. Then our enterprising Minne- 
sota millers began to send their prod- 
ucts abroad, and the old stone mills 
were rapidly displaced and the build- 
ings overhauled and made into roller 
mills. Every change during the de- 
velopment of the roller process, shows 
an effort to separate the bran and 
shorts from the fine white flour. 
George W^ashington operated a mill 
and himself marketed several grades 
of flour. At that time the separation 
of the coarser particles of wheat from 
the kernel was regarded as exceed- 
ingly desirable. They had nothing 
like our fine white flour, not even as 
white as the lower grades of our white 
flours made by the roller process. 
Then came the "Midland Purifier," af- 
ter the advent of which we find the 
attention almost wholly given to the 
production of high grade, as distin- 
guished from the flour of previous 
times. Nearly all developments have 
been directed toward the production 
of a white, highly purified and free 
milling brand. As a result, the dough 
prepared from the highly purified 
flour stands a little more abuse and 
inattention in baking, temperatures 
may go lower and it can ferment long- 
er and still produce palatable bread. 

The Millers' Problem in Flour Making. 

At this time I want to call attention 
to the wheat berry, which consists 
of three parts, first, the bran or hull, 
which was probably designed as a pro- 
tection; the germ or embryo, which 
produces the next generation, and, fin- 
ally, the flour portion of the wheat 
kernel which constitutes the larger 
portion, probably 80 to 85 per cent. 

The millers' desire is to make as 
nearly a perfect separation as possi- 
ble. You have then the most highly 
perfect keeping flour. It is not possi- 
ble to make a perfect separation but 
the closer we come to this point the 
more satisfactory the wheat becomes, 
because fiour is always the highest 
priced product, and consequently the 
larger the per cent of the higher 
priced product the more valuable the 
wheat is to the miller. Consequently 
a great deal of attention is given to 
the item of plumpness in wheat as de- 
termining the grade. Second comes 
the item of gluten, and, finally, the 
matter of soundness — all these deter- 
mine the quality. The miller does not 
care to experiment much; he prefers 
to have a sound, clean wheat rather 
than to take chances. 

The Miller's Idea of "Good" Wheat. 

These three things, then, plumpness, 
gluten content, and finally soundness 
of the wheat kernel, determine the 
grade, and, in a general way, follow- 
ing these three Items we can obtain 
an adequate and rational system of 
grading. 

In general, the more direct line you 
can follow in getting a product from 



the soil to the table, the greater the 
economy. Wheat satisfies these re- 
quirements. The processes Involved 
in converting it into human food are 
few in number compared to other 
things; the process of baking, too, is 
perfectly feasible. It comes almost 
direct from field to table. As a food 
it seems to lack some things, esiie- 
cially that manufactured from the 
higher grades. These deliciencles 
could be made up In the case ft the 
highly milled flours by incorporating 
some of the bran portions and a little 
more of the embryo. There is some 
objection to doing this as the incor- 
poration of too much germ affects the 
keeping of the products; it does not 
keep as well, is more likely to become 
heated, and does not make as nice 
looking a loaf. 



WHEAT AND THE WAR. 

BY DEAN R. W. THATOHEB. 

The problem of increased supply 
has one or two phaset. In the first 
place, in reference to wheat shortage. 
Neither Mr. Hoover nor other food ad- 
ministrators want us to get the im- 
pression that there is a shortage of 
food. There is plenty of food for all 
the people, if it could be gotten to 
them, because while there is plenty 
of food in the world there is not 
plenty of every kind. There is a short- 
age in those kinds of food that can 
be easily transported. Why do we 
say, "shortage of wheat?" Principally 
because wheat is one of the best 
grains to be transported. Why do 
we say, "Ship them wheat?" I think 
if you will reason, you will see it is 
not so much their habit of using 
wheat, as the difficulty of getting corn 
to them. Corn ripens late in the fall 
and contains a lot of moisture, which 
causes it to heat and spoil, conse- 
quently we seek to save the grain 
that is most particularly well adapted 
for shipment. We feel it is right to 
have just as large a supply as possible 
to send across. How are we going 
to accomplish it. In two ways: First, 
by producing more wheat. Already, 
some of you, I hope many, have taken 
a chance and are seeding more win- 
ter wheat than ever before, or are 
planning to seed a large acreage of 
spring wheat. 

I like Dr. Hopkins' position. He 
says it doesn't make any difference, 
whether you know or not that you 



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E*t*bii>h«d 1859 




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Put Your G>rn Into an 
H-LrF Freeze-Proof Silo! 

HALF the value of your com crop lies in the stalks. And the only way 
to save this feed is to put it into a good silo. The Government is 
urging economy — greater production — bigger farm profits. And 
they tell you that the silo is the biggest money-saver and money-maker 
that can go on any farm. Put up a silo this year and get right with 
Uncle Sam. Put up an H-L-F Silo and get the best silo ever made. 

Two Walls-Double Strength-Yet 
Costs Less Than Single Wall Silos 

The H-L-F Silo is built with two air-tight -walls and a dead air space 
between. It is practically freeze-proof and air-tight. Double walls have 
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scaffolding. Hoops never need attention. Walls cannot collapse or open 
up when empty. And hundreds of oiu: customers write that they saved 
from $50.00 to $150.00 over the cost of any other kind of silo. 

Get Our Prices and Free Roof Offer! 

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Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co. 

542 Funck Street, Sumner, Wash. 

Gentlemen: Please send at once the free book, 
"All About Silos," your Bik Silo Folder, and 
Details of FREE ROOF OFFER. 



Name 



Post Office 



R.F.D State.. 



scription of the H-L-F Silo. 

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of every kind of silo. Mail ; 
the coupon for your free copy., 

Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co J 

542 Funck St. , Snmner, Wath. 



Februar> 1918 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



89 



vill have enough labor for harvest, if 
you are a patriot you will seed any- 
way. The government, it is true, calls 
upon yoa for the largest growth of 
foods, aad calls away the labor with 
which to produce it. but the conditions 
must be faced aad the labor will some- 
how be provided. 

Our first duty is to put an army 
over in France. I think no one of us 
has read ttie recent disclosures, with- 
out realizing that. If the Government 
calls your boy, that is his first duly. 
Our first duty kere is to grow and to 
conserve food, and the Government is 
going to make every effort to provide 
the necessarj' labor. But, whether you 
are sure of that or not, plant every 
acre possible. We are going to put 
in every acra of land and bend every 
effort to back up the work the boys 
are doing in France. Grain, more 
grain, more products! We want every 
one to get into the game. In England, 
the one who did his best laid down 
his life; her© we say we are doing 
our "bit." It is the first duty of the 
Federal Government to put an army 
into the field, and we will readjust 
our business the best way we can. 
The message of this hour is to put in 
every possible acre of grain and, above 
all, wheat; tfeea to use the corn, rye 
and barley and save the wheat for 
shipping across because it can best be 
shipped over there. 



TAX DOGS m PROTECT SBEEP. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I can give «ily my own views re- 
garding the steep and alfalfa situa- 
tion. A good many do not have the 
same things to contend with that we 
do here in central Minnesota. To be- 
gin with, the HJan who has sheep on 
his farm aow is in the swim right, if 
he has the proper feed for them and 
can keep the dogs from eating up all 
the profit. 

In my o^imon there is nothing in 
the line of feed for sheep like good 
clean alfalfa hay and alfalfa pasture. 
It is cfaeaplr produced, will grow on 
any farm in Minnesota, if given the 
same chaace as oats or corn, takes the 
place of graia in winter, is the best 
known feed for breeding ewes and 
produces more feed per acre than any 
other crop grown. Sheep and alfalfa 
are the greatest crop the American 
farmer can grow today. If Grimm al- 
falfa is plautei, it will last for years; 
if good grade ewes are purchased and 
cared for, there is little left to worry 
about, providiag the government will 
help take care of the dog situation. 
We need a federal tax on dogs and 
everybody interested in winning the 
war should bo interested in helping 
along the great movement now well 
under way to have this government 
place a good strong tax on the several 
million worthless dogs that are kill- 



Pofted Winter Blooming Bulbs 

We gaarantee them to reach you 
fely. esea in coldest of v eafher and 
Mqeaom mtiflfactorily this winter in 
ygnr borne. Potted in rt(^h eurth and 
lertilizer. They are rooted and rpady 
ZHAke Instant ^owth. Your choice of 
Kar<-Uirai), llyui'Inths, TuHps and 
r«oeaa, 2 pots for 25 cts. 10 pots for 
$1 00 Psatvald. 

Oar Narneriee and Seed Farms were 
CBtabl ifibed here in Northern Iowa over 
a half cestary ago and our *'Bnzzard 
Belt" strains ot Fmits, Omamontals, 
Everbcarlne 8trawbcrrle«, Garden 
— Seeds, etc., are l>eine grown succesa- 
inlly in crerjL state in the Union. Catalogue of 
anx variooe "^BllKzard H<-lt" products end a copy 
of onr paper Vnrdncr's Garden Experience, Free. 
The GarOaer Narxerj Co„ Uox 54, Osaee, lawa 





.■^v/PURESEEDBdOK 



_ GET THIS BOOK FRCC . 

^VatiowtocutliWof; costthroa^bl 
— 'actiye gatd-ns. Why oar Para, I 
nS Fann, Garden EUid Flowerl 
HjWM notra tlie birr'^Bt croM— tbel 
nBiestflowera. A benutlXul 112 
|Vpacr« book in colors: Lfcscribea 

fand flowers. iJandsomely illua- 
_ cmted; beftmfal bore* rronnds, 
. . .flower and vetret«ble cardan, 
'«nraDbei7,orcharaa,/arnui, Voritabto 

rrjenio^l Flower Imer'm dolichtl 

. bon'<! An OTchardiat'tt manoalt 

your 131H rai d«n TT<^m thin valasblo bnoh. 
~ Brao.*Co.<D«9t. ] I Wat«r(oo.low» 

Strawberry CppC To introdaw) onr Pediftreed E-ver* 
PL A /vr^ri\JiJi bfiarirtK 8trawbcm>a we will send 
35 fine plasUfroe. CQRSOUOATEO RURSEftT CO.. ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Bfl PRnnRFfiQlVF ^VCRBEARINO STRAW 

paid. Order now for sprini^. Offor llmiifsa. 
KILLMER'S NOfiTH£RM NURSERIES, St. Paul. Minn. 




LEARN STEAM AND GAS 

ENGiNEERINQ 

A great dhwnand. S7 to ?1I pur day. This Is 
the largeat and beat equipi SK^am and Gas 
School In America. Also AUTO Mechanics 
COtirae.s. Wrifoforbij? newcatalot;. 

ENGINEERING COLLEGE 
0«pi, S,G. Austin, Minnesota 



ing sheep, good sheep, by the thou- 
sands. What do I think of the pros- 
pects of the sheep business? It has 
everything in its favor and only one 
drawback, that is the worthless dog 
that is keeping many a fine Iamb from 
ever seeing the market. 

The market is about cleaned up on 
good breeding ewes at this time and 
those who have them are not wishing 
to sell, even at the extreme prices 
offered. Good grade yearlings (not 
bred) will easily bring $20 to $25 each 
anywhere in Minnesota. Average 
flock run ewes will bring $12 to $16. 

The wool and mutton market is 
good. Little is being offered, and 
what is offered does not drag on the 
market. 

Feed is high and some stock are go- 
ing to market showing that more feed 
could have been used to advantage. 

As to the fence problem, 1 use the 
32-inch woven wire with 6-inch stay 
and two barbed wires on top. This 
makes a splendid lasting fence for all 
stock, even pigs. This fence properly- 
constructed will help a little to keep 
out the dogs, but it won't keep all of 
them away. The government holds 
the absolute control of the dog ques- 
tion, and imtil congress acts the sheep 
raiser is at the mercy of the dog. 

H. I. Da VET. 

Todd County, Minn. 



CHAMPIONSHIP APPRECIATED. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

I am very much pleased, indeed, to 
know that the F., S. & H. has taken 
the stand it has to be a real help 
and salesman for the Northwest farm- 
ers. We farmers need help in many 
ways and not least in this grain grad- 
ing question. The editor has for many 
long years made it a special study of 
v,'hat the farmer actually needs, so 
he is well posted in whatsoever the 
question may be concerning the farm 
or farmers, and some of the editorials 
for the last year or more have been 
very rich and valuable and to the 
point. Beside the Co-operators' Her- 
ald and Successful Farming, Farm, 
Stock & Home will be the only farm 
paper I will have after Feb. 1. 

L. S. Thokpb. 

Traill county, N, D. 



NO SMOKE WITHODT FIRE. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

Just a word in regard to your com- 
ment in the last issue of your paper, 
entitled, "Political Organization of 
Farmers." We think this is very good 
and to the point. 

As you say, if there were not just 
grounds for farmer discontent, us 
farmers could not have made the head- 
way we have in organizing politically. 
We are very pleased to have a paper 
like the Tarm, Stock & Home come 
out and support us so well in this 
matter, and also we heartily endorse 
the stand you have taken in regard to 
the grain grades, and am enclosing a 
grain grades petition. — Geo. W. Laur- 
ence, Stutsman county, North Dakota. 



When wrltlDK to advertlaern aiwayv 
tloD Farm. Stock ajid Home. 



WHEAT PRICES. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

As I was unable to attend the meet- 
ing announced in your paper would 
likr to ask: Should the buyer- clean 
out the chaff and then test the wheat 
or test chaff and all and pay accord- 
ingly? Our buyers here are in the 
habit of testing with chaff and all and 
the results are a poor test, no mat- 
ter how good the wheat, and they tell 
us the best should bring only $2.12. 
Is that right?— F. C. Schmidt, Waba- 
sha county, Minn. 

[Farm, Stock and Home would be 
glad to give space to any farmer who 
will answer Mr. Schmidt's question.] 



For More Equitable Grain Grades — 

Farm, Stock & Home: My name has 
now been on your lists since '95, and 
every copy has been saved. Your 
fight in behalf of better grading is 
certainly worth more than what the 
paper coats. I am enclosing a signed 
coupon. — A. N. Bortnem, Becker coun- 
ty, Minn. 



— "Now that the country's bumper po- 
tato crop is flowing into markets in 
an ever-increasing stream the wise 
housewife will take advantage of this 
cheap source of starchy food and will 
give the tubers a very important place 
on the dinner table," say home-eco- 
nomics specialists of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 



Every Farmer Can No 

pYEROREENiW 





Pay Only for Trees that Grow 

Got that wiii(ll>icak now. It adds to tho value of your farm. 16 
protects your caltio, sholtor.s your homo from wind and weather. 
It'slikomovin^ ;300 miles farther south. This la your chacco. I 
have several million finest evergreens ever grown. Big roots, thick 
foliage, well .sliap'Jd and hardy. I raised them from seedlings, 
. transplanted and ro<H-prunod 4 times. That's why I can guar> 
.\ antoo them to grow and sell tlicm direct from nursery to you a6 
priots uovcr brforo attompted. 
You take no cliances on these 4-timefl transplanted and root-proned ever* 
gjeena. 1 ask you to pay only for trees that grow, half cauh with order; 
that pays oniy for hanillinu and shipping— no profit for me. balance re- 
mains m your pock^-t untilOct. Irt, from which deduct for all trees that 
failed to grow. That's my odvcrtiainfir. custtfmer-mjikinff proposition 

EVERGREEN $i g Q 



SEEDLINGS 3 years old 
Well-rooted — Hardy 



many bargabu I 
are guaranteed to 
and in crrowina 



MORE BARGAINS THAT WILL INTEREST YOO 

Combination Fruit Offer 

Th«ae 10 fruit trees all three years old. Cttk I 

6 ft. high, all hardy. Northern Iowa rtowb. 3 1 
Duchees, best sommer apple; 3 Wealthy, best I 
fall apple: 2 N. W. Greentnar, beat Ions-keep- I 
iag, cooking apple; 2 Salome, one of the beat I 
winter apples ffrown; also 6 Concord ffrape, 12 I 
St. Regis Everoeariryf Red Raspberry. Agrenta I 
Bet $10.00 for thle collection " 

OUR SPECIAL ADVERTISING OFER 

Our Model Orchard, eonsistlne of 26 three- I 
year-old, 4 to 6 ft.. Northern Iowa (prown, I 
hardy fruit trees. Tree osents get from $13 I 
to $15 for this collection. $Q69 | 

Our Special Advertising Bargain Offer v | 

This bargain conslstB of 6 Duchess, 6 Wealtfajv j 
6 N. W. Greeniiuni, 6 Salome Apple trees; 2.1 
eariy Richmond Cherries, beat hardy chetrry*J 



$250 I 




25< QUAKER OATS \6< 



Save on groceries! Buy direct at rock-bottom prices! Buy the best. Use it with care. Don't 
horde. Order once a month. Save Wheat, Sugar and Meat. These bargains are only a few of 
the hundreds in our Big Grocery Bargain Catalog. Send a trial order from this list today, if you 
are not satisfied we will return your money. Economize! This is your big cbaoce. Order at once. 
Usual Price Our Price Usual Price Onr Price 
.35 Quaker Oats, family size pkg 18 .18 New Prunes, 30-40 size. 5 lbs 71 



.40 Coffee, fresh roasted, 3 lbs. 

.18 Large Ivory Soap, 3 bars 

.80 Tea, English Breakfast Gun- 
powder, Uncolored Japan, lb. . . 

.50 Grenco Brand Pure Vanilla Ext., 
4 oz. bottle 



.35 Home Style Whole Peaches in de- 
licious syrup. No. 3 can 2G 

.15 Karo Syrup, Blue Label, can 10 

.30 Pure Apple Butter, 14 oz. jar 21 

.15 Fancy Head Rice, uncoated, lb 11 

.10 Fould's Spaghetti, large size pkg. . .07 

$1 Crisco, 3 lb. can 74 

.50. Glenco Brand Pure Bkg.Pdr. lib. . .38 



Sugar and Flour at government prices. In reasonable quantities 

HAFT-GREEN & CO., Dept. 4072213-223 N. Desplaines St, Chicago, Illinois 




1200 T01 BEAM. 



A Gigantic Wonder — over 200 pods have 
beengrown on a single plant — all well 

filled, producing over 12U0 beans from 1 

bean planted. Plants grow strong and erect, branching out in all directions, 
bearing their pods up well from the ground, nhicb literally load the plants; 
beans being pure white and of best quality. t >■ j, u -i. 

Plant in yourg^rden or any good soil, only 1 bean in a ml!, and tney will 
matare a crop in about 80 days, ripening very evenly, and the growth and yield 
will simply surprise voo. Just the bean everyone should plant this year. 

IMy supply is yet limited and lean offer only in sealed packets containing 50 

Beans each with cultural directions. Order early to be sure of them. 

8eale.l pockets 10c each; 3pkt9 25c; 7 pktsSOc; 15 pkta l»l.pO postpaid. 
My 1918 Seed Book is tilled with lllith Crade Garden Sieeds at iowestgrices. 
Do not buy until you see my Book; itwill save youmoney. Tell your fnendej 
it's mailed free. F. B. IWU^LS. Seed Grower. Bept. 14. BOSK JULL, ti. Y. 



Is Your Seed Corn Safe? — "South- 
ern Minnesota counties, with but few 
exceptions, have sufficient good seed 
corn to take care of their own needs, 
is indicated by reports received here 
from men sent into that territory to 
investigate," said C. P. Bull, secre- 
tary of the state committee of food 
production and conservation. "The 
pioposition of good seed corn for next 
spring is a question of distribution 
more than anything else. While it 
is a fact that almost every county 
has some locality in which there is a 
shortage and in these it will be neces- 
sary to look to the outside for seed, if 
farmers will organize themselves and 
seek the corn where we know there 
is a supply, there is little doubt now 
but what the southern part of the 
state will have sufficient to take care 
of its acreage." 

"We have a large list of places 
where good seed corn is available," 
said Mr. Bull, "and will direct any in- 
quiries for seed corn to these. We 
urge, however, that before inquiries 
are sent he-re that the corn grower 
seek seed in his own community. A 
number of inquiries have already 
come in to us that it was possible for 
us to refer to persons within the im- 
mediate vicinity of those from whom 
the inquiries came. Urge corn plant- 
ers to seek seed in their own commu- 
nity first." 



Ill 



Here's the Proof 

' Dr. L. G. Hemenway of Illinois mads 
,'t977.50 per acre. Mr. W. L. Forbes of 
Vermont averages 51500 per acre. 
3, A. Johansen of Nebraska made ts/d 

from three-fourths acre. John C. Hod- 

J (S) '^I^BOn of Maine cleared %SajXI from a Kellogg 
I garden. Others are mailing these big profits- so can 
you. We will help you. Send for our FREE BOOK. 

This FREE BOOK Tells How 

I you tmn make these big and onick profits 
J ETowinff Btrawberriea the Kellogff Way 
land piclc strawberrieB from June to No- 
1 vember. Also cootains 
I 30 STRAWBCRRY RECIPCS 

I and teila bow yoa can supply your fam> 
lily with delicious sCrawoerriea the year 
I 'round without cost and make a bie* caab 
I profit besidea. Writ* today— it's FREE. 

R.M. KELLOGG COMPANY 




HiH's Evergreens Gmw 



All hardy stock— twice trans- , 
planted — root pruned. Pro- 
tect buildings, stock, crops 
Hill's Evergreen Book, Illustra- 
ted in colors. Free. Write today^ 
D. H!ir nursery Ca.. Boi 2483 
Dundee, III. Evergrcm Specialist*^ 




FREE 



SistructloM 
owtoOrow 



ProqressiveS 



Grow «nO Qinrts from 600 pl»nt». My customers ««t 
full inntroctions and qacBtionBr.nswerfd frwcCet bene- 
fit ofTT>y2fi yrnrn' experience oa enccc«sful Krowwrand 
J^O FroiTTrBsiv? StrawbL-n-y plaints forf2.iiiJ poatpajd. 
JayF. EAKER, S20 Main St.. Northwood. I<j-«a 



When writing to advertl?«Mra atmOV* 
mention Farm. Stock and Hone. 



90 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



February 1, 1918 



i f 
i i 



LIVE STOCK DEPARTMENT 



BY U. A. GAUMNITZ. 



SAVE THE BREEDING STOCK. 

BY PAUL D. nAMMETT. 

American farmers are coming to the 
realization tliat they cannot eat their 
cake and have it. They are beginning 
to realize that if they sell their stock 
and grain at high prices, they are not 
making a highly profitable transaction 
in the final analysis. If thoy pc^U their 
grain, it will grow again in their fields, 
but if they sell their livestock they 
have sold themselves out of business. 

The trouble with American agricul- 
ture, particularly the livestock branch. 
Is that farmers have been too willing 
to fall back upon years gone by for 
their calculations and have spurned 
the future. They have seemed to feel 
during the last two years that all thoy 
would have to do, after they had sold 
off all their breeding stock and de- 
cided to go back into the game, would 
be to turn to the source which never 
before had failed and replenish their 
depleted herds and flocks. 

Supply Will Not Meet Demand. 

Conditions have changed and the 
movement of breeding stock to the 
markets has been so general that no 
considerable amount of breeding stock 
is available. True, the United States 
is not stripped at this time of all avail- 
able breeding stock. There are thou- 
sands and hundreds of thousands of 
head of breeding stock, but there also 
is a demand for every head of this 
stock. 

Farmers cannot play the stock-rais- 
ing game the same as the grain ex- 
changes are operated. In the latter 
case a man may sell his holdings when 
the price is considerably higher than 
the cost and then get back when he 
feels the price is as low as it will be 
for some time. But with livestock 
raising, the plan of operation is en- 
tirely different. If he gets out of the 
game in ordinary times, by watching 
the markets carefully he may be able 
to purchase stock to get back into the 
game without showing a loss and may 
even show a profit. In these times, 
however, the unprecedented prices 
have tempted thousands of farmers to 
release their breeding cows, sows and 
ewes and now that they are ready to 
get back into the business they find 
the price of the stock they desire, high- 
er than the price at which they sold. 
They are finding supplies harder and 
harder to, locate and if the movement 
of the last two years continues, they 
are going to find an insurmountable 
obstacle in their way — absolute inabil- 
ity to get the stock they desire. 

To the average American farmer, 
the war is a far-off event. He knows 
there is a wai', the biggest in the 
world's history. Maybe he has sent 
a son to the army and surely he has 



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Box 23 , „ _ 




experienced the shortage in farm labor. 

But he has been too busy since the 
start of the war to familiarize himself 
with the full moaning of this country 
being in the war and its tremendous 
bearing upon American agriculture. 

A Mistake That Will Be Hard to 
Rectify. 

Consequently, he, and tens of thou- 
sands of his co-workers in producing 
the food for this country and an ever 
increasing share of that consumed in 
the countries with which this country 
is allied, is making the mistake of his 
life. He is marketing too many breed- 
ing cows, brood sows and now he is 
marketing too many pigs. 

The marked increase in average 
weight at the principal livestock mar- 
kets of some time ano which has been 
followed more recently by much light- 
er average weight and greatly in- 
creased receipts of hogs is highly sig- 
nificant to observers of the hog situa- 
tion. 

When the American farmers do wake 
up to the true situation they will see 
that the preservation of breedin:^ 
stock on the farms is one of the great- 
est factors to all the people of every 
nation in order that the world's rapid- 
ly diminishing supply of moat, wool 
and leather may be replenished. 

Preparations for a Long War. 

The military chiefs in Washington 
are preparing this country to continue 
the war for five years. This much is 
certain, the world's demands for food- 
stuffs will increase as the M'ar con- 
tinues. If these demands arc to in- 
crease then breeding herds must be 
maintained to supply these demands. 
If the war were to end tomorrow, this 
country for at least five years, and the 
chances are, for ten years, would be 
forced to maintain the constant stream 
of food which it has been sending to 
Europe. European herds have been cut 
to the minimum in most cases and en- 
tirely eliminated in others that all 
available land may be utilized for the 
production of- food articles for human 
consumption. True, meat is classed in 
this division, but the land which for- 
merly grew fodder for animals now is 
growing food for humans. 

This country at this time is the only 
one in the world economically fitted to 
increase production and because of 
this fact the world is going to look to 
this country to do this very thing. The 
American farmers who realize these 
facts and prepare themselves for the 
coming needs of the world, which will 
surpass by far all demands made in the 
past, will reap the greatest harvest for 
their foresight, in both money and 
gratitude of their fellowman. 

The shortsighted policy w^hich stran- 
gles the bird in the hand and lets those 
in the bush fly away; which for the 
sake of a few extra dollars now, sacri- 
fices breeding stock and thereby de- 
stroys the ■ foundation for supplying 
this world's further needs, not only 
deprives the country of vital necessi- 
ties in its struggle to help the world 
but takes away the foundation for the 
abundant profits that otherwise would 
be the sure reward for waiting and 
developing the opportunity of a life- 
time. 

How to Obtain a Steady Market. 

There are bound to be market fluc- 
tuations from time to time, but the 
readiness with which prices have re- 
bounded to former levels proves that 
the markets fundamentally are sound. 
These fluctuations in considerable 
measure are due to the growers them- 
selves. If they will realize that de- 
mand is going to bring prices back to 
high levels and stop sending their 
stock to the markets in unfinished con- 
dition in the fear that they will not 
participate in the high tide of pros- 
perity and by their very actions tend- 
ing to break the markets with large 
receipts, there would be comparatively 
even and regular market values at well 
sustained levels and violent fluctua- 
tions would bo avoided. 

The whole world is clamoring at tho 
doors of American a':!;riculture for food 
and the logic of the whole situation 
points to liberal profits for those who 
stay in the game and save their breed- 
ing stock to supply stock when prices 
work even higher than they have been 
In the past. 



— Arc rabbits or mice enjoying the 
tender wood of your apple trees now"? 
Better look them over and take steps 
to get these rodents. 





RUFFER- 
HUBBARD 
5IL05 



Pa.nerSi!o 




Thc^hooalCrCiJ^^ 

Sti\vc"SW 



THE Minneapolis Panel Silos we 
made eighteen years ago are still 
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■ ll» » IIIIM nW SMM»Mi m * ^* ll « 

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lock and dowel staves together endwise 
nnd sidewise. 

Write for details of construction and prices. 

Puffer-Hubbard Manufacturing Co., 
3208 26th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 




W«ll view of Minneapolis Panel Silo, showing 
Inside seam, wood rib and hoeps. 




i 



Drain*Tile Warms tlie Seed Bed 



By carrying off the surplus water, 

thus permitting free circulation of the warm spring air. Drained land is from 
six to twelve degrees warmer than undrained land, — water requires five times 
the heat that soil does to warm it. 

Drain your land and lengthen your growing season from two to three weeks. 
Germination takes place more surely and plants grow hardier and deeper in 
drained land, thus assuring better and bigger crops. 

Drain tile pays increased profits annually. Good tile is just as important 
as tiling. Safeguard your interests by using 

DENISON TILE 

The best for over thirty years. Endorsed and used by the United States Government, 
State Agricultural Experimental Stations, thousands of practical farmers and drainage engin- 
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nent drainag e syste m. 

n*=>t TlllQ FRFF Boole '^^"^ ''"^^ Bet bigger 
Vxet 1 niia r IXlliIJ^ UOUIV ^^^^^ profits this year. 

Written by men who have had actual and practical experience. 

Write for your ^opy. 

Write for Name of Nearest Dealer 

The best lumber dealers in each town sell Denison Tile. 
Order direct or through your dealer. Name of dealer nearest you 
sent upon request. 

.,#»ff*»»« Orrl**!" Clijie*\r The car shortage is growing worse, 
uetter V^raer V^UICK We can deliver now. Later on 
you may not be able to get drain tile anywhere. Safeguard your interests 
by ordering now. The man with the tile on the ground will get the tiler first. 

MASON CITY BRICK & TILE COMPANY 

Largest Shippers of Tile in America 

MASON CITY, IOWA 



I 




Eighth St., 



GroW^^ SeaVon ' 



t 



Thoroughly drained land produces tigger crops, Js easier 
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You can work the land two to three weeks earlier, thereby greatly 
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by investing a reasonable amount in 

Underdrainage carries off all surplus water and pre* 
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require warmth to germinate. A cold, water-soaked 

eoil kills the seed or rdarila Ecrminiition. Drained land is much 
warmer, assists efrmiiKition and promotes rapid growth of the 

plant. Plants must breathe in order tolivc. Soil relieved of - ^q>- „v.__^. 

Burplua water becomes porous. permittiuB the sun's rays to penetrate the soil and XV A 
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Department D MASON CITY, IOWA 




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i 



February 1, 1918 



FARM, STOCK AND HOME. 



91 



THE SHEEP SirOATION. 

The wool from twenty sheep is used 
to make the clpthmg and other equljt- 
meut of one soldier. 

Six farms out of every seven in the 
United States have no sheep. 

Sheep can be produced profitably on 
almost every farm. 

What about your farm? If you keep 
twenty sheep yon are outfitting a sol- 
dier who is rislviHg his life for your 
freedom. If you have a flock of 200 
sheep you will clothe ten men who are 
fighting in France. 

Get some sheep. 

The.v make both meat and wool — 
and both are badly needed. By proper 
management ihey can be produced on 
the average farm w-ithout entailing a 
reduction of other livestock, and with- 
out interfering with any other agricul- 
tural plans. 

More than the entire wool produc- 
tion of the United States will be used 
for our armies. Where will we get the 
wool to make clothes for the civilians? 
Every ship is needed to transport men 
and supplies from America to Europe. 
Unless the necessity is extreme we 
can"t spare ships for long voyages to 
Australia, South Africa and South 
America to get wool. Furthermore, 
those countries have not increased 
their production. The problem must 
be solved by the production of more 
sheep on farms throughout the United 
States. We must produce our wool at 
home instead of hauling it from the 
other side of the world. We can do 
that if the six farms out of seven that 
liave not kept sheep will begin to build 
up flocks in proportion to the size of 
the farm — at the ratio of one sheep 
to each three acres. 

Sheep, ia propertion to the value of 
their products, are produced more eco- 
nomically on the farm than any other 
livestock; the feed and labor require- 
ments are less. They fit in with prac- 
tically every kind of farming; get 
much of their subsistence from forage, 
from grazin? weeds and grass that 
would not suppoit other stock. They 
eat almost no feed that has a value as 
human food, and need less grain than 
other animals. They add materially 
to the farm reven-ue but add very little, 
relatively, to the farm expense. 

Since 1914 wool and mutton prices 
have doubled and some grades of wool 
have trebled. Tkose who are in close 
touch with the sheep industry believe 
that attractive prices will continue. 
During the war overproduction seems 
impossible. 

The United States now has 1,200,000 
fewer sheep than in 1914. Our produc- 
tion of wool has steadily declined since 
1910, wheH it was 321,362,750 pounds, 
to 290,192,000 pounds in 1914. 288,490,- 
000 pounds in 1916 and 285,573,000 
pounds in 1917. But while our produc- 
tion decreased our manufacturing con- 
sumption iiiorcased, from 550,356,525 
pounds in 1914 to 737,679,924 pounds 



QM 0^ S JUr^ 

Free Book by Inventor of H-L-F Silo. 'Write 
Hewitt-I.,«a-Fanclc Co., Hgwitt Rldg., Sumner. Wa»h. 



I 



Sanitary 
Non-Freezable 




Hog-Raising 
More Profitable 

THE easy and Qiuck'way to large profits 
lies in girmg your hogs and other 
etook a ttonstant supply of clean, 
sanitary water. All stock put on weight 
faater, with lees fe«d, if the water supplv 
IS alwaya accessible. 65% of ahog'sbody 
13 water. Don't let the profits resulting 
from proper cito«k watering slip through 
your fingers. Install an 

0-K Stock Waterer 

Keeps watf^stcaasnr] sanitary — warm In 40 
flweea t«;low z«co wea u*ier and Cfx>l In Sumiuer. 
Alwaysaceeasibta. Automatio feed. Quaraii' 
i.?S7..52'*^i*^'^ Prevents disease. Lasts a 
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labor. An"AlUYear« 
Round" Wat«rer. Pays 
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At yow Oealf^rs; If not, 
write ua. fitjipped really 
U> use, frels^ht prepaid. 
Oet our moiiey-f«/;k guar- 
antee and cii taiiiK i,l O-K 
HfX? Feeder-., 6tin-l,lte 
Windows, Ouxiolas, etc. 

Phillip Bernard Co., 

2317 Floyd Ave., 
Sioux City, Iowa 




in 191G. In 1917 the amount manufac- 
tured will ho even larger, and it seems 
certain that it will continue to increase 
during the war. 

The difference hetween the amounts 
we produced and manufactured repre- 
sents our wool importations from 
other countries. We have gotten into 
the habit of using a great deal more 
wool than wo lu-oduced — vvc'd just send 
over to Australia or South Africa or 
perhaps somewhere in Asia and get 
what we needed. But the ship short- 
age now interferes with that uneco- 
nomic arrangement — which, in the 
long run will be a very valuable thing 
for America. Pre-sent war necessities 
wil Iteach us the lesson we would have 
had to learn at some time — to estab- 
lish sheep production permanently as 
a part of general American agricul- 
ture. 

The need is immediate as a war 
measure. But war or no war it would 
have been necessary for us to produce 
more sheep. A man cannot draw money 
out of a bank indefinitely unless he 
makes deposits. We were constantly 
consuming more wool and mutton, but 
raising fewer sheep. The principal 
sheep countries were not increasing 
their productions before the war and 
seemed to have reached their maxi- 
mum. There was a discrepancy be- 
tween consumption and production 
that was rapidly becoming critical. 
The war brought the problem to a 
crisis. 

Remember that twenty sheep will 
clothe a boy who is risking his life 
"over there." 



Tb«T«- \%ni he loin of pfopip ivnntlnK 
*fKl (craln pir4>lty noon. Iinv<- yoii anyf 
T«>ll nboitt 11 in Ibe (^InfiMifletl owlanina 
of F., S. A 11. 



WINTER CARE OF THE FARM FLOCK. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

Scarcity of farm labor and attractive 
prices for wool and mutton have turned 
the tide in favor of the farm flock. 
Many of our farmers no longer imagine 
the bugbear of expensive fencing, and 
all fear of the dog curse is lost in the 
farmer's patriotic willingness to help 
his Uncle Sam and incidentally to help 
himself. 

The farmer with a good flock of his 
own raising is "in it" financially and 
in the sheep business to stay. In the 
light of his experience, he needs no 
advice. It is the beginner that is 
launching this new venture on the 
present wave of popularity that needs 
to read the sign "safety first." If you 
have been lured to the sheep business 
pui'ely to gamble with the present high 
prices get out "now" before failure 
overtakes you, or at least resolve to 
go slow and feel your way. 

The outlook for selling wool and 
mutton is indeed "rosy" at the pres- 
ent time and sheep have made good 
money in the past when prices were 
much less than they are now; but 
don't figure that high prices for wool 
and mutton spell success in the sheep 
business. Assuming that you have al- 
ready made the start, it is up to you 
to stay in the game, play it hard and 
"make good." Sheep, perhaps, require 
a certain kind of care, yet most farm- 
ers with a good gift of "common sense" 
and intuition can learn with a little 
experience the little things that will 
put them on the road to double profits 
from the golden hoof. 
The Sheep Man Must Be Industrious. 

Sheep raising is no business for a 
"slacker." Sheep have been given 
Bhiftless care and returned some profit 
and it is also true that they peacefully 
accept neglect and abuse. However, 
care of this nature is a direct tax upon 
the lamb and wool crops as well as the 
life of the flock. Sheep have been 
termed the "farm scavengers," but 
where success and profit are the ulti- 
mate considerations keep the scaven- 
ger idea in the background. Don't ex- 
pect them to pay a handsome profit on 
a diet of waste. Sheep consume pro- 
portionately more weed growth and 
forage waste than any other class of 
livestock, and should not be deprived 
of their liberty to rustle a portion of 
their living from the stubble and stalk 
fields of the farm. The exercise they 
get in this way is essential to success 
in getting strong and hardy lambs and 
doubly so where lambs are to be 
dropped before the grass season. 

Give Sheep a Good Feed at Night. 

Granting that they are permitted to 
range the fields during the day, they 
should not be allowed to come to rest 
at night with partially satisfied appe- 
tites. Whenever possible, supplement 
the dally forage ration in the evening 
with as much good corn silage as they 
will eat up clean. For feeding silage 
and also grain, we use v-shaped mov- 
able troughs made of lxl2-in. lumber, 
12 or 14 ft. in length. As long as we 
are sure the flock is still finding some 
corn in the stalk fields we do not pro- 





Cream - Saving 
Machines 

IF you are still setting 
your milk and skim- 
ming by hand, you are los- 
ing anywhere from one- 
fourth to one-third of your 
creanrL If you are using a 
separator, and it is not one 
of the best, you are still 
losing an amount of cream 
that would surprise you if 
you knew it. Every farm 
loss or leak that can be stopped this year should be 
stopped. Buy a Lily or Primrose cream separator 
and stop the cream loss. 

Don't imagine that cream left in the skim 
milk will fatten pigs and calves faster. It has been 
proved scores of times that stock thrives as fast oa 
warm separator skim milk, when a little meal or 
flax replaces the fat. Cream in the skim milk is 
dead-loss cream! 

Lily and Primrose separators get that cream. 
We can prove to you that they get it all, except 
about one drop in each gallon. 

Besides that, they are well-known as simple, 
easy-running, easily-cleaned machines that last and 
do the same good work year after year. Buy a 
Lily or Primrose — it will pay back its cost in 
cream you may now be losing. See the local dealers 
who handle these separators, or, write us for 
catalogues. 




Intematioiial Hamster Company of America 




CHICAGO 



When wi-ithig to advertisers do not forget to mention Farm, 
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. Send for Our FREE Book 
\ of 200 Home Plans 




FREE 



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On our wholesale plan, it will cost less to build now, in comparison 
with prices on all other necessities, than any time in years. Farm 

products are bringing 50% to 100% 
more — yet we can still quote prices on 
building material only 10% to 15% 
above a year ago. Conditions after war 
must force prices up. Take advantage 
of present situation. Order now for 
your spring building— before prices advance. 
Ready-cut — saves labor, material, time. Or 
not Ready-cut, if preferred. Highest grade 
material either way. Save "in-between" prof- 
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guarjinteed. 100,000 customers — some near 
you. Send coupon for plan book. 

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S^sf actiort GfiSfanteed or Money Back 
66S3 Gordon St. Davenport, Iowa 
Established Over Half 
a Century 





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92 



February 1, 1918 



Tide a Rr.iin ration, but as soon ns we 
;'re sure that there is a shortaKO of 
Krain found in the daily foraging or in 
limes of snowy blizzards, a feed of 
whole oats or of wheat bran is pro- 
vided, giving approximately % to % 
lb. per ewe. 

Where the flock has access to a 
Rood feed of clover or alfalfa hay the 
igrain ration may be omitted up to 
Avithin three or four weeks of lamb- 
ing time. Above all keep away from 
the use of timothy hay. Its fibrous 
nature is not suited to sheep and its 
iise coupled with a lack of exercise 
spells disaster at Inmbing time. 

Sheep will eat snow to quench their 
thirst, but not to their welfare. At 
lambing time and while suckling their 
lambs the ewes must have plenty of 
good, clean water. Salt is also essen- 
tial to the flock and needs to be pro- 
vided frequently. Sheep have no fear 
of a dry, cold day, but exposure to 
cold rains, snows and blizzards is a 
hardship to the flock and and a thief 
in your profits. Keep them dry over- 
head, well-bedded and dry underfoot 
and your troubles should be few. 

To the beginner, let us say in con- 
clusion the "eye of the flockmaster" is 
the key to success, and where success 
is found the "golden hoof" has come 
to stay. 

O. M. Olson. 
Chippewa County, Minn. 



SHEEP AND WOOL PROSPECTS. 

To Farm, Stock and Home: 

We started early last spring to pick 
lip a car of high grade Shropshire 
breeding ewes. Along in August we 
succeeded in locating one car of fairly 
good western grade Shropshires. They 
did not show as much type as we were 
ailxious to secure, but seemed to be 
the best there was in the market. 
Since they were turned on to our 
clover pastures they have picked up 
very rapidly, and have gone into the 
winter in very good condition. We 
were buying these for the Patilck-Du- 
luth Boys' SJieep Clubs, which the 
Patrick Company are organizing in 
the counties immediately adjacent to 
their mill at Duluth. We have bred 
them to our best Shropshire rams, and 
they are to be placed about the coun- 
ties, four ewes to each boy. 

In regard to the market for wool and 
mutton, there seems to be no limit to 
the demand. I believed we sold our 
wool at the bottom of the market and 
obtained 52 cents for it. A few years 
ago when we received 25 cents per 
pound we were very much elated, and 
even at that time our small flock was, 
in proportion to the investment and 
labor, the most profitable department 
on our farm. It will take a number of 
years to materially increase the flocks 
of the country, and especially with the 
attractive prices offered for mutton, 
so there is no doubt in my mind but 
that wool will command a strong price 
for several years to come. It is impor- 
tant for the sheep growei's to see to it 
that the supply of wool is sufficient for 
soldiers' uniforms and for commercial 
stocks, otherwise people may become 
convinced that woolen garments and 
clothes are beyond their reach, and 
make up their minds to get along with- 
out them. Personally, I believe that it 
•would be better for the sheep growers 
in the long run to keep the price on 
wool down to the point where there 
was a fair profit, and where woolen 
clothes and blankets were within reach 
of the average pocketbook. When 
everyone is scrambling for wool no 
one can blame the sheep grower for 
accepting what the buyers seem glad 
to pay. 

In regard to fencing, we have had 
very good success by using 26-inch 
woven wire hog fence barbed at the 
tottom, and with two or three strands 
of barbed wire above the hog fence. 
This was not a very expensive form 
of fencing, and our pastures were 
adapted for either sheep or cattle. In 
four years' experience we have never 
had a single coyote get through this 
fence. 

Geokoe C. Stone. 
Caribou Farms, St. Louis County, 
Minn. 



THE 1917 INTERNATIONAL. 

[OmUniicd from p/iuc 44 ] 
Breeding Shorthorns. 
In the breeding Shorthorn Show E. 
G. Thompson & Sons of Hurley, S. D., 
won second on Ford Sultan in the class 
of senior yearling bulls, S. G. Eliason 
of Montevideo, Minn., won first in the 
senior bull calves on Sunrise, and this 
bull later won first in the futurities. 
EUason had the senior yearling heifer 



and the second in this class on Lady 
Clara 9th and Violet Maid 8th. Jack- 
son and White of Hurley, S. D.," had 
fourth in this class on Lustrions Lad. 
In tho young herds first place again 
went to Eliaaon, and he also won the 
Carlos M. Duggan trophy for the best 
two Shorthorns, bull and female, any 
age, bred and owned by exhibitor, on 
Sunrise and Lady Clara 9th. 

Some Noteworthy Awards. 

Among the Aberdeen-Angus prize 
winners were: University of Minne- 
sota; R. E. Newby, Regent, N. D.; 
Berry & Redfield, Hurley, S. D. 

In the fat Hereford show. University 
of Minnesota was third. 

W. S. Hill of Alexandria, S. D., made 
a number of winnings in the Red 
Polled classes. 

Isaac Lincoln, of Aberdeen, S. D., 
made a creditable showing in the Gal- 
loway classes winning in many places. 

P. J. Fosse, of St. Cloud, Minn., was 
a consistent winner of ribbons among 
the Polled DiTrham breeders. 

The University of Minnesota in the 
grade and cross bred section of the 
swine show had the first and second 
in the barrows weighing 150 and un- 
der 200 pounds. This school also had 
third in the Fat Chester White class 
of barrow farrowed between Sept. 1, 
1916, and Feb. 1, 1917. 

In the sheep division of the show 
A. Broughton and Sons, of Albany, 
Wis., won several ribbons, the purple 
being among them in many instances. 



WINTER FEEDING OF HOGS. 

I keep only a few hogs, too few to 
allow the economical use of feed cook- 
ers and steaming appliances. I prefer 
to feed a slop mixture, as in that 
manner household garbage and sim- 
ilar feeds may be utilized most con- 
veniently. Into a barrel on a wheeled 
truck I mix water, grain, and garbage, 
and tote the barrel to the feeding 
place near by. This works out fine 
in summer and it takes only a few 
minutes to feed my few porkers. 

In winter, the slop freezes before 
it gets to the trough; frozen slop 
adheres to the buckets and the bar- 
rel, and in every way makes it un- 
wise to continue with slop. So I pre- 
pare a bucket or two of boiling wa- 
ter over the kitchen stove, put that 
with the drinkingi watei^ from the 
tank, and give the pigs this tempered 
water clear. Then I place my dry 
feed mixture- in the trough, and in 
15 minutes they have cleared off their 
meal in nice shape. The hogs are 
not chilled by frozen slop and it is 
not necessary to chop the ice out of 
the trough, every morning. 

Where a large number of hogs are 
fed, the grain should be placed in a 
series of self feeders, and the drink- 
ing water warmed by live steam. This 
implies a hog house with, a small 
boiler and proper feeding fioors and 
troughs, but under present c